• Comparisons between adolescent bullies, victims, and bully-victims on perceived popularity, social impact, and social preference

      Guy, Alexa; Lee, Kirsty; Wolke, Dieter (Frontiers Media SA, 2019-11-22)
      This study investigated the effect of bullying role, i.e., bully, victim, and bully-victim, on three measures of peer status; perceived popularity, social preference, and social impact. In addition to completing peer nominations for these measures of peer status, adolescents (n = 2,721) aged 11 to 16 years from 5 secondary schools completed an online survey that assessed bullying involvement (self- and peer-reported), self-esteem, and behavioral difficulties. Compared to uninvolved adolescents, all bullying roles had a greater social impact. Bullies scored higher than all other roles for perceived popularity, whereas victims and bully-victims were the lowest in social preference. These significant group comparisons remained when controlling for demographic variables, behavioral difficulties, self-esteem and prosocial behavior. Overall, the perceived popularity found for bullies suggests that these adolescents are socially rewarded by peers for their victimization of others. These findings highlight the need to address the whole peer system in raising the social status of those who are victimized, whilst reducing the rewards received by bullies for their behavior.
    • A complex story: universal preference vs. individual differences shaping aesthetic response to fractals patterns

      Street, Nichola; Forsythe, Alexandra M; Reilly, Ronan; Taylor, Richard; Helmy, Mai S (Frontiers Media SA, 2016-05-24)
      Fractal patterns offer one way to represent the rough complexity of the natural world. Whilst they dominate many of our visual experiences in nature, little large-scale perceptual research has been done to explore how we respond aesthetically to these patterns. Previous research (Taylor et al., 2011) suggests that the fractal patterns with mid-range fractal dimensions (FDs) have universal aesthetic appeal. Perceptual and aesthetic responses to visual complexity have been more varied with findings suggesting both linear (Forsythe et al., 2011) and curvilinear (Berlyne, 1970) relationships. Individual differences have been found to account for many of the differences we see in aesthetic responses but some, such as culture, have received little attention within the fractal and complexity research fields. This two-study article aims to test preference responses to FD and visual complexity, using a large cohort (N = 443) of participants from around the world to allow universality claims to be tested. It explores the extent to which age, culture and gender can predict our preferences for fractally complex patterns. Following exploratory analysis that found strong correlations between FD and visual complexity, a series of linear mixed-effect models were implemented to explore if each of the individual variables could predict preference. The first tested a linear complexity model (likelihood of selecting the more complex image from the pair of images) and the second a mid-range FD model (likelihood of selecting an image within mid-range). Results show that individual differences can reliably predict preferences for complexity across culture, gender and age. However, in fitting with current findings the mid-range models show greater consistency in preference not mediated by gender, age or culture. This article supports the established theory that the mid-range fractal patterns appear to be a universal construct underlying preference but also highlights the fragility of universal claims by demonstrating individual differences in preference for the interrelated concept of visual complexity. This highlights a current stalemate in the field of empirical aesthetics.
    • An evaluation of personal cooling systems for reducing thermal strain whilst working in chemical/biological protective clothing

      Bach, AJE; Maley, MJ; Minett, GM; Zietek, SA; Stewart, KL; Stewart, IB; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. (Frontiers Media SA, 2019-04-12)
      © 2019 Bach, Maley, Minett, Zietek, Stewart and Stewart. Objective: The use of personal cooling systems to mitigate heat strain on first-responders achieves two potential performance benefits relative to the absence of such cooling: (1) the completion of a workload with less effort; and/or (2) the completion of a greater workload for the same effort. Currently, claims made by manufacturers regarding the capability of their products for use in conjunction with chemical/biological protective clothing remain largely unsubstantiated. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the means by which heat strain can be alleviated during uncompensable heat stress in chemical/biological clothing, using the ASTM F2300-10 methodology. Methods: Eight healthy males completed five trials of continuous walking (4.5 km h-1; 35°C; 49% RH) for up to 120 min while wearing one of four cooling systems and/or a National Fire and Protection Association 1994 Class-3 chemical/biological ensemble. The four cooling methods (ice vest [IV], phase-change vest [PCM], water-perfused suit [WS], and combination ice slurry/ice vest [SLIV]) and no cooling (CON). Results: We observed significant improvements in trial times for IV (18 ± 10 min), PCM (20 ± 10 min) and SLIV (22 ± 10 min), but no differences for WS (4 ± 7 min). Heart rate, rectal, mean skin, and body temperatures were significantly lower in all cooling conditions relative to control at various matched time points in the first 60 min of exercise. Thermal sensation, comfort and perceived exertion all had significant main effects for condition, and time, there were no differences in their respective interactions. Conclusion: The IV, PCM, and SLIV produced lower heart rate, mean skin, rectal and mean body temperatures in addition to improved work times compared to control. The WS did not improve work times possibly as a result of the cooling capacity of the suit abating, and magnifying thermal insulation. Considering the added time and resources required to implement combination cooling in the form of ice slurry and ice vest (SLIV), there was no significant additive effect for perception, cardiovascular strain, rectal temperature and total trial time relative to the phase change vest or ice vest alone. This may be a product of a "ceiling" effect for work limit set to 120 min as part of ASTM F2300-10.
    • Gender differences in the relationship between sleep problems and suicide attempt in adolescents

      Wan, Y; Xu, H; Wang, S; Boyda, D; McFeeters, D; Sun, Y; Zhang, S; Chen, R; Tao, F; Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. (Frontiers Media SA, 2020-02-28)
      © Copyright © 2020 Wan, Xu, Wang, Boyda, Mcfeeters, Sun, Zhang, Chen and Tao. There are few studies examining which types of sleep problems are independently associated with suicide attempt (SA) and gender difference in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine whether specific sleep problems were uniquely associated with suicide attempt in adolescents and explore gender differences in the association. A school-based health survey was conducted in four provinces within China from November 2014 to January 2015. A total of 15,132 students aged 10–21 years completed standard questionnaires assessing past 12 month suicide attempt in addition to measures of sleep quality, quantity and sleep beliefs. 5.4% of participants reported a suicide attempt within the last 12 months. After adjustment for sociodemographic variables and psychological symptoms, almost all sleep problems remained significantly associated with a greater endorsement of suicide attempt. Further adjustment for co-occurring sleep problems revealed that weekday sleep duration (<6, 8–10, and ≥10 h), insomnia (often), and nightmares (sometimes and often) remained independently associated with suicide attempt in boys (p < 0.05). However in girls, weekday sleep duration (<6 and ≥10 h), weekend sleep duration (<6 h), midday nap (0 or 1–2 d/week), insomnia (sometimes and often), nightmare (often) and sleep beliefs (high) were independently associated with suicide attempt (p < 0.05). Multiple sleep problems are associated with suicide attempt in adolescents, however the relationship varies by gender.