• A qualitative study of gambling, deprivation and monetary motivations

      Lloyd, Joanne; Nicklin, Laura; Rhodes, Stephanie; Hurst, Gemma (Routledge, 2021-02-09)
      The link between gambling and deprivation is well recognized both in the UK and internationally; and manipulating perceptions of relative deprivation can encourage people to gamble. The current study sought to learn more about whether individuals who gamble consciously perceive themselves to be motivated by feelings of deprivation, and how this is contextualized alongside monetary factors more broadly. Thematic analysis was conducted on 25 in-depth qualitative interviews with UK residents who gamble regularly; most of whom resided in areas of high socio-economic deprivation. Monetary themes relating to financial circumstances, the meaning and value of money, and the perception of gambling as a way to make money, all had strong relevance for deprivation, though people did not often endorse the idea that relative deprivation was important to them, per se. We conclude that gambling motivations are complex and heterogeneous, and that it is pertinent for prevention and intervention strategies for problem gambling to consider individuals’ financial circumstances and how they perceive them, along with how this intersects with their gambling motives.
    • Secondary analysis of loot box data: are high-spending “whales” wealthy gamers or problem gamblers?

      Close, James; Gordon Spicer, Stuart; Louise Nicklin, Laura; Uther, Maria; Lloyd, Joanne; Lloyd, Helen (Elsevier, 2021-02-03)
      Introduction Loot boxes are purchasable randomised reward mechanisms in video games. Due to structural and psychological similarities with gambling, there are fears that loot box purchasing may be associated with problematic gambling. Whilst monthly expenditure is typically modest (i.e. < $20), the distribution is highly skewed, with a small number of high-level spenders, sometimes referred to as “whales”. It is not known what proportion of industry profits are derived from such players, and whether they are typically wealthy individuals and/or problem gamblers. Methods We used structured literature searches to identify surveys of gamers with open-access loot box data. The resulting datasets were aggregated, and correlations between loot box expenditure, problem gambling and earnings investigated using Spearman’s rho correlations. Results The combined open-access data comprised 7,767 loot box purchasers (5,933 with self-report earnings). Secondary analysis of this self-report data confirmed that disproportionate revenue appears to be generated from high-level spenders: the top 5% of spenders (> $100/month) represent half of loot box revenue. Previously reported correlations between problem gambling and loot box expenditure were confirmed, with an aggregate correlation of ρ = 0.34, p < .001. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between loot box spend and earnings ρ = 0.02, p = .10. Conclusion Our secondary analysis suggests that games developers (unwittingly or not) are disproportionately profiting from moderate and high-risk gamblers, rather than high earning customers. Such patterns of spending mirror those observed with gambling revenues, and have implications for harm minimisation and ongoing policy debates around loot boxes.
    • Products, training, and technology

      Williams, Jean; Vamplew, Wray; Riess, Steven (Bloomsbury, 2021-01-28)
      Sports products can be divided into three major categories. First, spectator products, which are sold either at the sites of events or mediated electronically and made globally available by satellite technology. Secondly, player products which may include games, equipment and costume, instruction and assistance, facilities, clubs, and training. Thirdly, associated products which are goods and services which have been allied with sport in some way, but which are not really necessary to the playing or watching of sport, though they can heighten the enjoyment (Vamplew 2018). These might include a varied range of products which stand alone, but are integral to experiential enjoyment, such as music, food and drink, social media, mainstream media, merchandise, and different spectator experiences (including VIP boxes and special areas with enhanced hospitality) and so forth. As will be shown below, technology had a significant role in developments within all these categories All sports products can be affected also by cultural values through the beliefs, attitudes, and emotions of both producers and consumers. While income, wealth, and prices clearly have a major role in the marketing of sport, as with any other visitor attraction experience, culture also influences the taste demand. Tastes can vary across individuals who maybe like to experience “value for money” or a “grand day out” and are also affected by class, gender, and nationality. Tastes can also be influenced by opinion-makers including entrepreneurs and commercial advertisers, or dictated by law, as the “safe standing” movement in Britain at association football grounds indicates. This chapter, though far from comprehensive, explores some of these cultural issues in an introductory overview.
    • The physiological effects of a walking to music intervention in adults with intermediate hyperglycemia

