• Body weight and mood state modifications in mixed martial arts: An exploratory pilot

      Brandt, Ricardo; Bevilacqua, Guilherme G; Coimbra, Danilo R; Pombo, Luiz C; Miarka, Bianca; Lane, Andrew M (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2018-09-01)
      Brandt, R, Bevilacqua, GG, Coimbra, DR, Pombo, LC, Miarka, B, and Lane, AM. Body weight and mood state modifications in mixed martial arts: An exploratory pilot. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2548-2554, 2018-Mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters typically use rapid weight loss (RWL) as a strategy to make competition weight. The aim of the present study was to compare body weight and mood changes in professional male MMA athletes who used strategies to rapidly lose weight (n = 9) and with MMA athletes who did not (n = 3). Body mass and mood states of anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, tension, and vigor and total mood disturbance were assessed (a) 30 days before competition, (b) at the official weigh-in 1 day before competition, (c) 10 minutes before competition, and (d) 10 minutes postcompetition. Results indicated that RWL associated with reporting higher confusion and greater total mood disturbance at each assessment point. Rapid weight loss also associated with high anger at the official weigh-in. However, in performance, RWL did not have deleterious effects on performance. The RWL group also reported greater total mood disturbance at all assessment points with a moderate difference effect size. Research supports the notion that RWL associates with potentially dysfunctional mood states.
    • Lower extremity horizontal work but not vertical power predicts lower extremity injury in female collegiate dancers

      Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Schock, Catherine S; Caswell, Shane V; Cortes, Nelson; Hansen-Honeycutt, Jena; Wyon, Matthew A (Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2018-07-01)
      Lower extremity horizontal work but not vertical power predicts lower extremity injury in female collegiate dancers. J Strength Cond Res 32(7): 2018-2024, 2018-Dancers often perform powerful and explosive movements that require adequate lower extremity (LE) activity in horizontal and vertical directions. We examined whether these measures were interrelated and whether they predicted LE injury status in dancers using binary logistic regressions and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Forty-three collegiate female dancers (18 ± 0.7 years; 162.6 ± 5.9 cm; 59.4 ± 7.1 kg) performed single leg hop (SLH, m) and vertical jump (VJ, cm) tests. Single leg hop and VJ distances were used to calculate SLH norm (as a % of body height) and vertical power (vPower, watts). Lower extremity injuries and dance exposure hours (DEhrs) were recorded for 16 weeks. Dancers had 51 injuries resulting in a 3.7/1,000 DEhr injury incidence rate (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7-4.7). Twenty dancers were injured, whereas 23 remained injury free. Injured dancers had significantly lower SLH norm than noninjured dancers (t = 2.7, p = 0.009, 85.2 ± 11.2% vs. 76.8 ± 8.4%, respectively), but vPower was similar (t = 0.6, p = 0.53, injured = 2,632.0 ± 442.9 watts, noninjured = 2,722.7 ± 480.0 watts). SLH norm, but not vPower significantly predicted injury status χ(1,43) = 5.9, p = 0.02. Specifically, an SLH norm cut-off value of 78.2% identified dancers at injury risk (area under the curve = 0.73, SE = 0.08, p = 0.01, 95% CI = 0.57-0.89, sensitivity = 0.75, specificity = 0.70). However, vPower was not able to identify dancers at risk (p = 0.36). vPower had moderate relationships with SLH norm (r = 0.31, p = 0.04). Compared with injured dancers, noninjured dancers had greater SLH norm but similar vPower. Only SLH norm predicted injury status in female collegiate dancers. Thus, the SLH test may possibly predict LE injury risk in dancers. Strength and conditioning coaches can prospectively use baseline SLH test screenings to identify dancers whose SLH is less than 78.2% of their height because these dancers may have increased probability of LE injury risk. Coaches can then include horizontal direction exercises when designing training programs and examine whether these programs reduce LE injury risk in female collegiate dancers.