• Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Multistage Dance Specific Aerobic Fitness Test (DAFT)

      Wyon, Matthew A. (J. Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2003)
      The aim of this study was to design a multistage dance-specific aerobic field-test that would indicate whether a dancer had the cardiorespiratory capabilities to cope with the demands of dance class and performance. The test consisted of five progressively demanding dance sequences. The technical level of each stage was kept as simple as possible to reduce the effect of economy of movement so that the emphasis of the test was physiologically based rather than skill orientated. The reliability of the stage workloads was measured via oxygen uptake and heart rate using a telemetric gas analyzer. After an initial familiarization trial, subjects (n = 56: 24 males and 32 females) undertook the test twice within 48 hours. The results showed significant differences in oxygen requirement and heart rates between stages (F [4, 172] = 803.522; p < 0.001) and gender (p < 0.01). The HR-VO2 relationship for the test was r = 0.94; n = 3336; p < 0.001 and the SEE was ± 4.506. Reliability of the DAFT was calculated by determining the coefficient of variation (CV) expressed as a percentage and the percentage change in the mean between trials (%Δmean). CV ranged between 1.4 and 6.0 and %Δmean between 0.2 and 6.3 for the stages. The use of dance specific moves and specific levels of the test equating to the mean oxygen demands of class and performance confirmed that logical validity had been achieved. Possible applications to the dance world are the monitoring of heart rate at each of the stages during the year; setting of a target stage attainment for an individual’s readiness to undertake class or performance after injury and/or, setting specific aerobic capabilities for dancers post-holiday or for guest artists (below a specific mean heart rate during a designated stage).
    • Pathoanatomy of Anterior Ankle Impingement in Dancers

      Russell, Jeffrey A.; Kruse, David W.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A. (J. Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2012)
      Articles from the anatomy, orthopaedic, and radiology literature since 1943 were reviewed, and possible sources of anterior ankle impingement were identified therein. There are both osseous and soft tissue causes of impingement symptoms. Anterior impingement in dancers may be induced by repetitive dorsiflexion during demi-plié where the anterior edge of the distal tibial articular surface contacts the dorsal neck of the talus. It also can be associated with the sequelae of lateral ankle sprain, including a hypertrophic tissue response, or simply by impingement of anatomically normal ligamentous structures. Dance medicine clinicians should be familiar with the pathoanatomy and etiologies of this clinical entity in order to effectively provide care for dancers who suffer from it.
    • Strengths and Weaknesses of Current Methods for Evaluating the Aerobic Power of Dancers

      Wyon, Matthew A.; Redding, E. M.Sc. (J. Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2003-03)
      Abstract The methods of measuring aerobic power in dance is reviewed. The underlying metabolic pathways used during dance class and performance are examined and, in conclusion, dance has been classified as an intermittent form of exercise. The relevancy of measuring maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in relation to intermittent exercise is discussed with regard to other sports. Previous dance VO2max data is examined in relationship to other exercise forms and it is shown to be comparable to results in other non-endurance sports. The limitations of graded exercise tests with regards to extrapolating oxygen data from heart rates during dance has been highlighted as a flaw in a number of previous research studies and a limitation to be aware of in future research. Due to the infancy of dance science, the availability of valid and reliable laboratory and field tests are limited and, therefore, until further research is done, there needs to be a reliance on tests developed in the health and sport environments. Such tests should be graded, either in speed or gradient, with stages of at least 3 minutes and be weight-bearing. Even though no research to date has shown that dancers with improved VO2max perform better, the review suggests that both the aerobic and anaerobic systems need to be stressed to a greater extent than seen presently within dance class.