      Faulkner, Maria; Murphy, Marie; Davison, Gareth; Rowe, David; Hewitt, Allan; Nevill, Alan; Duly, Ellie; Trinick, Tom; McNeilly, Andrea M (Scientific Research Publishing, Inc., 2021-01-27)
      Purpose: Overweight individuals are at risk of intermediate hyperglycemia (IHG) [1]. Increasing physical activity (PA) in IHG is one method to reduce the risk of glucometabolic and cardiovascular (CV) complications [2]. This study investigates walking to music as a modality to increase moderate intensity PA and regulate glucometabolic disturbances. Patients and Methods: Participants were randomized to usual care (UC) or intervention group (IG) who completed a 6 month walking to music program. Physiological assessments for a range of variables (DEXA, flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and glucometabolic biomarkers) were completed at baseline, 4, 6 and 9 months (follow-up). Results: For IG group, walking compliance decreased with time however 71.4%, 79.5% and 73% of walking completed was moderate intensity at 4, 6 and 9 months. At 6 months IG FMD was significantly lower than UC and HbA1Cwas 5% lower. Other physiological markers were not altered. Conclusion: Walking to music may be a novel method to encourage moderate intensity PA. However, the majority of results demonstrate that this intervention was not more effective than UC in managing glucometabolic and CV biomarkers in IHG. Future interventions should include additional support for the entire study duration however this has cost implications.
    • A fall from grace: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of unemployment in UK university graduates with common mental health issues

      Cockshott, Christopher J.; Kiemle, Gundi; Byrne, Paula; Gabbay, Mark B. (Scientific Research Publishing, 2021-01-25)
      An exploratory investigation into the experiences of unemployed university graduates with common mental health issues (i.e., depression and anxiety) was conducted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 graduates in their twenties, all of whom had been unemployed between five and 24 months with common mental health issues, generated themes relating to ‘Loss of Expectation and Disorientation’, ‘Waste, Failure and Blame’, and ‘Stigma and Shame’. Participants had experienced a ‘Fall from Grace’ – a descent from a vaunted position of high-esteem and importance as university graduates, with seemingly bright prospects for a privileged future, into a lowly state of unemployment with mental health issues, leaving them feeling tarnished. These findings are discussed in relation to the literature on graduate unemployment, crisis and stigma, raising some practical issues for universities, including counselling services, and how they can better manage the transition to employment for their graduates.
    • Postdigital-biodigital: an emerging configuration

      Peters, Michael; Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-15)
      This dialogue (trilogue) is an attempt to critically discuss the technoscientific convergence that is taking place with biodigital technologies in the postdigital condition. In this discussion Sarah Hayes, Petar Jandrić and Michael A. Peters examine the nature of the convergences, their applications for bioeconomic sustainability and associated ecopedagogies. The dialogue paper raises issues of definition and places the technological convergence (‘nano-bio-info-cogno’) - of new systems biology and digital technologies at the nano level - in an evolutionary context to speculate, on the basis of the latest research, future possibilities. The paper also reviews these developments within familiar landscapes of posthumanism and postmodernism, raises the question of political bioeconomy, and the role of postdigital education within it.
    • Evaluation of the iHEART mental health education programme on resilience and wellbeing of UK secondary school adolescents

      Collings, Rosalyn; Kelley, Thomas; Kessel, Anthony; Rubenstein, Brian; Monnickendam, Charlotte; Solomon, Andrew (Emerald, 2021-01-13)
      Purpose There is abundant evidence of impaired mental well-being in adolescents and young adults. We present the findings of a preliminary study based on a novel structured mental health education programme – Innate Health Education and Resilience Training (iHEART) – in a cohort of secondary school adolescents in the UK. Methodology A curriculum-based 10-week programme was delivered by trained facilitators. 205 students enrolled in the study. An additional 64 participants were within an age-matched non-intervention control group. A non-randomised control mixed methodology approach was used. All students, pre- and post-programme, completed a quantitative questionnaire – the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Survey. Qualitative measures were used to assess participants’ perceptions of changes in their resilience and mental well-being. Findings Those who received the intervention showed a small improvement in mental well-being relative to those who did not; with a similar change in resilience. Qualitative findings regarding impulse control and emotional resilience provided positive findings. Originality/Value iHEART may be a promising new intervention offering a step change in mental health education for improving resilience, mental well-being and the ability for participants to navigate psychological challenges.
    • Implementing a pressure training program to improve decision-making and execution of skill among premier league academy soccer players

