• Developing a basic principles model to inform threshold concepts of public health

      Bellingham-Young, Denise (Journal of Health and Social Care Improvement, 2015-04)
      Education and training is the foundation stone of effective and sustainable improvement in any discipline; public health and social care is no exception. This short communication offers suggestions for a model of public health practice to support educators, trainers and practitioners in developing and continually improving their skill.
    • European women’s views on specialist counselling for female survivors of domestic violence and abuse

      Bohne, S; Carrilho, P; Morgan, Angela; Silva, A; Silva, M (Journal of Health and Social Care Improvement, 2016)
      Counselling for female survivors of domestic violence as practiced in five European countries (United Kingdom - UK, Bulgaria, Italy, the Netherlands and Latvia) was qualitatively explored by researchers in the UK, Germany and Portugal over two years. The effectiveness of current practice was analysed using data from 60 face-to-face interviews with clients who had received counselling. Findings revealed that regardless of which counselling model or approach is used, the effectiveness of specialist domestic violence counselling is dependent upon a positive therapeutic alliance built on mutual trust and respect and, crucially, an understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence and abuse provided by highly qualified counsellors who have received domestic violence training. This article concludes by offering recommendations to inform future funding and policy decisions and avenues for future research.
    • Meta analysis investigating the efficacy of drug treatment and non drug treatment of depression in patients with brain injury

      Bellingham-Young, Denise; Kashif, Mohammed (Journal of Health and Social Care Improvement, 2015-03)
      Objectives: Brain injury may cause different physical and psychological problems, with depression being one of the commonest illnesses associated with brain injury. The aim of this research study is to analyse the effectiveness of non-pharmacological therapies in the treatment of depression in patients following brain injury. Study Design: This is a meta-analysis comparing pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of depression in patients with brain injury. Methods: Electronic data-base search, hand searching of journals and snowballing method was used to collect relevant data for the study. The only studies that have focused on treatment of depression in brain injury patients between the age of 16 - 64 years were included in this research. Results: Data analysis indicated that both modes of treatment are effective. There was no significant difference between pharmacological studies (pooled effect size d+ value is -0.37) and non-pharmacological studies (pooled effect size d+ value of -0.48). Test for heterogeneity is significant for both sets of data and no publication bias is detected for included studies. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest there is no difference in the efficacy of alternative therapies and pharmacological treatments for depression in patients with brain injury.
    • Proposed reforms to UK policy on honour based violence: the big societal divide?

      Eshareturi, Cyril; Morgan, Angela; Lyle, Chris (Journal of Health and Social Care Improvement, 2015-04-01)
      Background: Honour Based Violence results in several deaths each year in the UK and has many health and social implications. In recent years, practitioners have stated that the scale is increasing and that government policies are not making adequate provision to address it as a major problem. Method: The House of Commons Home Affairs Committee report remains the most comprehensive government document on the issue of honour based violence in England and Wales to date. We used the Rist policy cycle framework to critically analyse the Report, dismantling the policy process into three key stages for subsequent independent assessment. Results: Current policy defines and categorises honour based violence differently from domestic violence yet has chosen to tackle it under the rubric of domestic violence. Responses have been constrained by limited capital to adequately finance specialist interventions, lack of expertise, inability to reach individuals who are most susceptible therefore highly vulnerable, and contraction of specialist non-governmental organisations who have always been at the fore in tackling issues on honour based violence. Consequently, the government’s response has been unconvincing and improperly conceptualised by accepting it into the broader context of violence against women and hence domestic violence. Conclusion: Stronger coordinated response at local level is needed but this is where issues of community, integration, tolerance, and the Big Society agenda are made complex and serve to confound new legislation and policy. Overcoming highly sensitive cultural barriers is a key challenge to all. Consequently, we recommend that for honour based violence to be tackled effectively, the government needs to re-access and take a broader view on the issue by constructing honour based violence within the discourse of human rights in order to declare a position that sits easily in the context of cultural differences and the Big Society.
    • Teenage pregnancy in Africa: Trend and Determinants in the 21st Century

      Bellingham-Young, Denise; Odejimi, O (Journal of Health and Social Care Improvement, 2016-07)
      Background: Africa remains one of the continents with the highest levels of teenage pregnancies in the world. In spite of this, there are limited empirical research studies on determinants of teenage pregnancy in Africa. This study aims to investigate the trend and determinants of teenage pregnancy in Africa. Several social and economic factors appear to be the causes of teenage pregnancy in Africa. Therefore, understanding the association between teenage pregnancy and various social and economic factors would help reduce teenage pregnancy rate in Africa. Methods: Data sets from the World Bank Organisation of all Africa countries between 2000 and 2010 were obtained to conduct this study. The trends of average teenage pregnancy rate across all regions were examined using descriptive method. Also, the association between teenage pregnancy rate and various economic and social factors were investigated using multivariate statistics methods. Results: In all 52 countries examined there has been a significant reduction in the African teenage pregnancy rate between 2000 and 2010. In addition, correlation analysis carried out showed an inverse significant relationship with life expectancy, literacy rate and contraceptive prevalence. Further analysis reveals that female literacy rate is the most important predictor of teenage pregnancy in Africa. Conclusion: The findings of this research indicate that social and economic factors are important predictors of teenage pregnancy rate in Africa. Evidence from this study suggests that a practical approach to reducing the current teenage pregnancy rate is to develop strategies and policies that support and promotes female literacy.