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dc.contributor.authorWyon, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorWolman, Roger
dc.contributor.authorNevill, Alan M.
dc.contributor.authorBarber, Alison
dc.contributor.authorEdwards, Marcia
dc.contributor.authorBowd, Belinda
dc.contributor.authorClarke, Frances
dc.contributor.authorBryant, Janine
dc.contributor.authorCloak, Ross
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-31T11:14:12Z
dc.date.available2017-08-31T11:14:12Z
dc.date.issued2017-08-31
dc.identifier.citationWyon, M.A. et al. (2017) The Influence of Hormonal Contraception on Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D3 Status in Premenopausal Women: A Prospective Double-Blind Placebo Random Controlled Trial, Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 7(4), pp. 117-121.
dc.identifier.issn1923-2861
dc.identifier.doi10.14740/jem441w
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/620636
dc.description.abstractBackground: A number of cross-sectional studies have highlighted a potential benefit of estrogen-containing contraception on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. The purpose of the present prospective study was to determine whether oral vitamin D3 supplementation significantly increases serum 25(OH)D more for women taking the estrogen-containing oral contraception than those not taking this medication. Methods: Thirty-eight premenopausal adult females aged 18 - 45 years old were recruited from a university campus; exclusion criteria included those presently taking vitamin D supplementation, those who stopped or started taking oral contraception in last 6 months and those taking any other form of contraception. A prospective doubleblind placebo design was implemented; the dependent variable was serum 25(OH)D and the independent variables were using or not using oral estrogen-containing contraception, and vitamin D3 or placebo supplementation. Participants were tested 4 weeks apart, and blood samples were collected using a capillary blood spot sample method and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. An independent technician prepared the identical supplement bottles with either 100 placebo pills or 100 active vitamin D3 pills (1,000 IU per pill) and participants randomly selected a supplement bottle. Results: Baseline measurements of 25(OH)D were non-significantly 11% higher in those taking estrogen. ANOVA results revealed a significant two-way interaction between supplementation group (treatment vs. placebo) and treatment period (before vs. after) (P < 0.001), demonstrating a substantial rise in serum 25(OH)D for the treatment group compared with the placebo group. The results also identified a three-way interaction (P = 0.014) on serum 25(OH)D between the three independent variables, with the vitamin D oral contraception group having significantly greater serum 25(OH)D increases (from 45.9 to 98.3 nmol/L) compared with those not taking oral contraception (44.2 - 69.6 nmol/L) (P = 0.019). Conclusions: The estrogen-containing oral contraception increases serum 25(OH)D in premenopausal women with a magnified effect in those taking vitamin D supplementation. Future studies need to examine the relationship between estrogen, vitamin D supplementation, serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone and other markers of bone metabolisms.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherElmer Press
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.jofem.org/index.php/jofem/article/view/441/512
dc.subjectPremenopausal
dc.subjectVitamin D
dc.subjectEstrogen
dc.subjectContraception
dc.subjectFemale
dc.subjectSerum 25(OH)D
dc.subjectIntervention
dc.titleThe Influence of Hormonal Contraception on Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D3 Status in Premenopausal Women: A Prospective Double-Blind Placebo Random Controlled Trial
dc.typeJournal article
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
dc.date.accepted2017-08-15
rioxxterms.funderUniversity of Wolverhampton
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUoW310817MW
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2017-08-31
dc.source.volume7
dc.source.issue4
dc.source.beginpage117
dc.source.endpage121
refterms.dateFCD2018-10-19T09:01:27Z
refterms.versionFCDVoR
refterms.dateFOA2017-10-01T00:00:00Z
html.description.abstractBackground: A number of cross-sectional studies have highlighted a potential benefit of estrogen-containing contraception on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. The purpose of the present prospective study was to determine whether oral vitamin D3 supplementation significantly increases serum 25(OH)D more for women taking the estrogen-containing oral contraception than those not taking this medication. Methods: Thirty-eight premenopausal adult females aged 18 - 45 years old were recruited from a university campus; exclusion criteria included those presently taking vitamin D supplementation, those who stopped or started taking oral contraception in last 6 months and those taking any other form of contraception. A prospective doubleblind placebo design was implemented; the dependent variable was serum 25(OH)D and the independent variables were using or not using oral estrogen-containing contraception, and vitamin D3 or placebo supplementation. Participants were tested 4 weeks apart, and blood samples were collected using a capillary blood spot sample method and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. An independent technician prepared the identical supplement bottles with either 100 placebo pills or 100 active vitamin D3 pills (1,000 IU per pill) and participants randomly selected a supplement bottle. Results: Baseline measurements of 25(OH)D were non-significantly 11% higher in those taking estrogen. ANOVA results revealed a significant two-way interaction between supplementation group (treatment vs. placebo) and treatment period (before vs. after) (P < 0.001), demonstrating a substantial rise in serum 25(OH)D for the treatment group compared with the placebo group. The results also identified a three-way interaction (P = 0.014) on serum 25(OH)D between the three independent variables, with the vitamin D oral contraception group having significantly greater serum 25(OH)D increases (from 45.9 to 98.3 nmol/L) compared with those not taking oral contraception (44.2 - 69.6 nmol/L) (P = 0.019). Conclusions: The estrogen-containing oral contraception increases serum 25(OH)D in premenopausal women with a magnified effect in those taking vitamin D supplementation. Future studies need to examine the relationship between estrogen, vitamin D supplementation, serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone and other markers of bone metabolisms.


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