• Validation of a Feedback in Learning Scale; behaviourally anchoring module performance

      Jellicoe, Mark; Forsythe, Alexandra (7th International Assessment in Higher Education Conference, Manchester UK, 2019-06-01)
      Research attention has seen a move away from feedback delivery mechanisms to those that support learners to receive feedback well (Winstone, Nash, Parker, & Rowntree, 2017). Recognising feedback and the action necessary to take the next steps are vital to self-regulated task performance (Panadero, 2017; Zimmerman, 2000). The evaluative judgements which support these mechanisms are vital forces that support academic endeavour and lifelong learning (Ajjawi, Tai, Dawson, & Boud, 2018). Whilst measuring such mechanisms is well developed in occupational settings (Boudrias, Bernaud, & Plunier, 2014), understanding how these relate to self-regulated gains in learning is less well understood (Forsythe & Jellicoe, 2018). Two groups of psychology undergraduates at a University in the north-west of England endorsed perspectives associated with feedback integration. Here we refined a measure of feedback integration from the occupational research domain (Boudrias, Bernaud, & Plunier, 2014) and considered its application to gainful learning in Higher Education. The measure examines process characteristics including message valence, source credibility, and the challenge associated with feedback interventions. Action characteristics included acceptance of feedback, awareness, motivational intentions, and the desire to make behavioural changes and undertake development activities as a result of feedback. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the nature of feedback integration. Exploratory factor analysis in the first cohort revealed that undergraduate learners endorsed a single process feedback factor, which we termed credible challenge. Message valence was not endorsed by learners and therefore was dropped. From the action characteristics, learners endorsed four factors. These include acceptance of feedback, awareness, motivational intentions. Finally, the desire to take behavioural changes and participate in development activities was collapsed into a single factor. The structure of the instrument was confirmed in confirmatory factor analysis. Both models achieved mostly good, and at least acceptable fit measures endorsing the robustness of the measure in these participants. The results confirmed here in two samples of undergraduate psychology students increase understanding in a number of ways. Firstly, this increases our understanding of how students relate to feedback. These results suggest that a credible challenge may lead to greater student acceptance and awareness resulting from feedback. Together, these may lead to greater motivations to make self-regulated gains during learning. These promising results, whilst cross-sectional, also have implications for programmes. Further research employing this instrument is necessary to understand changes in learner attitudes in developing beneficial self-regulated skills that support both programmes of study and graduates in their careers