• Adolescent desire for cosmetic surgery

      Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2017-05-31)
      Background: Adolescent bullying may be a key driver of interest in cosmetic surgery. This study examined the extent of such interest and whether any effect was sex-specific, and examined psychological functioning as a potential mechanism through which bullying involvement may lead to a wish for cosmetic surgery. Methods: A two-stage design was used. In the first stage, 2782 adolescents (aged 11 to 16 years) were screened for bullying involvement using self-reports and peer nominations. In the second stage, 752 adolescents who were bullies, victims, bully-victims, or uninvolved in bullying reported their desire for cosmetic surgery. Psychological functioning was constructed as a composite of self-esteem and emotional problems (assessed at stage 1) and body-esteem scores (assessed at stage 2). Results: Adolescents involved in bullying in any role were significantly more interested in cosmetic surgery than uninvolved adolescents. Desire for cosmetic surgery was greatest in adolescents who were bullied (victims and bully-victims) and girls. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in girls, but sex did not interact with bullying role. Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. In contrast, desire for cosmetic surgery in bullies was not related to psychological functioning, which was in the normal range. Conclusions: Bullying victimization is related to poor psychological functioning, and both are related to a greater desire for cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and may want to include a short screening questionnaire for a history of peer victimization.
    • Key anthropometric variables associated with front-crawl swimming performance in youth swimmers: an allometric approach

      Sammoud, Senda; Negra, Yassine; Chaabene, Helmi; Bouguezzi, Raja; Attia, Ahmed; Granacher, Urs; Younes, Hachana; Nevill, Alan M; Research Unit (UR17JS01), Sport Performance, Health & Society, Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar Saîd, University of "La Manouba," Tunisia. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2020-02-07)
      Sammoud, S, Negra, Y, Chaabene, H, Bouguezzi, R, Attia, A, Granacher, U, Younes, H, and Nevill, AM. Key anthropometric variables associated with front-crawl swimming performance in youth swimmers: an allometric approach. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This study aimed to establish key anthropometric characteristics (e.g., optimal body height, limb-segment length, and girth/breadth ratios) related to 100-m front-crawl performance in young swimmers. In total, 74 swimmers (boys [n = 41; age: 18.1 ± 3.5 years]; girls [n = 33; age: 15.9 ± 3.1 years]) participated in this study. We adopted a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model to identify key anthropometric characteristics associated with 100-m front-crawl swimming performance. The main outcomes indicated that length ratio = ([height/leg length]), foot length and ankle girth, biacromial breadth, and % of body fat were associated with 100-m front-crawl mean swimming speed performance. These findings highlight the importance of assessing anthropometric characteristics in young front-crawl swimmers for talent identification and development.
    • The need to redefine age- and gender-specific overweight and obese body mass index (bmi) cut-off points

      Nevill, Alan M; Metsios, George S (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2016-05)
      For convenience, health practitioners and clinicians are inclined to classify people/patients as overweight or obese based on body mass index (BMI) cut-off points of 25 and 30 kg/m^2 respectively, irrespective of age and gender.
    • The relationship between adductor squeeze strength, subjective markers of recovery and training load in elite rugby players

