• Beneficial changes in energy expenditure and lipid profile after eccentric exercise in overweight and lean women

      Paschalis, V; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Giakas, Giannis; Theodorou, A. A.; Sakellariou, G. K.; Fatouros, I. G.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010)
      The aim was to compare lean and overweight females in regard to the effects of eccentric exercise on muscle damage indices, resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) as well as blood lipid and lipoprotein profile. Lean and overweight females (deviated by their body mass index) performed an eccentric exercise session. Muscle damage, energy cost and lipid profile were assessed pre-exercise and up to 72 h post-exercise. After eccentric exercise (i) muscle damage indices were affected more in the overweight subjects compared with the lean subjects; (ii) the elevation of absolute and relative REE was larger and more prolonged in the overweight group compared with the lean group; (iii) after 24 h, RQ had significantly declined, with the overweight subjects exhibiting a larger reduction compared with the lean group; and (iv) the blood lipid profile was favorably modified, with the overweight group exhibiting more favorable responses compared with the lean group. The differences between the lean and the overweight subjects may be partly due to the fact that overweight individuals experienced greater muscle damage than lean individuals. Eccentric exercise may be a promising lifestyle factor to combat obesity and dyslipidemias.
    • Conversation analysis, cyberpsychology and online interaction

      Meredith, Joanne (Wiley-Blackwell, 2020-04-23)
      In this paper, I explore how conversation analysis can be used as a method for analysing online interaction. As the number and quantity of online communication platforms have proliferated, there has been a growing interest in social psychology about the impact and effectiveness of online, text-based communication. A number of theories have been used and developed to explain how online communication might impact upon relationships and effective communication. However, this paper argues that in order to explore the differences between online and offline interaction an analysis of online behaviour is needed. Conversation analysis allows for an in-depth, sequential and discursive analysis of real-life online interactions. It can explore the ways in which the affordances of the interactional platforms are oriented to or made relevant in the interaction. The utility of conversation analysis is demonstrated through a number of examples, highlighting how this method can be used to broaden our understanding of how online communication works in practice.
    • Exclusion and the strategic leadership role of Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCos) in England: planning for COVID-19 and future crises

      Done, Elizabeth; Knowler, Helen (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-11-16)
      A small-scale study funded by the British Educational Association (BERA Small Awards 2020) investigated the role of SENCos in England immediately prior to, during and following the first closure of schools nationally in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed methods research strategy comprising semi-structured interviews and a national online survey generated data related to SENCos’ involvement in strategic planning for crisis conditions, focusing specifically on students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) and concerns around exclusionary practices. Findings suggest that pandemic conditions have exacerbated familiar issues related to the SENCo role and SEND provision in English schools, e.g. engagement in reactive firefighting, onerous workloads, uneven SENCo involvement in strategic planning, and schools’ failure to prioritise students with SEND. Minimal evidence of ‘advocacy leadership’ or of SENCos challenging exclusionary practices was found. Disparities between anecdotal and published data around illegal exclusion found in earlier research were also evidenced.
    • Health professionals’ views and experiences of discussing weight with children and their families: A systematic review of qualitative research

      Heath, Gemma; Abdin, Shanara; Welch, Richard (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-02-10)
      Background: Healthcare professionals are ideally placed to discuss weight management with children and families to treat and prevent childhood obesity. The aim of this review was to collect and synthesise primary research evidence relating to health professional’s views and experiences of discussing weight with children and their families. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE (OVID), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID) and Healthcare Management Information Consortium (HMIC). Twenty-six full text qualitative studies published in English Language journals since inception to October 2019 were included. Papers were quality assessed and synthesised using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Results: Data analysis generated five themes: Sensitivity of the issue; Family-professional relationships; Whole systems approach, Professional competency, Socio- cultural context. Conclusion: Supporting behaviour change through discussion of healthy weight with children and families is an important part of the health professional’s role. Tailored information for professionals including resources and training which facilitates them to confidently talk to children and families about weight should be prioritised within interventions. Success of such interventions requires commitment from a range of professionals to ensure healthy weight is tackled through a whole system approach.
    • Modelling the determinants of 2000 m rowing ergometer performance: a proportional, curvilinear allometric approach

      Nevill, Alan M.; Allen, S. V.; Ingham, S. A. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011)
      Previous studies have investigated the determinants of indoor rowing using correlations and linear regression. However, the power demands of ergometer rowing are proportional to the cube of the flywheel's (and boat's) speed. A rower's speed, therefore, should be proportional to the cube root (0.33) of power expended. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between 2000 m indoor rowing speed and various measures of power of 76 elite rowers using proportional, curvilinear allometric models. The best single predictor of 2000 m rowing ergometer performance was power at V̇O2max ()0.28, that explained R2=95.3% in rowing speed. The model realistically describes the greater increment in power required to improve a rower's performance by the same amount at higher speeds compared with that at slower speeds. Furthermore, the fitted exponent, 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.226–0.334) encompasses 0.33, supporting the assumption that rowing speed is proportional to the cube root of power expended. Despite an R2=95.3%, the initial model was unable to explain “sex” and “weight-class” differences in rowing performances. By incorporating anaerobic as well as aerobic determinants, the resulting curvilinear allometric model was common to all rowers, irrespective of sex and weight class.
    • Predictors of rehabilitation intention and behavior following anterior cruciate ligament surgery: an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

      Niven, A.; Nevill, Alan M.; Sayers, F.; Cullen, M. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010)
      This study was guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to assess the predictors of rehabilitation intention and adherence following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery in athletes. Participants (n=87; mean age=28.95 ±7.7 years) volunteered to participate following their first post-surgery physiotherapy session and completed the baseline measures of intention, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy,participation level, sport and age. At follow-up, 48 participants returned completed rehabilitation diaries detailing adherence behavior every 2 weeks during an 8-week period. Results indicatedthat there was no significant difference in rehabilitation behavior at weeks 2, 4, 6 or 8. A multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that sport type, sport level, intention and intention2 significantly predicted rehabilitation behavior, although the strength of relationship varied across the weeks. Self-efficacy was a significant predictor of intention. These findings suggest that adherence behavior is predicted by sport type, participation level and curvilinearly by intention to adhere. Intention to adhere can be positively associated with enhanced self-efficacy. The study has highlighted issues that practitioners should be aware of when encouraging rehabilitation adherence. However, the TPB provided a poor fit for understanding adherence behavior in this setting.
    • What do people really do at work? Job analysis and design

      Woods, Stephen A; Hinton, Danny; Chmiel, Nik; Fraccaroli, Franco; Sverke, Magnus (Wiley-Blackwell, 2017-03-11)
      What do people really do at work? Or to phrase the question differently, what is the content and nature of different jobs in organizations? What should people do in their respective jobs in order to deliver organizational strategy? This chapter introduces the means by which these questions are answered: job analysis. In this chapter, job analysis is defined, and its place within a number of wider organisational systems is explored. Following this, the distinction is drawn between two broad types of analysis: work-oriented and worker-oriented analysis in terms of their focus and the end products that they are used to generate. A number of both work- and worker-oriented methods for the collection of job analysis data are described, after which are considered some specific organisational contexts in which job analysis data is used in the form of Training Needs Analysis and job design. Finally, two modern alternatives to the classical approach to job analysis are described: competency profiling and work analysis. These approaches are explored in terms of the benefits that they can provide to practitioners in overcoming some of the limitations of traditional approaches to job analysis in the modern working world.