Tailoring the supramolecular structure of guanidinylated pullulan toward enhanced genetic photodynamic therapy
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Mohamed Wali, Aisha Roshan
Tang, James Zhenggui
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AbstractIn the progress of designing a gene carrier system, what is urgently needed is a balance of excellent safety and satisfactory efficiency. Herein, a straightforward and versatile synthesis of a cationic guanidine-decorated dendronized pullulan (OGG3P) for efficient genetic photodynamic therapy was proposed. OGG3P was able to block the mobility of DNA from a weight ratio of 2. However, G3P lacking guanidine residues could not block DNA migration until at a weight ratio of 15, revealing guanidination could facilitate DNA condensation via specific guanidinium-phosphate interactions. A zeta potential plateau (∼+23 mV) of OGG3P complexes indicated the nonionic hydrophilic hydroxyl groups in pullulan might neutralize the excessive detrimental cationic charges. There was no obvious cytotoxicity and hemolysis, but also enhancement of transfection efficiency with regard to OGG3P in comparison with that of native G3P in Hela and HEK293T cells. More importantly, we found that the uptake efficiency in Hela cells between OGG3P and G3P complexes was not markedly different. However, guanidination caused changes in uptake pathway and led to macropinocytosis pathway, which may be a crucial reason for improved transfection efficiency. After introducing a therapeutic pKillerRed-mem plasmid, OGG3P complexes achieved significantly enhanced KillerRed protein expression and ROS production under irradiation. ROS-induced cancer cells proliferation suppression was also confirmed. This study highlights the guanidine-decorated dendronized pullulan could emerge as a reliable nonviral gene carrier to specifically deliver therapeutic genes.
CitationZhou, J., Mohamed Wali, AR., Ma, S., He, Y., Yue, D., Tang, JZ., Gu, Z. 'Tailoring the Supramolecular Structure of Guanidinylated Pullulan toward Enhanced Genetic Photodynamic Therapy', Biomacromolecules, 19 (6) pp. 2214-2226
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