• Endocrine parameters in association with bone mineral accrual in young female vocational ballet dancers

      Amorim, Tânia; Metsios, George S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Nevill, Alan M.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Wyon, Matthew; Marques, F; Nogueira, L; Adubeiro, N; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; et al. (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose Little is known on bone mass development in dancers involved in vocational training. The aim of the present study was to model bone mineral content (BMC) accruals and to determine whether circulating levels of oestrogens, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) explain differences in bone mass gains between vocational dance students and matched-controls. Methods The total of 67 vocational female dancers (VFD) and 68 aged-matched controls (12.1±1.9yrs and 12.7±2.0yrs at baseline, respectively) were followed for two consecutive years (34 VFD and 31 controls remained in the study for the full duration). BMC was evaluated annually at impact [femoral neck (FN); lumbar spine (LS)], and non-impact sites (forearm) using DXA. Anthropometry, age at menarche (questionnaire) and hormone serum concentrations (immunoradiometric assays) were also assessed for the same period. Results VFD demonstrated consistently reduced body weight (p<0.001) and BMC at all three anatomical sites (p<0.001) compared to controls throughout the study period. Menarche, body weight, GH and IGF-1 were significantly associated with bone mass changes over time (p<0.05) but did not explain group differences in BMC gains at impact sites (p>0.05). However, body weight did explain the differences between groups in terms of BMC gains at the forearm (non-impact site). Conclusion Two consecutive years of vocational dance training revealed that young female dancers demonstrate consistently lower bone mass compared to controls at both impact and non-impact sites. The studied endocrine parameters do not seem to explain group differences in terms of bone mass gains at impact sites.
    • Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Performance Characteristics of Players Within an Elite Youth Football Academy

      Patel, Rickesh; Nevill, Alan; Cloak, Ross; Smith, Tina; Wyon, Matthew (SAGE, 2019-12-31)
      A professional English football club with Category 1 academy status was investigated to determine the magnitude of relative age effects (RAE) within the club and explore between quartile differences for somatic maturity, anthropometry and physical performances. Birth dates of 426 players from Under 9 to First Team were categorised into four birth quartiles (Q) and examined for RAEs. Additionally, data on 382 players (Under 11 to First Team) were obtained for somatic maturity, anthropometry, countermovement jump, sprint (10 and 30 m), agility T-Test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 or 2 performance to determine between-quartile differences. Odds ratios revealed Q1 players were 6.0 times more likely to be represented than Q4 players. Multilevel modelling demonstrated similarities between-quartile for each variable across all age groups, though there was a tendency for Q4 players to outperform Q1 players between Under 11 and Under 18 groups. Strong RAEs exist within this club as well as a tendency to select players demonstrating advanced growth and/or maturity, with some indication that higher categorised academies in England may be at risk of amplified selection biases. Talent identification strategies in elite youth football should actively seek to adopt novel approaches to reduce selection biases and avoid wasted potential.
    • Fit to Dance Survey: elements of lifestyle and injury incidence in Chinese dancers

      Dang, Yanan; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine, Inc., 2019-12-31)
      The Fit to Dance survey has been conducted a number of times using primarily Western participants and has provided foundation data for other studies. The purpose of the current study was to replicate the Fit to Dance 2 survey focusing on features of health and injuries in pre-professional and professional Chinese dancers of different genres. Results revealed that respondents (n=1040) were from Chinese Folk dance (44.4%), Chinese Classical Dance (25.6%), ballet (10.2%) and contemporary dance (9.8%). Compared to the Fit to Dance 2 survey, alcohol consumption (29% vs 82%; p<0.01) and smoking (13% vs 21%; p<0.05) were significantly less in Chinese dancers, but a higher percentage reported using weight reducing eating plans (57% vs 23%; p<0.01) or having psychological issues with food (27% vs 24%; p<0.05). Reported injuries in a 12-month period prior to data collection were significantly lower in the current survey (49% vs 80%; p<0.01). The type of injury (muscle and joint/ligament) and perceived cause of injury (fatigue, overwork and reoccurrence of an old injury) were the same in both the current and previous survey. Mean injury rate for the studied 12-month period ranged from 4.9 injuries per dancer (contemporary) to 3.4 injuries per dancer (Chinese Folk dance) which is comparable to previously reported data on western dance populations. This survey has provided the first comprehensive data on the health and injury incidence of Chinese dancers.
    • Living under occupation: Palestinian teachers’ experiences and their digital responses

