• Mate value discrepancy and attachment anxiety predict the perpetration of digital dating abuse

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Howman, Jessica M. (Springer, 2018-09-13)
      Research suggests that individual differences in attachment style predict the perpetration of digital dating abuse. In addition to attachment style, no research, to our knowledge, has explored the role of mate value in the perpetration of digital dating abuse. In this paper, we argue that digital dating abuse is a contemporary cost-inflicting mate retention behaviour, where larger mate value discrepancies between partners are associated with higher levels of digital dating abuse (n = 167). As expected, high mate value discrepancy and attachment anxiety were associated with high levels of digital dating abuse. We provide novel support for the relationship between mate value discrepancy and digital dating abuse. Our findings provide support for additional, unexplored factors which lead to the perpetration of digital dating abuse
    • The roles of altruism, heroism, and physical attractiveness in female mate choice

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Margana, Lacey; Bartlett, James E.; Farrelly, Daniel (Elsevier, 2018-08-25)
      The role of prosocial behaviour in female mate choice has been extensively explored, focusing on the desirability of altruism in potential mates, as well as altruism being a mating signal. However, little research has focused on the desirability of heroism and altruism in potential partners. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of attractiveness on the desirability of prosocial behavior has only recently been explored, and to our knowledge, has not been explored in relation to the desirability of heroism in a romantic partner. We explored the effect of prosociality and attractiveness on female desirability ratings (n =198), and whether desirability was influenced by whether women were seeking a short-term or long-term relationship. We find that women are attracted to men who display heroism and altruism, and this preference is higher when the male is attractive compared to unattractive. Furthermore, preferences for prosocial traits were higher when seeking a long-term compared to a short-term partner. Our findings add to the literature on prosocial behaviour and mate choice. Data and materials [Open Science Framework Project A76P8].
    • Time-Dependent Forgetting and Retrieval Practice Effects in Detailed Visual Long-Term Memory.

      Mercer, Tom; Jones, Gemma (Sage, 2018-08-24)
      Memories – especially those containing fine details – are usually lost over time, but the present study assessed whether detailed visual memories can survive a one-week delay if retrieval practice is provided. In three experiments, participants viewed 300 objects and then completed recognition tests assessing memory for precise object exemplars and their state. The recognition tests occurred immediately after encoding and one week later, and required participants to distinguish between a previously seen target object and an incorrect foil. Whilst there was forgetting when participants were tested on different sets of stimuli across the delay, retrieval practice led to an advantage in recognition performance. This effect was not simply due to mere exposure, as retrieval practice boosted recognition beyond a restudy condition, which had a second encoding opportunity but no retrieval practice. Yet more detailed analyses revealed that the effect of retrieval practice was highly dependent upon the type of information being tested (exemplar or state) and the specific foil that was presented. In addition, state information was harder to retain over the delay than exemplar information, suggesting that memory for different properties is forgotten at different rates.
    • Lurking towards empowerment: Explaining propensity to engage with online health support groups and its association with positive outcomes

      Fullwood, Chris; Chadwick, Darren; Keep, Melanie; Attrill-Smith, Alison; Asbury, Titus; Kirwan, Grainne (Elsevier, 2018-08-22)
      Online health support groups (OHSGs) offer opportunities for people with various health conditions to gain support and associated physical and mental health benefits, however evidence suggests that those who choose to lurk in OHSGs may be less likely to accrue benefits (e.g. empowering outcomes) than those who actively contribute. Most research to date has focused on comparing the outcomes of OSHG engagement for lurkers and participators, yet there has been little research which has considered how the different reasons for lurking might be associated with levels of participation and empowering processes. In this investigation we used a survey to gather data from 237 participants to develop a new scale to measure factors influencing the Propensity for Online Community Contribution (POCCS), and to explore the relationship between these factors and OHSG engagement behaviour and empowering processes accrued from OHSG use. The POCCS comprised nine factors, 1) poor sense of community; 2) struggles with self-expression; 3) inhibited disclosure and privacy; 4) negative online interactions; 5) ease of access and use; 6) health preventing contribution; 7) delayed and selective contribution; 8) goals met without contribution; and 9) lack of time. Five of these factors (1, 3, 6, 7, and 8) significantly predicted OHSG contribution and positive experiences in the form of empowering processes. Findings advocate a more nuanced approach to OHSG engagement, rather than a simple lurking/engaging dichotomy, and may enhance understanding of the relationship between OHSG use and perceived benefits.
    • A Research Note on the Influence of Relationship Length and Sex on Preferences for Altruistic and Cooperative Mates

