Simultaneous extraction and purification of alkaloids from Sophora flavescens Ait. by microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction with ethanol/ammonia sulfate system
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AbstractA rapid and effective method of integrating extraction and purification for alkaloids from Sophora flavescens Ait. was developed by microwave-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction (MAATPE) based on the high efficiency of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and the demixing effect of aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE). The aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), ethanol/ammonia sulfate was chosen from seven combinations of ethanol/salt systems, and its extraction properties were investigated in detail. Key factors, namely, the compositions of ATPS, solvent-to-materials ratio, and the extraction temperature were selected for optimization of the experimental conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) on the basis of the results of the single-factor experiment. The final optimized conditions were, the compositions of ATPS: ethanol 28% (w/w) and (NH4)2SO4 18% (w/w), solvent-to-material ratio 60:1, temperature 90 C, extraction time 5 min, and microwave power 780 W. MAATPE was superior to MAE, the latter using a single solvent, not only in extraction yield but also in impurity content. Moreover, compared with the combination of MAE and ATPE in the two-step mode, MAATP demonstrated fewer impurities, a better yield (63.78 ± 0.45 mg/g) and a higher recovery (92.09 ± 0.14%) in the extraction and purification of alkaloids. A continuous multiphase-extraction model of MAATPE was proposed to explicate the extraction mechanism. MAATPE revealed that the interaction between microwave and ATPS cannot only cause plant cell rupture but also accelerate demixing, improving mass-transfer from solid–liquid extraction to liquid– liquid purification. MAATPE simplified procedures also contributed to the lower loss occurrence, better extraction efficiency, and reduced impurity to target constituents.
JournalSeparation and Purification Technology
SponsorsThe Science and Technology Project of Guangzhou (No. 2008Z1-E301) and Faculty Development fund Project of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University (No. 52104109)