      Devonport, Tracey; Kent, Sofie; Lane, Andy; Nicholls, Wendy (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-13)
      The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention intended to improve academy players’ performance under pressure. Male academy soccer players (n = 82; mean age = 14.12 years, SD = 2.28) completed a baseline pressure task producing performance scores (A) for decision making and skill execution. By completing a pressure task, players received pressure training (PT) (Wood & Wilson, 2012). Players were then randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 41; receiving PT, three cognitive behavior workshops, and reflective diaries) or comparison group (n = 41; receiving PT only). Sixty-eight players (n = 29; intervention group; n = 39; comparison group) repeated the PT task at a six-week follow up (B), and of these, 26 (n = 15; intervention group; n = 11; PT only) also completed a re-test PT task (A) at 12-week follow up. Due to attrition at follow up, chi-square analysis was conducted across experimental groups A-B only. Analysis indicated intervention players scored significantly higher in their decision-making (p = .028) with a significant main effect of age-group on decision-making (p = .003) and skill execution (p = .005). Four players (highest scoring and lowest scoring player within intervention and comparison groups) from each academy age-group (n = 16) took part in individual interviews to explore intervention effectiveness. Thematic analysis found that some players perceived no benefits of the condition they completed, others perceived benefits to confidence, meta-cognitive skills, and challenge appraisals. Methodological implications for future pressure training interventions are presented.
    • A cross-cultural exploratory study of health behaviours and wellbeing during Covid-19

      Devonport, Tracey; Ruiz, Montse; Chen-Wilson, Jo; Nicholls, Wendy; Cagas, Jon; Fernandez-Montalvo, J; Choi, Y; Robazza, C (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-01-12)
      This study explored the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on perceived health behaviours; physical activity, sleep, and diet behaviours, alongside associations with wellbeing. Participants were 1140 individuals residing in the UK (n = 230), South Korea (n = 204), Finland (n = 171), Philippines (n = 132), Latin America (n = 124), Spain (n = 112), North America (n = 87), and Italy (n = 80). They completed an online survey reporting possible changes in the targeted behaviours as well as perceived changes in their physical and mental health. Multivariate analyses of covariance variance (MANCOVA) on the final sample (n = 1131) revealed significant mean differences regarding perceived physical and mental health ‘over the last week’, as well as changes in health behaviours during the pandemic by levels of physical activity and country of residence. Follow up analyses indicated that individuals with highest decrease in physical activity reported significantly lower physical and mental health, while those with highest increase in physical activity reported significantly higher increase in sleep and lower weight gain. UK participants reported lowest levels of physical health and highest increase in weight while Latin American participants reported being most affected by emotional problems. Finnish participants reported significantly higher ratings for physical health. The physical activity by country interaction was significant for wellbeing. MANCOVA also revealed significant differences across physical activity levels and four established age categories. Participants in the oldest category reported being significantly least affected by personal and emotional problems; youngest participants reported significantly more sleep. The age by physical activity interaction was significant for eating. Discussed in light of Hobfoll’s (1998) conservation of resources theory, findings endorse the policy of advocating physical activity as a means of generating and maintaining resources combative of stress and protective of health.
    • Biodigital philosophy, technological convergence, and new knowledge ecologies

      Peters, Michael; Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2021-01-11)
      New technological ability is leading postdigital science, where biology as digital information, and digital information as biology, are now dialectically interconnected. In this article we firstly explore a philosophy of biodigitalism as a new paradigm closely linked to bioinformationalism. Both involve the mutual interaction and integration of information and biology, which leads us into discussion of biodigital convergence. As a unified ecosystem this allows us to resolve problems that isolated disciplinary capabilities cannot, creating new knowledge ecologies within a constellation of technoscience. To illustrate our arrival at this historical flash point via several major epistemological shifts in the post-war period, we venture a tentative typology. The convergence between biology and information reconfigures all levels of theory and practice, and even critical reason itself now requires a biodigital interpretation oriented towards ecosystems and coordinated Earth systems. In this understanding, neither the digital humanities, the biohumanities or the posthumanities sit outside of biodigitalism. Instead, posthumanism is but one form of biodigitalism that mediates the biohumanities and the digital humanities, no longer preoccupied with the tradition of the subject, but with the constellation of forces shaping the future of human ontologies. This heralds a new biopolitics which brings the philosophy of race, class, gender and intelligence, into a compelling dialogue with genomics and information.
    • Biodigital technologies and the bioeconomy: The global new Green Deal?

      Peters, Michael; Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-11)
    • Collaborative resilience-building: supporting childhood resilience through interaction between adults and children