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken (Sage, 2018-04-04)
      Previous literature suggests that altruism may have evolved as a sexually selectable trait. Recent research suggests that women seek altruistic traits for long-term, not short-term relationships, as altruism can serve as an honest signal of one’s character. We tested this hypothesis by asking 102 participants to complete a modified version of Buss’s Mate Preferences Questionnaire. We found that women placed higher importance on altruism in a mate compared to men, and this preference was greater when seeking a long-term mate, compared to a short-term mate. We also found that although women placed greater importance on cooperativeness in a mate compared to men, this preference was not influenced by whether they were seeking a short-term or a long-term mate. We successfully replicate previous literature exploring the role of altruism in mate choice.
    • Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International

      Heintz, Sonja; Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Pang, Dandan; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Dionigi, Alberto; Argüello Gutiérrez, Catalina; Brdar, Ingrid; Brzozowska, Dorota; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chłopicki, Władysław; Collins, Matthew; Ďurka, Róbert; Yahfoufi, Najwa Y. El; Quiroga-Garza, Angélica; Isler, Robert B.; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Ramis, TamilSelvan; Saglam, Betül; Shcherbakova, Olga V.; Singh, Kamlesh; Stokenberga, Ieva; Wong, Peter S. O.; Torres-Marín, Jorge (Frontiers in Psychology, 2018-02-09)
      Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor) were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226). The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years) and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK) showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.
    • The Challenges in Researching the Relationship Between Physical Attractiveness and Altruism Using Economic Games

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken (Sage, 2018-01-31)
      This case study is based on a portion of my PhD research exploring the relationship between physical attractiveness and altruistic behavior. Much of the previous literature exploring these variables has been conducted via computer simulations, using facial images and vignettes. I conducted three studies exploring the relationship between physical attractiveness and altruistic behavior among real people in a laboratory setting using economic games. It was hypothesized that people would be more altruistic toward those they considered attractive. The findings yielded consistent null results. This case study reports the factors that influenced my findings and the decisions made when designing each study.
    • Broadening Humor: Comic Styles Differentially Tap into Temperament, Character, and Ability

      Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja; Platt, Tracey; Wagner, Lisa; Proyer, René T. (Frontiers in Psychology, 2018-01-18)
      The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism) and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM). These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Study 1 examines whether the eight styles can be distinguished empirically, in self- and other-reports, and in two languages. In different samples of altogether more than 1500 adult participants, the CSM was developed and evaluated with respect to internal consistency, homogeneity, test–retest reliability, factorial validity, and construct and criterion validity. Internal consistency was sufficiently high, and the median test-retest reliability over a period of 1–2 weeks was 0.86 (N = 148). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the eight styles could be distinguished in both English- (N = 303) and German-speaking samples (N = 1018 and 368). Comparing self- and other-reports (N = 210) supported both convergent and discriminant validity. The intercorrelations among the eight scales ranged from close to zero (between humor and sarcasm/cynicism) to large and positive (between sarcasm and cynicism). Consequently, second-order factor analyses revealed either two bipolar factors (based on ipsative data) or three unipolar factors (based on normative data). Study 2 related the CSM to instruments measuring personality (N = 999), intelligence (N = 214), and character strengths (N = 252), showing that (a) wit was the only style correlated with (verbal) intelligence, (b) fun was related to indicators of vitality and extraversion, (c) humor was related to character strengths of the heart, and (d) comic styles related to mock/ridicule (i.e., sarcasm, cynicism, but also irony) correlated negatively with character strengths of the virtues temperance, transcendence, and humanity. By contrast, satire had a moral goodness that was lacking in sarcasm and cynicism. Most importantly, the two studies revealed that humor might be related to a variety of character strengths depending on the comic style utilized, and that more styles may be distinguished than has been done in the past. The CSM is recommended for future explorations and refinements of comic styles.
    • Dysphagia Management for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Practitioner Identified Processes, Barriers and Solutions

