• Adult education, social transformation and the pursuit of social justice

      Tuckett, Alan (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-09)
      At first sight, adult education lacks capacity to contribute significantly to social transformation for social justice. Except perhaps in the Nordic countries, adult education sits, overwhelmingly, at the margins of public educational systems with limited budgets, modest levels of professional staffing, and, at best, variable facilities. The 2015 Education For All Global Monitoring Report (GMR) reports that ‘adult education in high income countries appears to have mostly served those who completed secondary education rather than adults who lack basic skills’ (UNESCO, 2015, p. 109; OECD, 2013). It states that, after 25 years of global targets giving priority to reducing illiteracy, 781 million adults still lack literacy, and, of them, 64% are women, a percentage that has remained unchanged since 1990; and that ethnic and linguistic minorities, disabled adults, rural and indigenous communities benefit little from programmes. It also finds that such literacy gain as there has been in most countries can be explained by cohort change – better-schooled young people displacing less-skilled older adults in the population (UNESCO, 2015). To borrow a memorable phrase of Helena Kennedy, it seems that ‘If at first you don’t succeed, you don’t succeed’ (FEFC, 1997).
    • Intensive care nurses' experiences of providing end-of-life care after treatment withdrawal: a qualitative study.

      Efstathiou, Nikolaos; Walker, Wendy (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-02)
      Aim and objectives. To explore the experiences of intensive care nurses who provided end-of-life care to adult patients and their families after a decision had been taken to withdraw treatment. Background. End-of-life care following treatment withdrawal is a common phenomenon in intensive care. Less is known about nurses’ experiences of providing care for the dying patient and their family in this context, when compared to specialist palliative care. Design. Descriptive exploratory qualitative study. Methods. A purposive sample of 13 intensive care nurses participated in a semi-structured face-to-face interview. Transcribed data was analysed using the principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results. The essence of nurses’ experiences of providing end-of-life care after the withdrawal of treatment was interpreted as doing the best to facilitate a comfortable and dignified death’. Four master themes included: caring for the dying patient and their family; providing and encouraging presence; reconnecting the patient and family; and dealing with emotions and ambiguity. Uncertainties were evident on processes and actions involved in treatment withdrawal, how to reconnect patients and their family effectively and how to reduce the technological environment. Conclusions. Providing end-of-life care after a decision has been taken to withdraw treatment was a common aspect of intensive care. It was evident that nurses were doing their utmost to support patients and families at the end of life, despite the multiple challenges they faced. Relevance to clinical practice. The interpretive findings from this study should assist intensive care unit nurses to better understand and develop their role in providing high-quality end-of-life care after treatment withdrawal. Practice guidelines should be developed to reduce ambiguity and support the delivery of high-quality care for adults as they approach the final stages of life in intensive care units.
    • Scaling concept II rowing ergometer performance for differences in body mass to better reflect rowing in water

      Nevill, Alan M.; Beech, C.; Holder, Roger L.; Wyon, Matthew A. (John Wiley & Sons, 2010)
      We investigated whether the concept II indoor rowing ergometer accurately reflects rowing on water. Forty-nine junior elite male rowers from a Great Britain training camp completed a 2000m concept II model C indoor rowing ergometer test and a water-based 2000msingle-scull rowing test. Rowing speed in water (3.66 m/s) was significantly slower than laboratory-based rowing performance (4.96m/s). The relationship between the two rowing performances was found to be R2528.9% (r50.538). We identified that body mass (m) made a positive contribution to concept II rowing ergometer performance (r50.68, Po0.001) but only a small, non-significant contribution to single-scull water rowing performance (r50.039, P50.79). The contribution that m made to single-scull rowing in addition to ergometer rowing speed (using allometric modeling) was found to be negative (Po0.001), confirming that m has a significant drag effect on water rowing speed. The optimal allometric model to predict single-scull rowing speed was the ratio (ergometer speed m 0.23)1.87 that increased R2 from 28.2% to 59.2%. Simply by dividing the concept II rowing ergometer speed by body mass (m0.23), the resulting ‘‘powerto- weight’’ ratio (ergometer speed m 0.23) improves the ability of the concept II rowing performance to reflect rowing on water.
    • Serological activity to the matrix component of endogenous virus HERV-K10 in rheumatoid arthritis

      Nelson, Paul N.; Rylance, Paul; Veitch, A.; Nevill, Alan M. (John Wiley & Sons, 2010-12)