      Williams-Brown, Zeta; Jopling, Michael; Daly, Jayne; Aston, Andrew (BESA, 2020-12-31)
      The article reports on the key findings from a project that investigated children’s perspectives on their resilience, including whether they had a positive perception of themselves, whether they believed they were resilient and what support was available. The project formed part of an evaluation of Headstart, a programme funded by the Big Lottery (2017-2021) trialling a range of initiatives for improving resilience and emotional wellbeing in six locations in England. To identify shared perspectives, this study used Q-methodology, which provides a means of gathering quantifiable data from highly subjective viewpoints. In 2018, 55 children (aged 9-16 years) in one of the Headstart locations took part in the data collection during community and school-based activities. There was a clear message from all of the children that, regardless of their self-perception and support networks, they valued the support they received from others, but they did not value the role others played in tackling adversity in their lives. Other findings include a significant link between family support (and the support from other groups) and the child’s self-perception and enjoyment of life. Children with limited or no family support sought the support of friends and Headstart. The paper emphasises the need to ensure there is a collaborative resilience-building approach between adults and children where children are listened too in a range of ways and also encouraged to value the involvement they play in tackling adversity in their lives. This is especially significant given the emphasis placed by all children on accessing their support groups at times of adversity.
    • Postdigital Perspectives on the McPolicy of Measuring Excellence

      Hayes, Sarah (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-12-19)
    • A cross-case comparison of the trauma and orthopaedic hospital experiences of adults with intellectual disabilities using interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Drozd, Mary; Chadwick, Darren; Jester, Rebecca (Wiley, 2020-12-10)
      Aim: To present the cross-case comparison component of a qualitative study exploring and describing the experiences of adults with an intellectual disability who have received trauma and orthopaedic hospital care for musculoskeletal conditions or injuries in the United Kingdom. Design A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted using 1:1 semi-structured interviews to describe the lived experiences of trauma and orthopaedic hospital care from the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities and a carer of a person with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities. The data was analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines were applied. Results: There were common and interconnected experiences across the five participants: Communication challenges; lack of person-centred care; issues related to pain management; lack of confidence in hospital care; the valuable support and expertise of carers; incompetence of hospital staff and isolation and loneliness. Discussion: Although adults with intellectual disabilities are seldom included as participants in health research studies, their unique experiences provided valuable insights and informs the evidence base in relation to trauma and orthopaedic hospital care. Conclusions: This study revealed poor quality and unsafe trauma and orthopaedic hospital experiences as described by people with intellectual disabilities and a carer. Health care providers, commissioners and staff require urgent education and training to ensure that a person-centred approach, incorporating reasonable and achievable adjustments, is implemented to meet the currently unmet needs of adults with intellectual disabilities.
    • Type of diabetes mellitus and health-related quality of life in Nigeria: ethnic and sex differences

      David, Onyekachi Prince; Edgar, Graham; Catherwood, D.; Taiwo, Abigail Olubola (National Inquiry Services Centre/ Routledge, 2020-12-09)
      This study examined quality of life (QoL) differences among diabetic patients in Nigeria by ethnicity, gender and type of diabetes. A total of (N=486) out-patients with diabetes mellitus DM; (type 1=16%, females =71%, Igbo =25% Hausa =22%, Yoruba =32%, Others = 21%, age range 18 to 65) completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL) questionnaire. A 4x2x2 (Ethnicity x Gender x Diabetes Type) analysis of variance showed no significant interactions but all main effects were significant. By gender, males had higher QoL scores for compared to females with both Type 2. Type 1 diabetes. The analysis by ethnicity the Yoruba ethnic group reported the highest QoL followed by the Igbo and Hausa groups (which do not differ significantly from each other), with lowest QoL scores for Other ethnic groups. Interventions for diabetes control should take into account ethnic, gender and diabetes type differences to optimize the QoL outcomes.
    • Maximising the potential of people in sport and life. Lessons from the Benson community project

      Leflay, Kath; Smith, Russel (2020-12-04)
      This paper explores how one particular community sport project in the West Midlands uses a coaching for development approach to maximise the potential of people in sport and in life. It has frequently been suggested that it shouldn’t be a taken for granted assumption that positive development will simply occur, rather, key decisions need to be made about the best way to shape sports projects to maximise the chance that they will result in successful outcomes . This paper examines how one club ‘coaches for development’, and in doing so, supports individual development-one of the outcomes identified by Sport England in their 2016 strategy- Towards an Active Nation. An independent evaluation of Benson Community Project was carried out by the University of Wolverhampton in 2019. Observations of sessions were carried out over a 5 week period. Observations were followed up by semi structured interviews with 6 volunteer coaching staff to capture in depth accounts about the project. Four emergent themes were identified from the observations and interviews. These were safe space, freestyling, relationship strategy and alternative pathways
    • The association between training load indices and injuries in elite soccer players