      Traxler, John; Khaif, Zuheir; Nevill, Alan; Affouneh, Saida; Salha, Soheil; Zuhd, Ali; Trayek, Fuad (University of Wales Press, 2019-12-31)
      Unlike most neighbouring countries in the region, teachers in the occupied territories of Palestine face extraordinary conditions and challenges. These are due to the continued Israeli occupation. This paper reports on a large-scale survey of Palestinian teachers. It explores the impact of the occupation on the professional lives of the teachers around Nablus, and indirectly on their students and communities, and on their digital responses. Follow-up focus groups explore their feelings, experiences and reactions, providing greater insights into this complex and troubling situation. The paper underpins further work on appropriate digital literacy. It does however also provide an insight into the challenges to rigorous fieldwork outside the mainstream of the developed North and specifically in a region of conflict and occupation.
    • School related gender based violence: an intersectional approach

      Tsouroufli, Maria (Herriot Watt University, 2019-12-31)
      Despite increasing attention to SRGBV, little consideration has been given to the multiple identities of teachers and students and their role in perceptions and performances of SRGBV. This paper explores the intersections of gender with constructs of ethnicity, culture, religion and sexuality norms and enactments of SRGBV in three secondary schools in England. It draws on qualitative interview data collected for the project ‘Developing Gender Equality Charter Marks in order to overcome gender stereotyping in education across Europe’. The intersectionality of gender with sexual norms emerged in essentialist views about female academic and professional competence and normative expectations of sexual conduct, sustaining a culture of gender disrespect and a gender regime in which SRGBV was the penalty of transgressions of gender and sexual norms and the means to reiterate male privilege in two schools. The intersectionality of gender with culture, ethnicity and religion emerged in one of the three schools in teachers’ discourses of ethnic deficit associated with perceived lack of ability, freedom, and choice in ethnic minority girls’ lives and inappropriate expressions of sexuality that diverted from white British norms. Further research is required to enhance knowledge about the performances of SRGBV alongside other axes of power and discrimination.
    • Where quality counts: The perceived influence of in-hospital care on family donation decisions

      Walker, Wendy; Nicholls, Wendy; Rodney, Amanda (ELPAT, 2019-12-31)
      Background: Theoretically, public support for deceased organ donation may be high, yet the availability of organs for transplantation remains a global concern. A key area of organ loss is the rate of family consent to donation. Families are necessary partners in the organ donation process, and their related experiences are known to influence donation decisions. Aim: This presentation provides insight into the perceived influence of in-hospital care on family donation decision-making. The study findings are derived from a systematic review and thematic synthesis of secondary research involving family members who experienced an approach for organ donation in a hospital setting. Method: A protocol was developed and registered in an international database of prospective systematic reviews. Studies were identified by searching three electronic databases, Google search engine and by hand-examination of relevant research reports. Study selection was supported by the application of predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Specifically, we sought to include qualitative studies of European, Australasian and North American (Western world) origin, reported in English and published over the past two decades. A date range of 1998-2018 was guided by an early theoretical argument that the rates of organ donation could be increased by enhancing the quality of hospital care (DeJong et al. 1998). A process of thematic synthesis (Thomas and Harden 2008) was used to extract and combine family-reported experiences of care. Results: Descriptive themes depicting donor and non-donor family narrative accounts of the donation process revealed the significance of the care experience in the organ donation decision. At the analytic stage we aim to generate a comprehensive set of quality care indicators that can be used as a basis for evidence-informed practice development and as an item pool for questionnaire design. Evaluation and measurement present opportunity to elicit the key components of care foremost in improving the rates of family consent to deceased organ donation.
    • Should patients be denied access to total joint replacement surgery because they are obese?

