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dc.contributor.authorDos Santos, Marcos André M
dc.contributor.authorNevill, Alan M.
dc.contributor.authorBuranarugsa, Rojapon
dc.contributor.authorPereira, Sara
dc.contributor.authorFerreira Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q
dc.contributor.authorReyes, Ana
dc.contributor.authorBarnett, Lisa M
dc.contributor.authorMaia, José António R
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-31T17:07:43Z
dc.date.available2018-01-31T17:07:43Z
dc.date.issued2018-01-24
dc.identifier.citationModeling children's development in gross motor coordination reveals key modifiable determinants. An Allometric approach. 2018 Scand J Med Sci Sports
dc.identifier.issn0905-7188
dc.identifier.pmid29363177
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/sms.13061
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/621061
dc.description.abstractChildren change their body size, shape and gross motor coordination (GMC) as they grow. Further, GMC is expected to link to changes in children's body size, physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF). The objective was to model GMC changes in children followed longitudinally and to investigate associations between these changes and PA and PF levels. A total of 245 children (122 girls) were observed at 6 years of age and followed annually until 9 years. A sequence of allometric models were fitted, i.e.: 1. body mass, stature and PA; 2. addition of four PF tests; 3. addition of four more PF tests. In Model 1, changes in GMC are non-linear, and body mass (-0.60±0.07, p<0.001) and stature (2.91±0.35, p<0.001) parameter estimates were significant suggesting children with a more linear body size/shape showed higher GMC performances. Girls tend to outperform boys across time, and PA was not associated with GMC changes. Model 2 fitted the data better, and the PF tests (handgrip, standing long jump, 50-yard dash and shuttle-run) were significantly linked to GMC change. In Model 3, adding the remaining PF tests did not change the order of any factors importance. The greatest GMC changes were achieved by children whose body size/shape has an ectomorphic dominance across the years. Considering that leaner and physically fitter children tended to be more coordinated, physical education should also focus on PF development in components related to muscular strength, speed, agility and aerobic capacity, along with nutritional education to reduce fat mass.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherWiley
dc.subjectAllometric body size
dc.subjectchildren coordination
dc.subjectlongitudinal growth
dc.subjectphysical fitness
dc.titleModeling children's development in gross motor coordination reveals key modifiable determinants. An Allometric approach.
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.journalScandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports
dc.date.accepted2018-01-24
rioxxterms.funderinternal
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUOW310118AN3
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-01-24
refterms.dateFCD2018-10-19T08:43:46Z
refterms.versionFCDAM
html.description.abstractChildren change their body size, shape and gross motor coordination (GMC) as they grow. Further, GMC is expected to link to changes in children's body size, physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF). The objective was to model GMC changes in children followed longitudinally and to investigate associations between these changes and PA and PF levels. A total of 245 children (122 girls) were observed at 6 years of age and followed annually until 9 years. A sequence of allometric models were fitted, i.e.: 1. body mass, stature and PA; 2. addition of four PF tests; 3. addition of four more PF tests. In Model 1, changes in GMC are non-linear, and body mass (-0.60±0.07, p<0.001) and stature (2.91±0.35, p<0.001) parameter estimates were significant suggesting children with a more linear body size/shape showed higher GMC performances. Girls tend to outperform boys across time, and PA was not associated with GMC changes. Model 2 fitted the data better, and the PF tests (handgrip, standing long jump, 50-yard dash and shuttle-run) were significantly linked to GMC change. In Model 3, adding the remaining PF tests did not change the order of any factors importance. The greatest GMC changes were achieved by children whose body size/shape has an ectomorphic dominance across the years. Considering that leaner and physically fitter children tended to be more coordinated, physical education should also focus on PF development in components related to muscular strength, speed, agility and aerobic capacity, along with nutritional education to reduce fat mass.


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