Principles for developing an effective framework to control minerals and rocks extraction impacts, mitigate waste and optimise sustainable quarries management
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AbstractAn investigation into how and why frameworks are developed led to the understanding of the facts that most frameworks or guides are developed for specific reasons. However, this study reveals that for a framework to be ‘effective’, certain factors ought to be ‘integrated’ in order to specifically address the aim and objectives of the particular framework – especially in specific sectors such as the extractive resources sector. A study of fifteen influential frameworks provided insight as to some outstanding factors that must be atleast considered in developing ‘an effective framework’ for a developing resources extraction sector. Although the knowledge of a granite quarry environment in a developing country has been used in expounding the study, the study is also a referral of ongoing research and can be applicable to the development of similar guides. So, because the principles discussed in this study were also applied in the development of this paper, the principles of this guide could also be applied by governing bodies, local governments, researchers and research institutes, non-governmental and private organisations in the extractive industry and beyond, for the development of ‘effective’ guides aimed at impacts control and waste management.
CitationPrinciples for developing an effective framework to control minerals and rocks extraction impacts, mitigate waste and optimise sustainable quarries management 2016, 47:164 Resources Policy
DescriptionHighlights • The implementation of ‘effective frameworks’ can boost sustainable quarry management. • Issues experienced in the quarry sectors of other countries could be avoided in developing countries, if frameworks are developed to be more interactive. • Certain components are exceptional in framework development, as a fact, they would always remain key. • A ‘framework-development-framework’ with the right variables integrated, is essential for constructing a guide in quarries development. Because, the economic, social, and cultural impact of these activities do vary from location to location.
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THE IMPACT OF COMPENSATION ON PUBLIC SECTOR CONSTRUCTION WORKERS IN JIGAWA STATE OF NIGERIASuresh, Subashini; BAPPA SALISU, JAMILU (2016)Compensation is the remuneration which workers receive for their services or contributions to the organisation. The literature reviewed showed that compensation packages have relationship with workers’ motivation, job satisfaction, attraction and retention. On this basis, this study established a conceptual framework based on equity theory and used it to examine how compensation might be influencing workers’ motivation, job satisfaction, attraction and retention in the Ministry of Works and Transport of Jigawa State of Nigeria. The dependent variables considered in this study are limited to salary, allowance, gratuity, and pension as independent variables while the corresponding motivation, job satisfaction, attraction and retention are the dependent variables. The Positivist paradigm guided this empirical research; which holds the principle that knowledge is arrived at through the gathering of facts that provide the basis of laws. Thus, a quantitative research design was employed. A questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested and administered to gather data on workers’ motivation, job satisfaction, attraction and retention regarding four job compensable aspects, namely: salary, allowances, gratuity and pension. A total of 265 questionnaires were administered and 260 were collected through the early and late response technique. This represents a response rate of 98%. The respondents were selected using the stratified random sampling technique. The data collected was analysed using both descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling. The findings revealed that gratuity and allowance do positively and significantly influence workers’ motivation whereas salary and pension have no impact on workers’ motivation. Likewise, gratuity and pension do positively and significantly influence workers’ job satisfaction while salary and allowance have no impact on the job satisfaction of workers. Further, gratuity and pension do positively and significantly influence workers’ retention while salary and allowance have no impact on the retention of workers. Moreover, salary, gratuity and pension do positively and significantly influence workers’ attraction while allowance has no influence on the attraction of public construction workers in Jigawa state of Nigeria. Consequently, a framework was developed to reflect the factors that emerged for improving the motivation, job satisfaction, attraction and retention of the and equally address the pay disparity in Jigawa state. 67 respondents who participated in the main study were administered a second questionnaire to validate the framework. The subsequent findings revealed that the framework was relevant and could serve as a guide towards enhancing compensation practices and policies in the Ministry of Works and Transport. Thus, this study and its framework offer important policy recommendation to the Jigawa state government such as introducing new or improving the existing compensation packages of their workers.