      Jester, Rebecca (Elsevier, 2019-12-31)
      Since 1990 The World Health Organisation (WHO) has raised concerns about increasing rates of obesity in both children and adults. Once considered a problem only in high income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. WHO defines individuals who have a BMI between 25-29.9 as overweight and a BMI of 30 or over as obese. Obesity is subdivided into 3 classes: class 1 BMI 30-34.9, class 2 BMI 35-39.9 and class 3 BMI of 40 or over. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular and cancer. In our speciality the impact of overweight and obesity on development of osteoarthritis in load bearing joints is well documented. Increasing numbers of people with severe OA of the knee joint requiring TKR is a global challenge in the developed world with TKR in-patient costs exceeding $9 billion in 2008 in the USA alone- the highest aggregate cost among the ten procedures for which demand is growing fastest. Between, 2005-2030 the demand for primary TKR in the US is projected to grow by 673% or 3.48 million procedures annually (Tomek et al, 2012).
    • Measuring training load in dance: the construct validity of session-RPE

      Surgenor, Brenton; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine Inc, 2019-12-31)
      The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) is a practical and non-invasive method that allows a quantification of internal training load (ITL) in individual and team sports. As yet, no study has investigated its construct validity in dance. This study examines the convergent validity between the session-RPE method and an objective heart rate (HR)-based method of quantifying the similar ITL in vocational dance students during professional dance training. METHODS: Ten dance students (4 male, 20±1.16 yrs; 6 female, 20±0.52 yrs) participated in this study. During a normal week of training, session-RPE and HR data were recorded in 96 individual sessions. HR data were analysed using Edwards-TL method. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the convergent validity between the session-RPE and Edwards-TL methods for assessing ITL in a variety of training modes (contemporary, ballet, and rehearsal). RESULTS: The overall correlation between individual session-RPE and Edwards-TL was r=0.72, p<0.0001, suggesting there was a statistically significantly strong positive relationship between session-RPE and Edwards-TL. This trend was observed across all the training modes: rehearsal sessions (r=0.74, p=0.001), contemporary (r=0.60, p=0.001), and ballet (r=0.46, p=0.018) sessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that session-RPE can be considered as a valid method to assess ITL for vocational dance students, and that notably there is some variation between session-RPE and HR-based TL in different dance activities. Med Probl Perform Art 2019;34(1):1–5.
    • A conversation analysis of asking about disruptions in method of levels psychotherapy

      Cannon, Caitlyn; Meredith, Joanne; Speer, Susan; Mansell, Warren (Wiley, 2019-12-31)
      Background: Method of Levels (MOL) is a cognitive therapy with an emerging evidence base. It is grounded in Perceptual Control Theory and its transdiagnostic nature means techniques are widely applicable and not diagnosis-specific. This paper contributes to psychotherapy process research by investigating a key technique of MOL, asking about disruptions, and in doing so aims to explore how the technique works and aid the understanding of related techniques in other psychotherapies. Method: Conversation Analysis (CA) is applied to asking about disruptions in twelve real-life therapeutic interactions. Findings: Analyses explore how and when therapists ask about disruptions, with examples presented according to their degree of adherence to the MOL approach. The majority of identified instances project responses consistent with MOL aims; encouraging further talk, focused on the client’s problem, and with a shift to meta-level commentary. Also presented are examples of therapist and client influence on disruptions. Conclusion: The paper provides support for a number of MOL practices, with clinical implications and links to other psychotherapies highlighted.
    • Indigenous Languages of Scotland: culture and the classroom

