• Inspired by Freire: From literacy to community. How the ideas of Paulo Freire shaped work in the UK

      Tuckett, Alan; Lavender, Peter (AONTAS, 2020-12-31)
      This article reviews the adult literacy campaign in the 1970s in the United Kingdom (UK) and the influence of Paulo Freire’s thinking on how we worked. We argue that much adult literacy provision had been designed to ‘domesticate’ rather than ‘liberate’. The mid-1970s ‘Right to Read’ campaign in the UK rejected this approach (BAS, 1974). The use by tutors of the language and the experience of learners led in part to the publication of student writing, creating reading materials and approaches that were different, and challenging to existing power structures. Emancipatory adult literacy work could not withstand the arrival of substantial government funding in 2001, which brought a new Skills for Life government strategy, together with new teacher-training, new standards and literacy qualifications. Also, in the 1970s and 1980s progressive educators and the institutions for whom they worked developed initiatives which focused on under-represented and marginalised groups, asking ‘who isn’t there, and what can be done about it?’ The result was a renewed development of outreach work, better understanding of what helps and hinders participation, and improved progression routes for individuals. One aspect of this development flowed directly from the literacy work in the 1970s – the participation of volunteers as ‘fellow learners’. Looking at educational work with older people in care homes, volunteers from among local university students acted as co-learners in a charity which illustrates Putnam’s (2000) ‘generalised reciprocity’. We consider that Freire’s legacy emerges among voluntary action as much as it does in literacy programmes.
    • The effects of integrating children from lower and upper primary school years during lunch times on physical activity and social behavior

      Devonport, Tracey; Powell, Emma; Nevill, Alan; Brady, Abbe (United States Sports Academy, 2020-12-31)
      The present study examined physical activity (PA) and play behaviors of primary school children (N = 210) during segregated and mixed age group play. We hypothesised that providing more choice regarding who to play with would (1) increase PA and (2) reduce anti-social behaviors among children. In a mixed-method design, lunch time observations were recorded using the System for Observing Children’s Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP, Ridgers et al., 2010). These were completed whilst children were physically separated by lower (hereafter referred to as key-stage-one: four-seven years of age) and upper (hereafter referred to as key-stage-two: eight-11 years of age) primary year play, and following integrated age group play. Two playground supervisors and the head teacher were interviewed to ascertain perceptions of behavior under the two conditions. Observational results indicated moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased significantly for mixed play. Significant reductions in anti-social physical behaviors were also observed post-integration. Qualitative results indicate playground supervisors and the head teacher perceived increased post-integration PA to improve post lunch break classroom behavior and reduce anti-social physical and verbal behaviors. Findings illustrate the benefits of mixed age group play for increased physical activity and pro-social behaviors.
    • Writing the history of the present

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2020-12-31)
      Teaching in The Age of Covid-19 ‘Teaching in The Age of Covid-19’ (Jandrić et al. 2020) presents 80 textual testimonies and 79 home workspace photographs submitted by 83 authors from 19 countries. Collected between 18 March and 5 May 2020, the testimonies and photographs describe uncanny feelings, daily experiences and challenges, and emergency solutions, developed by worldwide academics at the very beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic. Supplemented with one editor’s introduction at the beginning, and another editor’s reflections at the end, these messy and unpredictable texts and images have now obtained the form of a ‘proper’ piece of academic writing. Yet appearance deceives; as we found out early into the project, this collection can be read in many different ways. At a time when local and global surveys are contributing insights on how the move to online learning and teaching is being experienced (Watermeyer et al. 2020), we explain why this particular collection is both different, but also complementary, to other studies. Each contribution to ‘Teaching in The Age of Covid-19’ (Jandrić et al. 2020) is a standalone authored work, that is both distinct and diverse. Some texts and images are small artistic masterpieces; others more focused to the ‘scientific’ side of things; and many contributions, neither particularly artistic nor very scholarly, provide a wealth of insights into the everyday life and practice of teachers and students during the very beginning of lockdown. We have a lot of appreciation for great arts, and new ideas are the bread and butter of academic inquiry. Yet ‘Teaching in The Age of Covid-19’ is not primarily about beautiful storytelling and / or novel ideas.
    • Low back pain and injury in ballet, modern, and hip-hop dancers: a systematic literature review