      Chadwick, Darren (Wiley, 2017-12-4)
      Background: Dysphagia is a significant problem for adults with intellectual disabilities which has received sparse attention in the research literature. Little is currently documented about how dysphagia management operates and the barriers and associated strategies to address barriers utilised in practice. Method: A brief survey containing open ended questions was completed by 38 practitioners about the way their service operates, the barriers they have faced in providing support around managing dysphagia and the solutions and strategies they have found useful. Results & Conclusions: The process of dysphagia management typically involved referral and assessment, development of an intervention strategy, communication and negotiation, education and training in safe dysphagia management and monitoring, evaluation and re-assessment. Barriers were numerous but stakeholder beliefs, knowledge and feelings underpinned many of them. Solutions varied but similarly were underpinned by good communication, building relationships, person centred practice and responsivity, pragmatism and innovation in training and disseminating dysphagia management information
    • Risk factors for Social Networking Site scam victimisation amongst Malaysian students

      Kirwan, Grainne H; Rooney, Brendan; Fullwood, Chris (Mary Ann Liebert, 2017-12)
      Prior evidence suggests that board independence may enhance financial performance, but this relationship has been tested almost exclusively for Anglo-American countries. To explore the boundary conditions of this prominent governance mechanism, we examine the impact of the formal and information institutions of 18 national business systems (Whitley, 1999) on the board independence-financial performance relationship. Our results show that while the direct effect of independence is weak, national-level institutions significantly moderate the independence-performance relationship. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of board structures is likely to be contingent on the specific national context, but the type of legal system is insignificant.
    • Non-Specific Retroactive Interference in Children and Adults

      Fatania, Jillen; Mercer, Tom (Vizja Press and IT Limited, 2017-12)
    • A systematic review and meta-analysis of lifestyle and body mass index predictors of successful assisted reproductive technologies.

      Purewal, Satvinder; Chapman, S C E; van den Akker, O B A (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-27)
      Lifestyle (smoking, drinking alcohol) and body mass index (BMI) predictors of successful outcomes in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments were examined in this meta-analysis.
    • Evaluation of a Picture-Based Test for the Assessment of Gelotophobia

      Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Bruntsch, Richard; Ďurka, Róbert (Frontiers in Psychology, 2017-11-21)
      This study examines whether coding open answers in a picture-based test, as to the extent they reflect the fear of being laughed at (i.e., gelotophobia), demonstrates sufficient validity to construct a semi-projective test for the assessment of gelotophobia. Previous findings indicate that cartoon stimuli depicting laughter situations (i.e., in the pilot version of the Picture-Geloph; Ruch et al., 2009) on average elicit fear-typical responses in gelotophobes stronger than in non-gelotophobes. The present study aims to (a) develop a standardized scoring procedure based on a coding scheme, and (b) examine the properties of the pilot version of the Picture-Geloph in order to select the most acceptable items for a standard form of the test. For Study 1, a sample of N = 126 adults, with scores evenly distributed across the gelotophobia spectrum, completed the pilot version of the Picture-Geloph by noting down what they assumed the protagonist in each of 20 cartoons would say or think. Furthermore, participants answered the GELOPH<15> (Ruch and Proyer, 2008), the established questionnaire for the subjective assessment of the fear of being laughed at. Agreement between two independent raters indicated that the developed coding scheme allows for objective and reliable scoring of the Picture-Geloph (mean of intraclass correlations = 0.66). Nine items met the criteria employed to identify the psychometrically most reliable and valid items. These items were unidimensional and internally consistent (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78). The total score of this selection (i.e., the Picture-Geloph<9>) discriminated significantly between non-fearful, slightly, markedly, and extremely fearful individuals; furthermore, it correlated sufficiently high (r = 0.66; rc = 0.79 when corrected for reliability of both measures) with the GELOPH<15>. Cronbach’s alpha (0.73) was largely comparable whereas the estimate of convergent validity was found to be lower in one (r = 0.50; rc = 0.61; N = 103) of the two samples in Study 2. Combining all three samples (N = 313) yielded a linear relationship between the self-report and the Picture-Geloph. With the Picture-Geloph<9> and the developed coding scheme, an unobtrusive and valid alternative instrument for the assessment of gelotophobia is provided. Possible applications are discussed.
    • Perpetrating Cyber Dating Abuse: A Brief Report on the Role of Aggression, Romantic Jealousy and Gender

