• Breaking traditions: sexual health and ethnicity in nursing research: a literature review.

      Serrant-Green, Laura (Wiley InterScience, 2005)
      AIM: The aim of this paper is to explore some reasons for the lack of focus on ethnicity and sexual health in nursing research, and suggest ways to advance the nursing evidence-base required for practice development. BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom National Strategy for Sexual Health and human immunodeficiency virus published in July 2001 highlighted the continued rise in sexual ill health amongst minority ethnic groups. In order to improve sexual health, research evidence is needed explain why particular ethnic groups appear to be at greater risk of sexual ill health. The Strategy identified nurses as key to bringing about improvements in sexual health. Nursing research includes many studies exploring links between ethnicity and health. However, with the exception of extensive work on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as a specific disease, nursing research into ethnicity has not systematically included sexual health. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted using the BIDS database, World Wide Web and United Kingdom Department of health website between June 2000 and August 2003. Papers written in English incorporating the keywords 'sexual health', 'sexually transmitted infection' and 'health and ethnicity' in the title or abstract were selected for review. FINDINGS: Nursing research into the association between sexual health and ethnicity is rare. It has been hampered by a variety of political and social constraints concerning the nature of sexual health practice in nursing, researching sexual health, and researching ethnicity and health. The result is a dearth of research evidence to support the development of sexual health practice and the education of healthcare professionals to underpin care of minority ethnic clients. CONCLUSIONS: Barriers to researching ethnicity and sexual health by nurses must be addressed through nursing education and practice. Without this, a detailed evidence base will fail to materialize and healthcare practices to implement the priorities to improve sexual health in minority ethnic communities will remain undeveloped.
    • Conductive education: links with mainstream schools

      Lambert, Mike (Wiley InterScience, 2004)
      Conductive education is a distinctive style of teaching and learning for pupils with physical difficulties. It is practised in the UK in some maintained, non-maintained and independent special schools and centres (here collectively termed ‘conductive-education schools’). In this article Mike Lambert investigates the extent to which these conductive-education schools have links with mainstream schools, and the purposes and nature of such links It discusses what conductive-education schools may need to do if they are to develop effective and valuable roles in respect to mainstream schooling This report has relevance for all schools, but particularly for those special schools with an interest in, or practising, conductive education and for mainstream schools interested in working with them.
    • Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy (PMP S-E) tool: development and validation with mothers of hospitalized preterm neonates.

      Barnes, Christopher; Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N. (Wiley InterScience, 2007)
      AIM: This paper is a report of a study to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool. BACKGROUND: Mothers' perceptions of their ability to parent (maternal parenting self-efficacy) is a critical mechanism guiding their interactions with their preterm newborns. A robust measure is needed which can measure mothers' perceptions of their ability to understand and care for their hospitalized preterm neonates as well as being sensitive to the various levels and tasks in parenting. METHODS: Using a mixed sampling methodology (convenience or randomized cluster control trial) 165 relatively healthy and hospitalized mother-preterm infant dyads were recruited in 2003-2005 from two intensive care neonatal units in the United Kingdom (UK). Mothers were recruited within the first 28 days after giving birth to a preterm baby. The Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool, which is made up of 20 items representing four theorized subscales, was tested for reliability and validity. RESULTS: Internal consistency reliability of the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool was 0.91, external/test-retest reliability was 0.96, P<0.01. Divergent validity using the Maternal Self-Report Inventory was r(s)=0.4, P<0.05 and using the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale was r(s)=0.31, P<0.01. CONCLUSION: The Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool is a psychometrically robust, reliable and valid measure of parenting self-efficacy in mothers of relatively healthy hospitalized preterm neonates. Although application outside the UK will require further cross-cultural validation, the tool has the potential to provide healthcare professionals with a reliable method of identifying mothers of preterm hospitalized babies who are in need of further support.
    • Perceptions of the learning environment in higher specialist training of doctors: implications for recruitment and retention.

      Cross, Vinette; Hicks, Carolyn; Parle, James; Field, Stephen (Wiley InterScience, 2006)
      INTRODUCTION: Career choice, sense of professional identity and career behaviour are influenced, subject to change and capable of development through interaction with the learning environment. In this paper workplace learning discourses are used to frame ongoing concerns associated with higher specialist training. Data from the first stage of a multimethods investigation into recruitment into and retention in specialties in the West Midlands is used to consider some possible effects of the specialist learning environment on recruitment and retention. METHODS: The aim of the study was to identify issues, through interviews with 6 consultants and questionnaires completed by specialist registrars from specialties representing a range of recruitment levels. These would inform subsequent study of attributes and dispositions relevant to specialist practice and recruitment. The data were analysed using NVivo software for qualitative data management. RESULTS: Participants' perceptions are presented as bipolar dimensions, associated with: curriculum structure, learning relationships, assessment of learning, and learning climate. They demonstrate ongoing struggle between different models of workplace learning. CONCLUSION: Changes in the postgraduate education of doctors seem set to continue well into the future. How these are reflected in the balance between workplace learning models, and how they influence doctors' sense of identity as specialists suggests a useful basis for examination of career satisfaction and recruitment to specialties.
    • Playing and resisting: rethinking young people’s reading cultures.

