• Injuries, amenorrhea and osteoporosis in active females

      Myszkewycz, Lynn; Koutedakis, Yiannis (J Michael Ryan, 1998)
      Menstrual abnormalities, and the associated osteoporotic disorders, are becoming increasingly common in females who are engaged in heavy training and exercise schedules. Such conditions may lead to a significant decrease in vertebral bone density, and an increase in injuries to the hip, ankle, foot, and wrist. In general, fracture frequency increases as bone mineral density decreases. Many researchers have linked various factors, including nutrition, low body weight, low caloric intake, hormonal status, and psychological and physiological stress, to the cause of amenorrhea. However, controversy still exists about the actual etiology of the disorder, although it is most probably multifactorial. Whatever the actual etiology, the frequency of bone-related injuries has increased dramatically over the last few decades along with the increased popularity of dance and sports and the increased demands placed upon both female dancers and athletes.
    • Warm-up. A brief review

      Volianitis, Stefanos; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Carson, Ray J. (J Michael Ryan, 2001)
      This review critically examines the literature on warm-up in relation to various physical-fitness components in dance. Due to the scarcity of published scientific work specifically focussed on dance, relevant reports from other physical activities have also been included. Prior to the main components of dance class or performance, dancers normally engage in a preliminary activity known as warmup, which is aimed at enhancing performance and preventing injury. The general consensus is that warm-up is associated with positive effects on aerobic and anaerobic fitness parameters as well as on flexibility, muscular strength,and power. Individuals suffering from exercise-induced asthma may also benefit from warm-up. The main gain arising from warm-up seems to be related to temperature increases. However, there seems to be no agreement among scientists on the proper intensity, type, or duration of warm-up. Further research, performed with elite performers, may provide more insights on the dose-response relationship.