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dc.contributor.authorGupta, Jaipal
dc.contributor.authorWan, Chaoying
dc.contributor.authorHaddleton, David M.
dc.contributor.authorMcNally, Tony
dc.contributor.authorKeddie, Daniel
dc.date.accessioned2016-06-28T13:28:16Z
dc.date.available2016-06-28T13:28:16Z
dc.date.issued2016-05-12
dc.identifier.citationGupta, J., Keddie, DJ., Wan, C., Haddleton, DM., and McNally, T. (2016) 'Functionalisation of MWCNTs with poly(lauryl acrylate) polymerised by Cu(0)-mediated and RAFT methods', Polymer Chemistry, 7 (23) pp. 3884-3896. doi: 10.1039/C6PY00522E
dc.identifier.issn1759-9954
dc.identifier.doi10.1039/C6PY00522E
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/614892
dc.description.abstractPoly(lauryl acrylate) P[LA] of various molar masses were prepared via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerisation and Cu(0)-mediated radical polymerisation, for the purpose of improving the dispersion and interfacial adhesion of MWCNTs with polymers such as isotactic poly(propylene) (iPP). Lauryl acrylate (LA) was polymerised via RAFT to high conversion (95%), furnished polymers in good agreement with theoretical Mn with dispersity increasing with increasing Mn. LA polymerised via the Cu(0)-mediated method to full conversion (>98%), gave polymers in good agreement with theoretical Mn and low dispersity (Đ ≈ 1.2) for lower molar mass polymers. Low molar mass tailing was also observed for P[LA] via Cu(0)-mediated polymerisation for higher molar mass polymers. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of P[LA] via RAFT showed an onset of degradation occurred at ≈340–350 °C, however, this decreased to ≈250–260 °C for lower molar mass polymers. TGA of the RAFT agent revealed an onset of degradation of ≈200–250 °C. Free radicals generated from thermal degradation of end groups did not influence the thermal stability of the P[LA] backbone and ‘unzipping’ commonly seen with methacrylates was not observed. TGA analysis of P[LA] via the Cu(0)-mediated method revealed a similar degradation profile to that of P[LA] via RAFT. The thermal stability of P[LA] is sufficient to allow for melt processing with iPP. P[LA] via RAFT mixed with MWCNTs showed an adsorption of ≈10–25 wt% P[LA] on to the MWCNTs. The onset of thermal degradation of the P[LA] remained unchanged after adsorption on to the MWCNTs. P[LA] via the Cu(0)-mediated method adsorbed up to 85 wt% and an increase in thermal stability of ≈50 °C was recorded. Increasing P[LA] and MWCNT concentration independently also resulted in an increase in the level of adsorption, possibility due to increased CH–π interaction. The difference in thermal stability could possibly be due to heat transfer from the P[LA] to the MWCNTs, resulting in delayed pyrolysis of P[LA]. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of P[LA] after heating to 200 °C for 30 min in air showed loss of end groups but, the P[LA] backbone remained preserved for both polymer types. Evidence from transmission electron micrographs (TEM) shows the P[LA] adsorbing onto the MWCNT surface. Melt processing composites of P[LA] via Cu(0)-mediated with MWCNTs and iPP was possible as the P[LA] was thermally stable during the both extrusion and in the TGA when studied post melt mixing.
dc.formatapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherRoyal Society of Chemistry
dc.relation.urlhttp://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C6PY00522E
dc.subjectRAFT
dc.subjectCu(0)
dc.subjectRDRP
dc.subjectSET-LRP,
dc.subjectcarbon nanotube
dc.subjectMWCNT
dc.titleFunctionalisation of MWCNTs with poly(lauryl acrylate) polymerised by Cu(0)-mediated and RAFT methods
dc.typeJournal article
dc.identifier.journalPolymer Chemistry
dc.date.accepted2016-05-04
rioxxterms.funderUniversity of Wolverhampton
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUoW280616DK
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2017-05-03
dc.source.volume7
dc.source.issue23
dc.source.beginpage3884
dc.source.endpage3896
refterms.dateFCD2018-10-19T09:23:24Z
refterms.versionFCDAM
refterms.dateFOA2017-05-03T00:00:00Z
html.description.abstractPoly(lauryl acrylate) P[LA] of various molar masses were prepared via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerisation and Cu(0)-mediated radical polymerisation, for the purpose of improving the dispersion and interfacial adhesion of MWCNTs with polymers such as isotactic poly(propylene) (iPP). Lauryl acrylate (LA) was polymerised via RAFT to high conversion (95%), furnished polymers in good agreement with theoretical Mn with dispersity increasing with increasing Mn. LA polymerised via the Cu(0)-mediated method to full conversion (>98%), gave polymers in good agreement with theoretical Mn and low dispersity (Đ ≈ 1.2) for lower molar mass polymers. Low molar mass tailing was also observed for P[LA] via Cu(0)-mediated polymerisation for higher molar mass polymers. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of P[LA] via RAFT showed an onset of degradation occurred at ≈340–350 °C, however, this decreased to ≈250–260 °C for lower molar mass polymers. TGA of the RAFT agent revealed an onset of degradation of ≈200–250 °C. Free radicals generated from thermal degradation of end groups did not influence the thermal stability of the P[LA] backbone and ‘unzipping’ commonly seen with methacrylates was not observed. TGA analysis of P[LA] via the Cu(0)-mediated method revealed a similar degradation profile to that of P[LA] via RAFT. The thermal stability of P[LA] is sufficient to allow for melt processing with iPP. P[LA] via RAFT mixed with MWCNTs showed an adsorption of ≈10–25 wt% P[LA] on to the MWCNTs. The onset of thermal degradation of the P[LA] remained unchanged after adsorption on to the MWCNTs. P[LA] via the Cu(0)-mediated method adsorbed up to 85 wt% and an increase in thermal stability of ≈50 °C was recorded. Increasing P[LA] and MWCNT concentration independently also resulted in an increase in the level of adsorption, possibility due to increased CH–π interaction. The difference in thermal stability could possibly be due to heat transfer from the P[LA] to the MWCNTs, resulting in delayed pyrolysis of P[LA]. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of P[LA] after heating to 200 °C for 30 min in air showed loss of end groups but, the P[LA] backbone remained preserved for both polymer types. Evidence from transmission electron micrographs (TEM) shows the P[LA] adsorbing onto the MWCNT surface. Melt processing composites of P[LA] via Cu(0)-mediated with MWCNTs and iPP was possible as the P[LA] was thermally stable during the both extrusion and in the TGA when studied post melt mixing.


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