      Matheson-Monnet, Catherine; Matheson, David; Bell, Robert; Broadfoot, Patricia; Cowen, Robert; Ferrer, Ferran (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      Scotland’s indigenous languages were, for very many years, under attack. The Gaelic of the Highlands and Western Isles, arguably one of the earliest written European languages, after Greek and Latin, had a brief apotheosis around 1000CE when it was the language of the Scottish Royal Court. Scots, spoken by the mass of the people, was the language of the renowned Mediaeval poets known as the Makars. Gaelic was effectively ignored but for attempts, by the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, to engender transient bilingualism in order to have the Gaelic diminished and then forgotten. Following the accession of the James VI of Scotland to the throne of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland, the Authorised Edition of the Bible was commissioned and published but only in English, no Scots version being deemed necessary. After the Union of the Parliaments in 1707, what prestige remained to the Scots language diminished rapidly and henceforth almost the entire written output from Scotland has been in English. Exceptions have included Hugh MacDiarmid’s poetry, Liz Lochhead’s translation into Scots of Molière’s Tartuffe (1664/1986), which toured urban working-class areas in the 1980s and to great acclaim, and Trainspotting.
    • Paradoxical paradigm proposals

      Traxler, John; Read, Timothy; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Barcena, Elena (Federación Argentina de Asociaciones de Profesores de Inglés, 2019-12-31)
      The concept of paradigms gives us the capacity to look analytically at historical scientific and intellectual episodes in a broader framework. It does however potentially also give us the capacity to look more analytically at contemporary scientific and intellectual activity and make conjectures and predictions. This paper looks at various contemporary pedagogic paradigms, including language learning and mobile learning, and suggests both their failings and then their replacement by an over-arching pedagogic paradigm more suited to societies permeated by personal digital technologies. This might be called the mobility, learning and language paradigm. The paper uses these examples as a way of exploiting paradigmatic thinking in order to catalyse intellectual progress.
    • Challenges to concordance: theories that explain variations in patient response

      Jester, Rebecca; Green, Julie (Mark Allen Publishing Ltd., 2019-12-31)
      The meet the challenges of an increasingly ageing and multimorbid population, there is an urgent need to fully engage the patient to work in partnership with their health care professional in the management of their condition(s). Without this consistent approach to partnership working with the patient, there is a real concern that the National Health Service (NHS) will not be able to cope with demand. The NHS Long Term Plan (2019) outlines a range of envisioned goals to manage these increasing demands, including hospital admission avoidance, shorter length of hospital stays through enhanced recovery pathways, increased management of patients within primary care and the need to ensure a person-centred approach to care provision. The Plan (NHS, 2019) suggests that these goals will, at least in part, be achieved by patient empowerment, informed shared decision-making, and enhanced self-management. This is predicated on health care professionals (HCP) being equipped to empower patients using the skills of motivational interviewing, a person-centred focus care delivery and a willingness to share decision making. Alongside HCP requirements, there needs to be a willingness on the part of the patient to engage in shared decision making and self- management is also necessary. With the impact of effective patient engagement being significant and concordance being the goal, why do some patients engage with advice and agreed treatment plans whereas others seem to do everything possible, or so it appears, to follow a different plan? This article presents a range of psychological theories that go some way to explaining the day to day challenges that are faced in the delivery of care. Awareness of these theories may provide an insight that enables health care professionals to target their approach to care delivery more effectively, to understand patient responses and, therefore, optimise the provision of person-centred care.
    • Between the post and the com-post: Examining the postdigital ‘work’ of a prefix

      Sinclair, Christine; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2019-11-26)
      In examining the work of the prefix ‘post’, we aim to contribute to the current postdigital dialogue. Our paper does not provide a rationale for the use of ‘postdigital’ in the title of this journal: that has been thoroughly explored elsewhere. We want instead to consider the work the prefix might do. We look at ‘post’, as it appears to ‘act’ in the terms of ‘postmodernism’ and ‘posthumanism’, suggesting that modernism and humanism are in need of questioning and reworking. We also examine what gets ‘post-ed’, or sometimes ‘com-posted’. (Com- is another interesting prefix, meaning ‘with’.) We then consider how these inquiries inform our understanding of a ‘postdigital reality’ that humans now inhabit. We understand this as a space of learning, struggle, and hope, where ‘old’ and ‘new’ media are now ‘cohabiting artefacts’ that enmesh with the economy, politics and culture. In entering this postdigital age, there really is no turning back from a convergence of the traditional and the digital. However, this is not simply a debate about technological and non-technological media. The postdigital throws up new challenges and possibilities across all aspects of social life. We believe this opens up new avenues too, for considering ways that discourse (language-in-use) shapes how we experience the postdigital.
    • Modern foreign language learning: The impact of parental orientations on student motivation