      Ambegoankar, Jatin; Wyon, Matthew; Smith, Tina; Henn, Erica (International Federation of Sports Physical Therapy, 2020-12-31)
      Background: Anecdotally, low back pain is a common complaint for many dancers; a comparison across recent research is needed to support or disprove this theory across genres. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of low back pain and low back injury in ballet, modern, and hip-hop dancers through a systematic literature review. A secondary goal was to identify trends amongst dance genres, level of mastery, gender, and age, if possible. Study Design: Literature review. Methods: PRISMA search strategy terms between November 2017 and March 2018 with an ADA grading evaluation and a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Risk of Bias assessment. Twenty-five ballet articles, 5 modern, and 3 hip-hop met the inclusion criteria. Results: Prevalence of low back pain or injury seems relatively high in ballet dance; little research exists on the prevalence of back pain in hip-hop or modern dancers. Twenty-five of the 33 studies relied on a questionnaire to gather their data. Conclusion: Ballet dancers are at risk for low back pain or injury independent of gender, age or level of mastery; there is not enough evidence to draw any conclusions about modern dancers or hip-hop dancers and their relationship to low back pain/injury currently. Future studies need a higher level of evidence and a reduced risk of bias. What is known about the subject: There are several injury studies on ballet dancers, but they report ‘low back pain’ or ‘injury’ as a footnote to other injuries. Few studies use modern and hip-hop dancers as participants. The research on ballet dancers fluctuates wildly in reported prevalence, and differing reporting methods prevent direct comparison. What this study adds to existing knowledge: This study illuminates the dearth of research, especially those of high-quality and non-ballet participants. This study aims to call attention to this gap and promote vigorous scholarship for related research moving forward.
    • Teaching in the age of Covid-19

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2020-12-31)
    • Conversation analysis, cyberpsychology and online interaction

      Meredith, Joanne (Wiley-Blackwell, 2020-12-01)
      In this paper, I explore how conversation analysis can be used as a method for analysing online interaction. As the number and quantity of online communication platforms have proliferated, there has been a growing interest in social psychology about the impact and effectiveness of online, text-based communication. A number of theories have been used and developed to explain how online communication might impact upon relationships and effective communication. However, this paper argues that in order to explore the differences between online and offline interaction an analysis of online behaviour is needed. Conversation analysis allows for an in-depth, sequential and discursive analysis of real-life online interactions. It can explore the ways in which the affordances of the interactional platforms are oriented to or made relevant in the interaction. The utility of conversation analysis is demonstrated through a number of examples, highlighting how this method can be used to broaden our understanding of how online communication works in practice.
    • Injury occurrence in hip hop dance: An online cross-sectional cohort study of breakers

      Tsiouti, Nefeli; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2020-12-01)
      Breaking is the most physical of the hip hop dance styles, but little research has examined the health and well-being of its participants. Using a cross-sectional recall design a self-report online health and wellbeing survey was open for a 5-month period. 320 adult break dancers (16% professional, 65% student/recreational) with a minimum of 6-months experience completed the survey. The main outcome measures were self-report injury incidence and aetiology and training hours. Respondents (52%) trained between 4-9 hours per week over 3 days; significantly less than theatrical dancers. 71.1% reported a dance-related injury and 44.5% reporting being currently injured at time of survey. Self-reported types of injury were significantly different from other dance genres; the most frequently injured were arms/hands (40.6%), shoulders (35.9%), knees (32.2%), neck (22.8%) and ankles (15.6%). When injured, 29% respondents either took their own preventative steps or continued to dance carefully, 20% sought medical professional help; “yourself” was the most cited influence on returning to dance after injury (47%). The current survey highlighted the potential differences between different dance genres particularly regarding injury incidence and aetiology.
    • A Population-Based Analysis of Interpersonal Trauma, Psychosis, and Suicide: Evidence, pathways, and implications

      Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Katie, Dhingra; Kelleher, Ian (SAGE, 2020-12-01)
      Background: Subthreshold psychotic experiences are known to confer a risk for suicidality. Yet, despite evidence of a strong aetiological trauma-psychosis pathway, the coalesced effect of such concurrences on suicide risk is largely discounted. Objective: Our aims were to examine the impact of different manifestations of lifespan trauma and psychotic-like experiences (PE) on the risk of suicidal thoughts and attempts using an exploratory person-centred approach. Method: Data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N= 7,403) was analysed. Psychotic-like experiences were assessed using the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) alongside items probing childhood and adult trauma, in addition to twelve-month suicide thoughts and attempt. Results: A manual 3-step latent class analysis elicited four distinct profiles, namely a socially disconnected/high PE, a sexual victimisation/moderate PE, a lifespan trauma/low PE and a baseline class. The socially disconnected class, characterised by a moderate likelihood of social disconnection, a high probability of various PE endorsements, yet a low likelihood of other significant trauma, showed the greatest risk of twelve-month suicide ideation (OR=13.0, 95%CI=8.539 – 19.021) and attempt (OR=24.2, 95%CI=10.349 – 56.860). Conclusions: Neither multiple nor recurrent traumatic experiences invariably result in the emergence of PEs. Instead, a sense of social disconnection may be either resultant of PEs, or alone sufficient to cultivate such symptom presentations, even in the absence of prior traumas. Moreover, just as traumatic encounters increase the risk of suicidality, so too might seemingly more innocuous adversities such as poor-quality social relationships further elevate the risk, particularly when proximal and coupled with the simultaneity of PEs.
    • England's Summer of Sport 2017

      Biscomb, Kay; Leflay, Kath (Taylor & Francis, 2020-12-01)
      The summer of 2017 heralded an interesting layering of English elite women’s sports events as major competitions were held in cricket, football, rugby and hockey. Uniquely this was the first occasion when these competitions were held during the same summer period and England was the only team to participate in all four events. This presents an opportunity to examine British print media coverage of elite English women, across a range of sports tournaments during a confined season. A qualitative analysis of British print media was undertaken for each of the four tournaments. Eighty nine articles from four national newspapers were analysed and results demonstrate emergent themes of International success, Performance and Role Models. These themes are discussed in the context of an accumulation of successful coverage, third wave feminism and the framing of the achievements resulted in the portrayal of the sports women as authentic athletes.
    • Further support for the role of heroism in human mate choice

      Bhogal, Manpal; Bartlett, James (APA, 2020-12-01)
      Although evidence suggests that altruistic behavior can act as a mating signal, little research has explored the role of heroism in mate choice. Previous research has focused on women only, ignoring the role of heroism in male mate choice. Here, we extended and replicated previous research on the role of heroism in human mate choice. Participants (N=276) rated how desirable targets were for a short-term and long-term relationship, which varied in heroism. The findings showed men and women reported higher desirability for heroic targets for long-term compared to short-term relationships, although this pattern was more prominent in women. These findings add support to the role of heroism in mate choice by exploring the role of heroism in male and female mate choice.
    • Examining the management of stake and interest in a participatory design Facebook group

      Meredith, Joanne; Galpin, Adam; Robinson, Leslie (Taylor & Francis, 2020-12-01)
      This paper analyses the micro-dynamics of a participatory design (PD) Facebook group for breast screening. We argue that using online PD methods enables participants to be fully involved throughout the research process and can lead to meaningful outcomes and impact for the research. It is important to ensure that all stakeholders are equally involved in the research. As such, understanding how a user’s stake or interest is managed can help to uncover how professionals and lay people participate together in such groups. A case study approach is adopted, with an example presented from a PD Facebook group established to develop a web resource around breast screening. 70 threads from the Facebook group were analysed in a naturalistic way using discursive psychology. The analysis shows how participants aimed to manage the dilemma of being seen as interested due to their professional identities through referring to joint membership of the design group. However, there were still challenges in ensuring that lay members’ contributions were not diminished by more professional members. The analysis suggests that in an online PD group, moderators may be needed to ensure that potential conflicts of interest are managed appropriately and all members’ views are heard.
    • The efficacy of different vitamin D supplementation delivery methods on serum 25(OH)D: a randomised double-blind placebo trial