      Deans, Heather; Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2017-10-25)
      There is increasing evidence that the use of elec-tronic communication technology (ECT) is being integrated into romantic relationships, which can be used as a medium to control a romantic partner. Most research focuses on the vic-tims of cyber dating abuse, however, we focused on the factors that predict perpetration of cyber dating abuse. We explored whether aggression (verbal aggression, physical aggression, anger and hostility), romantic jealousy (emotional, cognitive and behavioral jealousy), and gender predicted perpetration of cyber dating abuse (n = 189). We found that hostility, behav-ioral jealousy and gender significantly predicted perpetration of cyber dating abuse. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the psychological factors that drive cyber dating abuse in romantic relationships.
    • My Virtual friend: A qualitative analysis of the attitudes and experiences of Smartphone users: Implications for Smartphone attachment

      Fullwood, Chris; Quinn, Sally; Kaye, Linda K.; Redding, Charlotte (Elsevier, 2017-10)
      As mobile phones have evolved into Smartphones, they have become more than simple communication tools; transforming into personal assistants, entertainment devices and information gateways. There is a need to understand how this rapid transformation and complexity of Smartphone uses have impacted on users’ relationship with their phones. This study presents a thematic analysis of three focus group discussions around attitudes and experiences of owning and using Smartphones. Themes that emerged included a bifurcation in attitudes to Smartphones as simultaneously materialistic objects, and ones which users express anthropomorphic and sentimental views about. Participant accounts reflected the evolution of Smartphones from functional communication devices, to informational and recreational tools. Participants discussed using Smartphones to alleviate boredom and that device usage had become habituated for some users. However, context determined Smartphone use with some participants using them to feel secure while away from familiar settings. Participant accounts provide rich insights into different Smartphones uses and infer numerous implications for understanding why some users develop strong psychological attachments to them. Findings also imply that users may not be attached to the device itself, but rather the affordances on offer. The implications of these findings, for example in the assessment of Smartphone addiction, are discussed.
    • “Back to Square One”: The Experience of Straddling Adolescence and Early Adulthood in Unemployed UK University Graduates With Common Mental Health Issues

      Cockshott, Christopher J.; Kiemle, Gundi; Byrne, Paula; Gabbay, Mark B.; Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Health, and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK; Doctorate in Clinical Psychology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; Institute of Psychology, Health, and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; Institute of Psychology, Health, and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK (Sage, 2017-09-25)
      We investigated the experiences of unemployed university graduates with common mental health issues. After conducting semistructured interviews with 12 unemployed bachelor’s degree graduates with common mental health issues, we used interpretative phenomenological analysis to generate three superordinate themes: “fall from grace,” “vulnerability,” and “life on hold.” Our focus in this article is life on hold and its constituent themes: “stagnation,” “moving backward,” and “feeling left behind.” Graduates struggled to complete the broader structural life transition from university student to the adult world of work, experiencing a nebulous state of straddling adolescence and early adulthood. This undermined their sense of adult maturity, leaving them vulnerable to becoming entrenched in their mental health-related difficulties. We discuss these findings in relation to the developmental perspectives of life-course theory, status passages, and separation–individuation in early adulthood, which raise important issues for the applicability of life-course frameworks for these graduates, who are a disadvantaged minority group.
    • Controlling you watching me: Measuring perception control on social media