      Martin, Christopher (The International Academic Forum (IAFOR), 2019-09-27)
      This study investigates the possible relationships between parental orientations towards language learning and their child’s motivation to learn a foreign language at school. Data were collected from 495 students and 107 parents in four secondary schools in the wider West Midlands conurbation of England. A mixed-methods research design encompassing both quantitative and qualitative data collection was adopted with the aim of gaining a multidimensional view. Questionnaires were given to both parents and students, measuring six motivational constructs: general motivation; sense of achievement in modern foreign language (MFL) learning, internal/external attribution of performance in MFL learning, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. The mean values for parents and students for each construct were correlated to see if there was a relationship between them. The findings indicate that, for four of the five constructs, there are moderate to strong positive relationships that were statistically significant. Furthermore, the data suggest that parents are less motivated when it comes to MFL learning than their children. This study is part of a wider doctoral research project, the next stage of which involves the collection of qualitative data through semistructured interviews in order to explore the nature of the relationships found in the quantitative analysis.
    • Dancers’ heart: Cardiac screening in elite dancers

      Metsios, George; Wyon, Matthew; Patel, Kiran; Allen, Nick; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Taylor & Francis, 2019-09-24)
      Using electrocardiography and echocardiography, we screened elite men and women ballet dancers for abnormal cardiovascular conditions using an observation design with blinded clinical analysis of cardiac function tests. Fifty-eight (females n=33) elite professional ballet dancers (age: 26.0±5.7 years, body mass index: 19.9±2.2 kg/m2) with no past or present history of cardio vascular disease volunteered. Participants were assessed via a 12-lead electrocardiography and two-dimensional echocardiography for cardiac function. Electrocardiography revealed that 83% of our dancers demonstrated normal axis, while 31% had incomplete right bundle branch block and 17% had sinus bradycardia; none showed any abnormal findings. Findings from the echocardiography were also normal for all participants and comparable to their counterparts in other sports. Significant differences (p<0.05) were detected in almost all studied echocardiographic parameters between males and females. In conclusion, heart function and structure seem to be normal in elite ballet dancers, placing them at low risk for sudden cardiac death and performance-related cardiovascular complications. Larger samples are required to confirm these findings.
    • Factors influencing a secondary school physical education teacher’s role as a pastoral head of year

      Burrows, Adam; O’Leary, Nick (Informa UK Limited, 2019-09-11)
      Utilising the occupational socialisation theoretical framework, this United Kingdom based case study explored how a secondary school physical education teacher fulfilled the head of year role and what childhood, university and on-the-job experiences influenced execution of this role. Data were collected from interviews, lesson observations and a self-reflective journal. Inductive data analysis and constant comparison identified that the participant attempted to be an ‘administrative finisher’ and ‘empower’ staff, parents and pupils. These aims were influenced by the de-prioritisation of physical education, a desire to retain control of administrative situations, and the influence of past and present teachers. To overcome the issues that the dual roles of head of year and subject teacher present, it is recommended that a ‘timetabled’ period at the beginning and/or end of the day be utilised for important head of year tasks, and greater formal responsibility is given to the assistant head of year. The findings of this study suggest further research possibilities. Firstly, there is a need to examine the influence of teaching other subjects whilst undertaking the head of year role. Secondly, investigating the impact of childhood and university socialisation upon teachers’ fulfilment of other pastoral and/or leadership roles such as head of department, deputy head or head teacher appears warranted.
    • Aspiring to higher education? Choice, complexity and confidence in secondary students’ decision-making