The Impact of Individual Health Education on Health Literacy: Evaluation of the Translated Version (Sinhala) of Health Education Impact Questionnaire in Type 2 DiabetesCooray, Bulathsinghalage Poornima Reshamie; Morrissey, Hana; Waidyarathne, Eisha .I.; Ball, Patrick A. (International Journal of Diabetes Research, 2018-05-14)INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is globally on the rise, in both developed and developing countries. Type 2 diabetes is a major public health issue in Sri Lanka. This study aims to investigate the effect of structured self-management health education intervention based on ‘PITS model’ (Pathophysiology, Indications, Treatment and Specifics) would result in a clinically significant improvement in glycaemic control of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with T2DM at two tertiary care hospitals in Sri Lanka, comply with the selection criteria were enrolled to the study. The intervention consisted with two repeated one to one education sessions followed up in six and twelve months. HbA1c, lipid profiles, waist circumference, BMI and other biomedical measurements were done in both groups. Analysis of covariance between groups were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. RESULTS: Mean HbA1c level in both intervention and usual care group was 8.6% with deviation from their target glycaemic level (6.5%,48 mmol/mol) at baseline. At six months, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.001; size of effect = 0.69) in HbA1c between the intervention and the usual care group controlling the baseline values. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the effectiveness of one to one diabetes self-management intervention among the adults with T2DM.
A multi-criteria decision analysis framework for sustainable rainwater harvesting in Ibadan, NigeriaFullen, Michael A.; Chinyio, Ezekiel A.Oloke, David; Lade, Omolara (University of Wolverhampton, 2014)The approach to water management worldwide is currently in transition, with a shift from centralised infrastructures to greater consideration of decentralised technologies, such as rainwater harvesting (RWH). Initiated by recognition of drivers, including water demand, increasing risk of ground-water pollution and flooding, the value of RWH is filtering across the academic-policy boundary. However, in Nigeria, implementation of sustainable water management (SWM), such as RWH systems, is inefficient social, environmental and technical barriers, concerns and knowledge gaps exist, which currently restrict its widespread utilisation. This inefficiency contributes to water scarcity, water-borne diseases, and loss of lives and property due to flooding. Meanwhile, several RWH technologies have been developed to improve SWM through both demand and storm-water management. Such technologies involve the use of storage tanks, surface water reservoirs and ground-water recharge pits as storage systems. A framework was developed to assess the significance and extent of water management problems, match the problems with existing RWH-based solutions and develop a robust ready-to-use multi-criteria analysis tool that can quantify the costs and benefits of implementing several RWH-based storage systems. The methodology adopted was the mixed method approach, involving a detailed literature review, followed by a questionnaire survey of 1067 household respondents, 135 Nigerian Architects and Civil Engineers and focus group discussion with Stakeholders. A total of 1042 sets of data were collected through a questionnaire survey and analysed using SPSS, Excel and selected statistical methods to derive weightings of the attributes for the tool. Following this, three case studies were selected to collect data for hydrological modelling using the RainCycle model. From the results it is found that the most important barrier constraining sustainable RWH regime in Ibadan was obsolete and insufficient operational equipment, followed by poor renumeration of water corporation staff and misuse of available funds. In addition, the measure of importance of storage capacity was established, with the highest score of 4.5 which reflects the general inadequacy of storage as a major barrier to the adoption of RWH as a sustainable water management method. Further, respondents’ major health hazards associated with drinking contaminated water was established. A larger proportion (61.2%) of respondents chose prevalence of typhoid fever; some have a prevalence of diarrhea (19.4%), while few of respondents’ water sources is free from water-borne diseases (2.3%). The tool developed is an integrated platform of related evaluation techniques, including Whole Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Multi-Attribute Utility Theory. The tool uses data including cost and quantities of materials for building a RWH storage system and quantifies the cost and benefits of alternative RWH-based systems that can improve project management. This tool is novel, given its integration of the analytical techniques mentioned above and application for selecting the most appropriate RWH-based SWM systems. The implementation of the tool is envisaged to provide an objective platform for the quantification of the costs and benefits of RWH-based systems prior to implementation.