      Wyon, Matthew; Wolman, Roger; Martin, Clare; Galloway, Shaun (Elsevier, 2020-12-01)
      Background: The use of vitamin D supplementation has increased due to greater recognition of widespread deficiency. Aims: There has been little research on the effectiveness of different delivery methods and therefore the aim of was to test the efficacy of different delivery methods on serum 25(OH)D. Methods: Using a randomised repeated measures double-blind placebo design (registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT03463642), changes in serum 25(OH)D over a 4-week period using a capillary spot method were monitored. 62 female participants blindly chose a number related to a supplementation delivery method: pill placebo, pill, oral liquid, oral liquid placebo, Skin oil application (SOA) placebo, SOA plus vitamin D3 suspension, or SOA plus vitamin D3 suspension with essential oil enhancer; active vitamin D supplements contained 100,000IU. Participants took their allocated supplements over a 24-hr period with serum 25(OH)D retested 4 weeks later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was applied to dried blood spot samples by an independent laboratory. Results: ANCOVA reported a significant difference between the groups (F1,6=146.68; p<0.001, eta2 =.51). Separate analysis within the delivery methods (pill, SOA, oral liquid) indicated significant differences between the active and placebo supplementation groups (p<0.01). Post hoc analysis of absolute changes indicated vit D pill and SOA + vit D + essential oil had significant increases (p<0.05) in serum 25(OH)D compared to all other interventions with no significant difference between them. Conclusions: In human participants vitamin D oral pill has the greatest effect on serum 25(OH)D levels. Skin oil application delivery of vitamin D using a penetrator enhancer has also been shown to be an effective method of delivery.
    • ‘Academics online’: Self-promotion, competition and celebrification

      Bartram, Brendan; Bartram, Brendan (Routledge, 2020-10-30)
    • Emotional eating: Implications for research and practice in elite sports contexts

      Devonport, Tracey; Nicholls, Wendy; Chen-Wilson, Jo (Routledge, 2020-08-31)
    • Queering the TEF

      Bartram, Brendan; French, Amanda; Caruthers Thomas, Kate (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2020-08-06)
      Taken at face value, it may initially seem difficult to argue with the sentiments enshrined in the rhetoric that surrounds the TEF – raising the status of teaching in Higher Education, re-balancing its relationship with research, incentivising institutions to focus on the quality of teaching, and making them more accountable for “how well they ensure excellent outcomes for their students in terms of graduate-level employment or further study” (OfS, 2018:1). Clearly, these are laudable aspirations that will chime with anyone who believes in the importance of students experiencing an education that enriches and transforms them and their potential. Drawing on Fraser and Lamble’s (2015) use of queer theory in relation to pedagogy, however, this chapter aims to expose the TEF not just “as a landmark initiative that is designed to further embed a neoliberal audit and monitoring culture into Higher Education” (Rudd, 2017: 59) but as a constraining exercise that restrains diversity and limits potential. Although queer theory is more usually linked with gender and sexuality studies, Fraser and Lamble show us that it can be used “in its broader political project of questioning norms, opening desires and creating possibilities” (p.64). In this way, the queer theoretical lens used here helps us to question, disrupt and contest the essentialising hegemonic logics behind the nature and purposes of the TEF, and its effects in HE classrooms. Using the slant-wise position of the homosexual (Foucault, 1996), this queer analysis of the TEF can thus be helpful as a politically generative exercise in opening up space for new possibilities.
    • “A confident parent breeds a confident child.” Understanding the experience and needs of parents whose children will transition from paediatric to adult care

      Heath, Gemma; Shaw, Karen; Baldwin, Lydia (SAGE, 2020-06-30)
      Transitional care for young people with long-term conditions emphasises the importance of supporting parents, particularly in relation to promoting adolescent healthcare autonomy. Yet little practical guidance is provided and transitional care remains suboptimal for many families. This study aimed to examine how parents understand and experience their care-giving role during their child’s transition to adult services, to identify parents’ needs and inform service improvements. Focus groups were undertaken with parents of young people with Brittle Asthma, Osteogenesis Imperfecta or Epilepsy. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Participants (n=13) described how their parenting roles extended beyond what they consider usual in adolescence. These roles were presented as time-consuming, stressful and unrelenting, but necessary to protect children from harm in the face of multiple risks and uncertainties. Such protective strategies were also perceived to hinder adolescent development, family functioning and their own development as mid-life adults. Finding a balance between protecting immediate health and long-term wellbeing was a major theme. Participants called for improved support, including improved service organisation. Recommendations are provided for working with parents and young people to manage the risks and uncertainties associated with their condition, as part of routine transitional care.
    • Book review: Austerity and the remaking of European education

