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dc.contributor.authorSinnott-O’Connor, Ciara
dc.contributor.authorComyns, Tom
dc.contributor.authorNevill, Alan M
dc.contributor.authorWarrington, Giles
dc.date.accessioned2018-10-09T09:14:41Z
dc.date.available2018-10-09T09:14:41Z
dc.date.issued2018-07-01
dc.identifier.issn1555-0265
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/621766
dc.description.abstractCONTEXT: Stress responses in athletes can be attributed to training and competition, where increased physiological and psychological stress may negatively affect performance and recovery. PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between training load (TL) and salivary biomarkers immunoglobulin A (IgA), alpha-amylase (AA), and cortisol across a 16-wk preparation phase and 10-d competition phase in Paralympic swimmers. METHODS: Four Paralympic swimmers provided biweekly saliva samples during 3 training phases-(1) normal training, (2) intensified training, and (3) taper-as well as daily saliva samples in the 10-d Paralympic competition (2016 Paralympic Games). TL was measured using session rating of perceived exertion. RESULTS: Multilevel analysis identified a significant increase in salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA: 94.98 [27.69] μg·mL-1), salivary alpha-amylase (sAA: 45.78 [19.07] μg·mL-1), and salivary cortisol (7.92 [2.17] nM) during intensified training concurrent with a 38.3% increase in TL. During the taper phase, a 49.5% decrease in TL from the intensified training phase resulted in a decrease in sIgA, sAA, and salivary cortisol; however, all 3 remained higher than baseline levels. A further significant increase was observed during competition in sIgA (168.69 [24.19] μg·mL-1), sAA (35.86 [16.67] μg·mL-1), and salivary cortisol (10.49 [1.89] nM) despite a continued decrease (77.8%) in TL from the taper phase. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that performance in major competition such as Paralympic games, despite a noticeable reduction in TL, induces a stress response in athletes. Because of the elevated stress response observed, modifications to individual postrace recovery protocols may be required to enable athletes to maximize performance across all 10 d of competition.
dc.formatapplication/PDF
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherHuman Kinetics Publishers, Inc
dc.relation.urlhttp://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0683
dc.subjectParalympic Games
dc.subjectStress Response
dc.subjectSalivary Cortisol
dc.subjectSalivary Immunoglobulin A,
dc.subjectSalivary Alpha-Amylase
dc.titleSalivary biomarkers and training load during training and competition in paralympic swimmers
dc.typeJournal article
dc.identifier.journalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
dc.date.accepted2018-08-21
rioxxterms.funderUniversity of Wolverhampton
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUOW09102018AN
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2018-07-01
dc.source.volume13
dc.source.issue7
dc.source.beginpage839
dc.source.endpage843
refterms.dateFCD2018-10-09T09:14:41Z
refterms.versionFCDAM
refterms.dateFOA2018-10-09T09:14:41Z


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