      Keep, Melanie; Attrill-Smith, Alison (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers, 2017-09)
      Online self-presentation assumes that individuals intentionally control how others perceive them based on their online behaviors. Existing tools are limited in their ability to measure this notion of perception control and there is little understanding around factors which may affect the desire for perception control. This article reports on the development of a perception control scale and comparisons of perception control across age and between genders. A total of 222 participants completed an online survey with items measuring perception control and participant demographics. A principal component analysis revealed a one-factor, 12-item scale explaining 41.14% of the variance. Perception control was found to increase with age and did not differ between genders. Results are consistent with existing impression management research suggesting that while participants of both genders desire to control how others perceive them, as a person’s sense of self stabilizes over time, they are less motivated to change their behaviors to control others’ impressions of them.
    • An Online Life Like Any Other: Identity, Self-Determination, and Social Networking Among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

      Chadwick, Darren D.; Fullwood, Chris; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. (Mary Ann Leibert, inc, 2017-08-28)
      Research focusing on online identity and the personal experiences of adults with Intellectual disabilities (ID) is currently limited. Eleven adults with Intellectual disabilities were interviewed regarding personal experiences of being online and using social media. Data were analyzed qualitatively using thematic network analysis. Two global themes of ‘Online Relatedness and Sharing’ and ‘Online Agency and Support’ highlighted the positive potential of social media in enabling the development and maintenance of social bonds, valued social roles and feelings of enjoyment, competence, autonomy and self-worth. Participants reported sharing various expressed online identities, which did not focus on or hide impairment, challenging notions of dependency, with participants both providing support and being supported online.
    • Up-Dating: Ratings of Perceived Dating Success Are Better Online than Offline

      Fullwood, Chris; Attrill-Smith, Alison; Institute of Psychology, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.; Institute of Psychology, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. (Mary Ann Liebert, 2017-06-28)
      The primary aims of this study were to test whether perceived dating success would differ between offline and online zero-acquaintance dating contexts, and to investigate the role that self-esteem might play in these evaluations. Participants were presented with the same photos of targets in either an offline or online dating scenario and rated their chances of dating success along with their perceptions of how attractive they thought the target would consider them. Higher self-esteem individuals believed they would be rated as more attractive. There was an overall perception that, irrespective of self-esteem level, meeting online would lead to better chances of dating success. These findings are considered in relation to an increased ability to more precisely manage impressions and develop an image of the self which would be evaluated more positively online.
    • How does risk mediate the ability of adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities to live a normal life by using the Internet?

      Seale, Jane; Chadwick, Darren (Masaryk University, Faculty of Social Studies Jostova 10, 60200 Brno Czech Republic, 2017-05-31)
      The focus of this position paper is Internet use by adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Drawing on existing literature in the field we will identify problems with and gaps in the current research. Our review is framed by three main questions: What constitutes a ?normal? life for adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities? What constitutes ?normal? use of the Internet for adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities? How does risk mediate the ability of adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities to live a normal life by using the Internet? The key focus of this review is the complex relationship between adolescents and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities and those providing support; how they negotiate access to and use of the Internet and how perceptions regarding risk and normalcy mediate this negotiation. As a result of this review we will argue that identified gaps and problems in the research field need to be addressed by expanding both methodological and conceptual approaches. In particular we will propose the need for more in-depth qualitative research that is inclusive in nature. We will also propose that an adapted positive risk-taking framework might be useful in framing the design, implementation and analysis of future research.