• Differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in AGS gastric epithelial cells by cag+ and cag- Helicobacter pylori.

      Keates, Sarah; Keates, Andrew C.; Warny, Michel; Peek, Richard M.; Murray, Paul G.; Kelly, Ciaran P. (American Association of Immunologists, 1999)
      The aim of this study was to determine whether Helicobacter pylori activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in gastric epithelial cells. Infection of AGS cells with an H. pylori cag+ strain rapidly (5 min) induced a dose-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) MAP kinases, as determined by Western blot analysis and in vitro kinase assay. Compared with cag+ strains, cag- clinical isolates were less potent in inducing MAP kinase, particularly JNK and p38, activation. Isogenic inactivation of the picB region of the cag pathogenicity island resulted in a similar loss of JNK and p38 MAP kinase activation. The specific MAP kinase inhibitors, PD98059 (25 microM; MAP kinase kinase (MEK-1) inhibitor) and SB203580 (10 microM; p38 inhibitor), reduced H. pylori-induced IL-8 production in AGS cells by 78 and 82%, respectively (p < 0.01 for each). Both inhibitors together completely blocked IL-8 production (p < 0.001). However, the MAP kinase inhibitors did not prevent H. pylori-induced IkappaBalpha degradation or NF-kappaB activation. Thus, H. pylori rapidly activates ERK, p38, and JNK MAP kinases in gastric epithelial cells; cag+ isolates are more potent than cag- strains in inducing MAP kinase phosphorylation and gene products of the cag pathogenicity island are required for maximal MAP kinase activation. p38 and MEK-1 activity are required for H. pylori-induced IL-8 production, but do not appear to be essential for H. pylori-induced NF-kappaB activation. Since MAP kinases regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, programmed death, stress, and inflammatory responses, activation of gastric epithelial cell MAP kinases by H. pylori cag+ strains may be instrumental in inducing gastroduodenal inflammation, ulceration, and neoplasia.