• Are adult physiques geometrically similar? The dangers of allometric scaling using body mass power laws.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Stewart, Arthur D.; Olds, Tim; Holder, Roger L. (Wiley-Liss, 2004)
      Human physique classification by somatotype assumes that adult humans are geometric similar to each other. However, this assumption has yet to be adequately tested in athletic and nonexercising human populations. In this study, we assessed this assumption by comparing the mass exponents associated with girth measurements taken at 13 different sites throughout the body in 478 subjects (279 athletic subjects, and 199 nonexercising controls). Corrected girths which account for subcutaneous adipose tissue at the upper arm, thigh, and calf sites, and which simulate muscle circumference, were also calculated. If subjects are geometrically similar to each other, girth exponents should be approximately proportional to M(1/3), where M is the subjects' body mass. This study confirms that human adult physiques are not geometrically similar to each other. In both athletic subjects and nonexercising controls, body circumferences/limb girths develop at a greater rate than that anticipated by geometric similarity in fleshy sites containing both muscle and fat (upper arms and legs), and less than anticipated in bony sites (head, wrists, and ankles). Interestingly, head girths appear to remain almost constant, irrespective of subjects' body size/mass. The results also suggest that thigh muscle girths of athletes and controls increase at a greater rate than that predicted by geometric similarity, proportional to body mass (M(0.439) and M(0.377), respectively). These systematic deviations from geometric similarity have serious implications for the allometric scaling of variables such as energy expenditure, oxygen uptake, anaerobic power, and thermodynamic or anthropometric studies involving individuals of differing size.
    • Cardiorespiratory measurements during field tests in CF: Use of an ambulatory monitoring system

      Bradley, Judy M.; Kent, Lisa; O'Neill, Brenda; Nevill, Alan M.; Boyle, Lesley; Elborn, J. Stuart (Wiley-Liss, 2010)
      Respiratory inductive plethysmography (e.g., LifeShirt) may offer in-depth study of the cardiorespiratory responses during field exercise tests. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability, discriminate validity, and responsiveness of cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt during field exercise tests in adults with CF. To assess reliability and discriminate validity, participants with CF and stable lung disease and healthy participants performed the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and Modified Shuttle Test (MST) on two occasions. To assess responsiveness, participants with CF experiencing an exacerbation performed the 6MWT at the start and end of an admission for intravenous antibiotics. The LifeShirt was worn during all exercise tests. Reliability and discriminate validity were assessed in 18 participants with CF (mean (SD) age: 26 (10) years; FEV1 %predicted: 69.2 (23)%) and 18 healthy participants (age: 24 (5) years, FEV1 %predicted: 92 (8)%). There was no difference in 6MWT and MST performance between days and reliability of cardiorespiratory measures was acceptable (bias: P > 0.05; CV < 10%). Participants with CF demonstrated a significantly greater response to exercise (e.g., ventilation, respiratory rate) compared to healthy participants indicating discriminate validity. Responsiveness was assessed in 12 participants with CF: clinical measurements and 6MWT performance improved (61 (81) min; P < 0.05) however, cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt remained the same (bias: P > 0.05; CV < 10%). This study provides evidence that cardiorespiratory responses can be measured non-invasively during field exercise tests in adults with CF. Reliability and discriminate validity of key cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt were demonstrated. Some information on responsiveness is reported.