      Tiernan, Caoimhe; Comyns, Tom; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2020-12-04)
      To investigate the association between contact injuries, noncontact injuries, and training load indices, across different lag periods in elite soccer players. Internal load (session rate of perceived exertion) was collected from 15 elite soccer players over 1 season (40-weeks). Acute (7 days), chronic (28 days), acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) (uncoupled), exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA) ACWR, and 2-, 3-, and 4-week cumulative load were calculated on a rolling weekly basis. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between contact, noncontact injuries, and training load indices, across different lag periods (5 and 7 days). A player was at a significantly higher risk of a noncontact injury 5 days later, if week-to-week acute load changes increased (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97). An increase in EWMA ACWR was associated with an increased risk of both a contact (OR = 1.30) and noncontact injury (OR = 1.35), 5 days later. An increase in 2-week cumulative load (OR = 1.77) was associated with an increased risk of a contact injury 7 days later and 3-week cumulative load (OR = 1.55) 5 days later. These findings suggest that to reduce the potential risk of a noncontact injury, training load should be gradually increased, avoiding an increase in week-to-week acute load change (≥9%) or EWMA ACWR (>1.20). Findings indicated that EWMA ACWR may be a more sensitive measure for detecting a player at a higher risk of an injury than ACWR. Furthermore, a high 2- and 3-week cumulative load was associated with an increased risk of a contact injury, which may indicate accumulated fatigue. Practitioners must note that this study investigated associations with injury risk and not injury prediction.
    • A Population-Based Analysis of Interpersonal Trauma, Psychosis, and Suicide: Evidence, pathways, and implications

      Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Katie, Dhingra; Kelleher, Ian (SAGE, 2020-12-01)
      Background: Subthreshold psychotic experiences are known to confer a risk for suicidality. Yet, despite evidence of a strong aetiological trauma-psychosis pathway, the coalesced effect of such concurrences on suicide risk is largely discounted. Objective: Our aims were to examine the impact of different manifestations of lifespan trauma and psychotic-like experiences (PE) on the risk of suicidal thoughts and attempts using an exploratory person-centred approach. Method: Data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N= 7,403) was analysed. Psychotic-like experiences were assessed using the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) alongside items probing childhood and adult trauma, in addition to twelve-month suicide thoughts and attempt. Results: A manual 3-step latent class analysis elicited four distinct profiles, namely a socially disconnected/high PE, a sexual victimisation/moderate PE, a lifespan trauma/low PE and a baseline class. The socially disconnected class, characterised by a moderate likelihood of social disconnection, a high probability of various PE endorsements, yet a low likelihood of other significant trauma, showed the greatest risk of twelve-month suicide ideation (OR=13.0, 95%CI=8.539 – 19.021) and attempt (OR=24.2, 95%CI=10.349 – 56.860). Conclusions: Neither multiple nor recurrent traumatic experiences invariably result in the emergence of PEs. Instead, a sense of social disconnection may be either resultant of PEs, or alone sufficient to cultivate such symptom presentations, even in the absence of prior traumas. Moreover, just as traumatic encounters increase the risk of suicidality, so too might seemingly more innocuous adversities such as poor-quality social relationships further elevate the risk, particularly when proximal and coupled with the simultaneity of PEs.
    • Bilateral differences on dancers’ dynamic postural stability during jump landings

      Clarke, Frances; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wilson, Margaret; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2020-12-01)
      Purpose: Although traditional dance training aims to train dancers’ legs equally, the recognised practice of predominately starting and repeating exercises on one side more than the other has led to suggestions that technique classes may cause lateral bias. Such an imbalance could lead to a greater risk of injury, however, despite this potential risk, little is known about the effects of bilateral differences on dancers’ postural stability during jump landings, a key dynamic action in dance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of possible bilateral differences on dynamic postural stability during single-leg landing using a time to stabilisation protocol. Methods: Thirty-two injury-free female dance university undergraduates (19+1.9 years; 164.8+6.7cm; 62.6+13.6kg) volunteered. They completed a two foot to one-foot jump over a bar onto a force platform stabilising as quickly as possible. The landing leg was randomly assigned, and participants completed three trials for each leg. Results: No significant differences in dynamic postural stability between the right and left leg were revealed and poor effect size was noted (p>0.05): MLSI: t= -.04, df= 190, p= .940 (CI= -.04,.04, r2 = 0); APSI: t= .65, df= 190, p= .519 (CI= -.06-,.12, r2 =.09); VSI: t= 1.85, df= 190, p= .066 (CI= -.02,.68, r2 = .27); DPSI: t= 1.88, df= 190, p= .061 (CI= -.02, .70, r2 30 = .27). Conclusion: The results of this study on jump landings do not support the notion that dance training may cause lateral bias with its associated risk of injury, although lateral bias may be present elsewhere. Furthermore, dancers’ perceptions of their leg dominance did not correlate with their ability to balance in single-leg landings or to absorb GRFs often associated with injury. Even when unequal training exists, it may not have detrimental effects on the dancer’s postural stability