      Tuckett, Alan (Taylor and Francis, 2020-06-28)
      Whilst the primary focus of this impressive edited volume is on the ‘long moment of crisis’ arising from the 2008 financial crash and the consequences arising from the decision of national and European Union leaders to respond to it with measures of austerity, Anna Traianou, Ken Jones and their collaborators trace the evolution of education policy making in Europe from the post-war period in which education was a long way from the labour market to its current role across Europe as handmaiden to the market.
    • Reactions to unsolicited violent, and sexual, explicit media content shared over social media: Gender differences and links with prior exposure

      Nicklin, Laura; Swain, Emma; Lloyd, Joanne (MDPI, 2020-06-16)
      While there has been extensive research into consumption of “traditional” forms of explicit sexual and violent media (within pornography, videogames and movies), the informal exchange and viewing of explicit real-world violent and sexual content via social media is an under-investigated and potentially problematic behaviour. The current study used an online survey (n= 225: 169f, 55m, 1x, mean age 30.61 (SD 12.03)) to explore self-reported reactions to unsolicited explicit violent and sexual content that participants had received from friends or contacts. In line with our predictions based on previous studies of fictional explicit content, we found effects of both gender and prior exposure on these reactions. Specifically, females rated both sexual and violent explicit content as significantly less funny and exciting and more disturbing than males did. Amongst males, those with high previous exposure rated violent content as more exciting than those with lower or no prior experience. Regardless of gender, participants with higher exposure to sexual content rated it as funnier than those with mild or no exposure, and those with higher exposure to violent content rated it as more amusing and more exciting. However, contrary to what desensitization theories would predict, prior exposure did not attenuate how disturbing explicit content (of either a sexual or a violent nature) was rated. Multiple avenues for further investigation emerged from this preliminary cross-sectional study, and we suggest priorities for further qualitative or longitudinal work on this novel topic.
    • Back to school Post Covid-19: Rebuilding a better future for all children

      Lalli, Gurpinder; Defeyter, Greta; Shinwell, Jackie; von Hippel, Paul; Henderson, Emily; Brownlee, Iain; Pepper, Gillian; Stretesky, Paul; Long, Michael; McKenna, Jim; et al. (Education Committee, UK Parliament, 2020-06-10)
      This paper provides a summary of the key academic papers for the following areas: learning loss and academic attainment; EdTech interventions and home schooling; physical activity, food insecurity and obesity; and mental health and wellbeing. For each area, the findings from peer-reviewed academic papers are summarised and discussed in terms of relevance to the current Covid-19 pandemic. The latter half of the paper provides, for each area, a range of research informed short-, mid- and long-term school based strategies, policies and interventions to advise the UK government for pupils returning to school. The early adoption of these proposals will support teachers, parents and children and provide positive messaging to pupils and hence, increase public confidence. Finally, the authors appeal to the concept of human capital, and discuss how schools provide an excellent platform to narrow mid-to-long term health and educational inequalities. The suggestions in this paper converge with action at the international level; with many key agencies (UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank and World Food Programme) making the case for the key role of school food in supporting the back to school movement.
    • The importance of contextualization when developing pressure intervention: An illustration among age-group professional soccer players

      Devonport, Tracey; Kent, Sofie; Lane, Andrew; Nicholls, Wendy (Psychreg, 2020-06-01)
      The need for interventions that help adolescents cope with pressure is widely recognised (Yeager et al., 2018). However, a recent systematic review indicates that contextualising the pressure intervention is often overlooked (Kent et al., 2018) which likely detracts from intervention effectiveness. The focus of contextualisation is to identify from the perspective of intended intervention recipients, pressureinducing incentives, and factors factor facilitative and debilitative of performance under pressure. The present case study illustrates a process of contextualisation among age-group professional soccer players. Thirty-two male academy soccer players (11–12 years, n = 8; 13–14 years, n = 8; 15–16 years, n = 8; 17–18 years, n = 8) participated in one of eight focus groups. Informed by Baumeister and Shower’s (1986) definition of pressure five situational and two personal incentives were deductively identified. Fletcher and Sarkar’s (2012) model of psychological resilience was used to identify perceived protective and debilitative factors of performance under pressure. Supporting contextualisation, recommendation for integrating the identified incentives and protective factors into a pressure training intervention are presented. The resultant understandings are also of value to those working with adolescents.