      Kendall, Alex (Wiley InterScience, 2008)
      In this paper I will argue that while young adult readers may often be represented through 'othering' discourses that see them as 'passive', 'uncritical' consumers of 'low-brow', 'throw-away' texts, the realities of their reading lives are in fact more subtle, complex and dynamic. The paper explores the discourses about reading, identity and gender that emerged through discussions with groups of young adults, aged between 16 and 19, about their reading habits and practices. These discussions took place as part of a PhD research study of reading and reader identity in the context of further education in the Black Country in the West Midlands. Through these discussions the young adults offered insights into their reading cultures and the 'functionality' of their reading practices that contest the kinds of 'distinction[s]' that tend to situate them as the defining other to more 'worthy' or 'valuable' reading cultures and practices. While I will resist the urge to claim that this paper represents the cultures of young adult readers in any real or totalising sense I challenge the kinds of dominant, reductive representations that serve to fix and demonise this group and begin to draw a space within which playfulness and resistance are alternatively offered as ways of being for these readers.
    • Relationship between adiposity and body size reveals limitations of BMI.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Stewart, Arthur D.; Olds, Tim; Holder, Roger L. (Wiley InterScience, 2006)
      The aims of this study were to assess 1) whether the stature-adjusted body mass index (BMI) is a valid proxy for adiposity across both athletic and nonathletic populations, and 2) whether skinfold measurements increase in proportion to body size, thus obeying the principle of geometric similarity. The research design was cross-sectional, allowing the relationship between skinfold calliper readings (at eight sites and between specific athletic and nonathletic groups, n = 478) and body size (either mass, stature, or both) to be explored both collectively, using proportional allometric MANCOVA, and individually (for each site) with follow-up ANCOVAs. Skinfolds increase at a much greater rate relative to body mass than that assumed by geometric similarity, but taller subjects had less rather than more adiposity, calling into question the use of the traditional skinfold-stature adjustment, 170.18/stature. The best body-size index reflective of skinfold measurements was a stature-adjusted body mass index similar to the BMI. However, sporting differences in skinfold thickness persisted, having controlled for differences in body size (approximate BMI) and age, with male strength- and speed-trained athletes having significantly lower skinfolds (32% and 23%, respectively) compared with controls. Similarly, female strength athletes had 29% lower skinfold measurements compared to controls, having controlled for body size and age. These results cast serious doubts on the validity of BMI to represent adiposity accurately and its ability to differentiate between populations. These findings suggest a more valid (less biased) assessment of fatness will be obtained using surface anthropometry such as skinfolds taken by experienced practitioners following established procedures.
    • School placement and conductive education: the experiences of education administrators

      Morgan, Angela; Hogan, Kevin (Wiley InterScience, 2005)
      A placement at the National Institute of Conductive Education (NICE) in Birmingham for children with motor disorders is strongly preferred over mainstream or special schools by some parents, but it has been noted that this is usually refused following the current statementing process. Although funding constraints have been articulated, Angela Morgan, a Research Fellow at the Wolverhampton University Policy Research Institute, and Kevin Hogan, also at the University of Wolverhampton, contend in this article that other explanations are possible, as variability remains in placement decisions. The experiences of education administrators working within the special educational needs departments of local education authorities who make the ultimate decision regarding school placement have hitherto been unexplored. This study offers findings from an exploratory qualitative study, which suggests that administrators are working from disparate understandings of conductive education within an arena fraught with conflict. Recommendations derived from the study include further in-service training for education administrators and prior training for individuals seeking a career in education administration to enhance collaborative working partnerships between administrators and parents.
    • The primary and secondary care interface: the educational needs of nursing staff for the provision of seamless care.

      Werrett, Julie A.; Helm, Ruth H.; Carnwell, Ros (Wiley InterScience, 2001)
      AIM: To identify nurses' perceived deficits in the knowledge and skills required to provide effective seamless care, so that appropriate training could be provided. BACKGROUND: A clear understanding of nursing staff roles, skills and resources is paramount to work at the primary/secondary care interface. Nursing staff require an educational model that will provide a clear understanding of how their roles coalesce with other healthcare professionals. There is little evidence that examines the educational needs of nurses related to changing care boundaries. DESIGN/METHODS: The study used methodological triangulation to explore these issues within current practice. Focus groups were used to generate items for inclusion in the questionnaire. Questionnaire design was based on an importance-performance analysis. This procedure has been effective in developing health care marketing strategies. A stratified random sample of nursing staff (n=722) from the participating trusts received the questionnaire, eliciting a response rate of 172 (23.8%). RESULTS: Factor analysis provided a list of seven training categories in order of training need priority: information technology, awareness of roles, communications within seamless care, working across boundaries, professional issues, practice-related issues, delivery of patient/client care issues. There were no differences in nurses' training needs across NHS trusts. However, differences were highlighted for staff located in primary or secondary settings or working across the interface. CONCLUSIONS: Despite there being a vast range of training issues the majority of nurses appear to have a clear idea of their training needs for the provision of seamless care. A training programme required which targets the specific needs of nursing staff working at different positions across the primary/secondary care interface.