• The development and validation of the feedback in learning scale

      Jellicoe, Mark; Forsythe, Alexandra (Frontiers, 2019-08-14)
      Research attention has shifted from feedback delivery mechanisms to supporting learners to receive feedback well (Winstone et al., 2017a). Recognizing feedback and the action necessary to take the next steps are vital to self-regulated performance (Zimmerman, 2000; Panadero, 2017). Evaluative judgments supporting such mechanisms are vital forces that promote academic endeavor and lifelong learning (Ajjawi et al., 2018). Measuring such mechanisms is well-developed in occupational settings (Boudrias et al., 2014). Understanding how these relate to self-regulated learning gains in Higher Education (HE) is less well-understood (Forsythe and Jellicoe, 2018). Here we refined a measure of feedback integration from the occupational research domain (Boudrias et al., 2014) and investigate its application to HE. Two groups of psychology undergraduates endorsed perspectives associated with feedback. The measure examines characteristics associated with feedback including message valence, source credibility, interventions that provide challenge, feedback acceptance, awareness, motivational intentions, and the desire to make behavioral changes and undertake development activities following feedback. Of these suggested characteristics, exploratory factor analysis revealed that undergraduate learners endorsed credible source challenge, acceptance of feedback, awareness from feedback, motivational intentions and the desire to take behavioral changes and participate in development activities formed a single factor. The structure of the instrument and hypothesized paths between derived factors was confirmed using latent variable structural equation modeling. Both models achieved mostly good, and at least acceptable fit, endorsing the robustness of the measure in HE learners. These finding increase understanding of HE learner's relationship with feedback. Here, acceptance of feedback predicts the extent to which learners found the source of feedback credible. Credible source challenge in turn predicts awareness resulting from feedback. Subsequently, awareness predicts motivations to act. These promising results, whilst cross-sectional, also have implications for programmes. Further research employing this instrument is necessary to understand changes in learner attitudes in developing beneficial self-regulated skills that support both programmes of study and graduates in their careers.
    • Environmental influences on elite sport athletes' well being: From gold, silver, and bronze to blue green and gold

      Donnelly, Aoife A; MacIntyre, Tadhg E; O'Sullivan, Nollaig; Warrington, Giles; Harrison, Andrew J; Igou, Eric R; Jones, Marc; Gidlow, Chris; Brick, Noel; Lahart, Ian; et al. (Frontiers, 2016-08-04)
      This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment. By combining methods and expertise from diverse but inter-related disciplines including environmental psychology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, environmental science, and epidemiology, a transdisciplinary approach will facilitate a greater understanding of the effects of the environment on Olympic athletes.
    • Methodological considerations for documenting the energy demand of dance activity: a review.

      Beck, Sarah; Redding, Emma; Wyon, Matthew (Frontiers, 2015-05-06)
      Previous research has explored the intensity of dance class, rehearsal, and performance and attempted to document the body's physiological adaptation to these activities. Dance activity is frequently described as: complex, diverse, non-steady state, intermittent, of moderate to high intensity, and with notable differences between training and performance intensities and durations. Many limitations are noted in the methodologies of previous studies creating barriers to consensual conclusion. The present study therefore aims to examine the previous body of literature and in doing so, seeks to highlight important methodological considerations for future research in this area to strengthen our knowledge base. Four recommendations are made for future research. Firstly, research should continue to be dance genre specific, with detailed accounts of technical and stylistic elements of the movement vocabulary examined given wherever possible. Secondly, a greater breadth of performance repertoire, within and between genres, needs to be closely examined. Thirdly, a greater focus on threshold measurements is recommended due to the documented complex interplay between aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Lastly, it is important for research to begin to combine temporal data relating to work and rest periods with real-time measurement of metabolic data in work and rest, in order to be able to quantify demand more accurately.
    • Seeing more than human: autism and anthropomorphic theory of mind

      Atherton, Gray; Cross, Liam (Frontiers, 2018-04-17)
      Theory of mind (ToM) is defined as the process of taking another’s perspective. Anthropomorphism can be seen as the extension of ToM to non-human entities. This review examines the literature concerning ToM and anthropomorphism in relation to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), specifically addressing the questions of how and why those on the spectrum both show an increased interest for anthropomorphism and may even show improved ToM abilities when judging the mental states of anthropomorphic characters. This review highlights that while individuals with ASD traditionally show deficits on a wide range of ToM tests, such as recognizing facial emotions, such ToM deficits may be ameliorated if the stimuli presented is cartoon or animal-like rather than in human form. Individuals with ASD show a greater interest in anthropomorphic characters and process the features of these characters using methods typically reserved for human stimuli. Personal accounts of individuals with ASD also suggest they may identify more closely with animals than other humans. It is shown how the social motivations hypothesized to underlie the anthropomorphizing of non-human targets may lead those on the spectrum to seek social connections and therefore gain ToM experience and expertise amongst unlikely sources.