      Tiernan, C; Lyons, M; Comyns, T; Nevill, AM; Warrington, G; Department of Physical Education and Sport Science (PESS), University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2019-11)
      © 2019 National Strength and Conditioning Association. The adductor squeeze strength test has become a popular training monitoring marker, particularly in team sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between adductor squeeze strength scores, subjective markers of recovery and training load in elite Rugby Union players, because of limited research in this area. Nineteen elite male Rugby Union players completed daily monitoring markers (adductor squeeze strength and 5 selected subjective markers of recovery), over a 10-week preseason training period. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was collected to determine training load (session RPE; RPE × session duration) and to calculate weekly training load. Spearman’s correlation was used to analyze the relationship between adductor squeeze strength scores, subjective markers of recovery, and weekly training load. The results found that where adductor squeeze scores decreased, both perceived fatigue levels (r = -0.335; R2 = 11.2%; p < 0.001) and muscle soreness (r = -0.277; R2 = 7.7%; p < 0.001) increased. A weak correlation was found between Monday adductor squeeze strength scores and the previous week’s training load (r = -0.235; R2 = 5.5%; p < 0.001) and Friday adductor squeeze strength scores and the same week’s training load (r = -0.211; R2 = 4.5%; p < 0.05). These results show that adductor squeeze strength may provide coaches with a time-efficient, low‐cost objective, player monitoring marker. Additionally, the combination of adductor strength squeeze, with subjective markers, perceived fatigue, and muscle soreness, and appropriately planned training load may help coaches to optimize training adaptations by determining a player’s training status.
    • Salivary IgA as a Predictor of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Relationship to Training Load in Elite Rugby Union Players

      Tiernan, Caoimhe; Lyons, Mark; Comyns, Tom; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles; Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2019-01-23)
      Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTI) are among the most common illnesses reported in athletes. An URTI can result in missed training days, which in turn may lead to performance decrements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) as a predictor of URTI, while also exploring the relationship to weekly training load in elite rugby union players. Nineteen male elite rugby union players provided morning saliva swabs, biweekly (Monday and Friday), over a 10-week training period. Participants completed an illness log documenting symptoms of URTI. Session Rate of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) was collected to determine training load (sRPE × session duration). Weekly training load was also calculated. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between incidences of URTI with sIgA and training load. Multilevel regression was conducted to compare associations between sIgA and training load. The results found that the likelihood of suffering from an URTI increased when sIgA significantly decreased (p = 0.046). Where sIgA decreased by 65% or more, a player was at a greater risk of contracting an URTI within the following 2 weeks. No association was found between sIgA and training load. In conclusion, sIgA may be a useful predictor for determining the likelihood of players contracting an URTI. This will allow the coach to make informed decisions on training status, helping reduce the risk of players missing training, which may have performance decrements. Coaches will benefit from the fast, easy, and instant results available, to analyze a player's immune function.
    • Stressful life events as a predictor for nonsuicidal self-injury in southern Chinese adolescence

      Tang, Jie; Yang, Wei; Ahmed, Niman Isse; Ma, Ying; Liu, Hui-Yan; Wang, Jia-Ji; Wang, Pei-Xi; Du, Yu-Kai; Yu, Yi-Zhen (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2016-03-31)
      Stressful life events have been implicated in the etiology of kinds of psychopathology related to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI); however, few studies have examined the association between NSSI and stressful life events directly in Chinese school adolescents. In this study, we aim to estimate the prevalence rate of NSSI and examine its association with stressful life events in Southern Chinese adolescents. A total sample of 4405 students with age ranged from 10 to 22 years was randomly selected from 12 schools in 3 cities of Guangdong Province, China. NSSI, stressful life events, self-esteem, emotional management, and coping methods were measured by structured questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association of NSSI with stressful life events. Results showed the 1 year self-reported NSSI was 29.2%, with 22.6% engaged in ‘‘minor’’ NSSI (including hitting self, pulling hair, biting self, inserting objects under nails or skin, picking at a wound) and 6.6% in ‘‘moderate/sever’’ NSSI (including cutting/carving, burning, self-tattooing, scraping, and erasing skin). Self-hitting (15.9%), pulling hair out (10.9%), and self-inserting objects under nails or skin picking areas to dram blood (18.3%) were the most frequent types of NSSI among adolescents. Results also showed that ‘‘Minor NSSI’’ was associated with stressful life events on interpersonal, loss and health adaption, and ‘‘moderate/severe NSSI’’ was associated with life events on interpersonal, health adaption in Southern Chinese adolescents, even after adjusted for sex, age, residence, selfesteem, coping style, and emotional management. Results further suggested stressful life events were significantly associated with less risk of NSSI in those who had good emotional management ability.