      Brown-Williams, Zeta; Rhoades, Gavin; Smith, Matthew; Thompson, David (BESA, 2019-09-10)
      This article reports on a programme designed to encourage young people who are currently in secondary school (age range 11-18) to apply to university. Explore University is a collaborative outreach programme provided by a small group of Higher Education Institutions in the West Midlands and Staffordshire areas of the UK. Participants were 46 high school students aged 14-16 years old. There has been increasing importance placed on the value of appropriate Information, Advice and Guidance (IAG) for students considering attending university in the UK (Diamond et al., 2014). A wide range of diverse factors, contexts and behaviours impact on how IAG is accessed and consumed, and how decisions about progression to higher education are made (Moogan & Baron, 2003). Q-methodology (Q) was used in this study as it was believed that this approach could find communalities in participants’ perspectives that may not have been apparent had more traditional data collection methods been used. Four factors were produced that represented a range of different perspectives on attending university. The findings were associated with young people’s self-perception as learners and the influence these perceptions had on their strength of commitment to attend university. These findings are relevant to any consideration of both IAG at secondary school and widening participation in higher education at a time when there are increasing financial pressures on university recruitment, and smaller pools of diverse potential applicants being targeted.
    • The experiences of orthopaedic and trauma hospital care from the perspectives of adults with an intellectual/learning disability in England, UK: An interpretative phenomenological analytical study

      Drozd, Mary; Chadwick, Darren; Jester, Rebecca (RCN, 2019-09-03)
      Introduction: Musculoskeletal conditions and injuries are prevalent in people with intellectual disabilities and have significant impacts on wellbeing. This study was important as this group seldom have their voices heard and their experiences valued and interpreted. Aim: To better understand the orthopaedic and trauma hospital experiences from the perspective of people with an intellectual disability. Methods: A qualitative perspective focusing on peoples’ lived experiences was utilized. A purposive sample of five participants was recruited and one-to-one, semi-structured interviews were undertaken. Analysis of the interviews employed an interpretative phenomenological analytical framework. Results: A cross-case comparison was undertaken and the themes below represent common experiences across participants: • Communication problems. • Lack of person-centred care. • Issues related to pain. • Lack of confidence in hospital care. • The support of carers. • Incompetence of hospital staff. • Loneliness. Implication for practice: Specific and on-going education and training of health care staff is required to improve orthopaedic and trauma care for people with an intellectual disability around: • Effective communication • Regular and competent pain assessment and management • Including and valuing carers of adults with an intellectual disability • Person-centred care for all
    • Abiraterone in “high-” and “low-risk” metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer

      Hoyle, Alex P; Ali, Adnan; James, Nicholas D; Cook, Adrian; Parker, Christopher C; de Bono, Johann S; Attard, Gerhardt; Chowdhury, Simon; Cross, William R; Dearnaley, David P; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2019-08-23)
      Background Abiraterone acetate received licencing for use in only “high-risk” metastatic hormone-naïve prostate cancer (mHNPC) following the LATITUDE trial findings. However, a “risk”-related effect was not seen in the STAMPEDE trial. There remains uncertainty as to whether men with LATITUDE “low-risk” M1 disease benefit from androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) combined with abiraterone acetate and prednisolone (AAP). Objective Evaluation of heterogeneity of effect between LATITUDE high- and low-risk M1 prostate cancer patients receiving ADT + AAP in the STAMPEDE trial. Design, setting, and participants A post hoc subgroup analysis of the 2017 STAMPEDE “abiraterone comparison”. Staging scans for M1 patients contemporaneously randomised to ADT or ADT + AAP within the STAMPEDE trial were evaluated centrally and blind to treatment assignment. Stratification was by risk according to the criteria set out in the LATITUDE trial. Exploratory subgroup stratification incorporated the CHAARTED criteria. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The primary outcome measure was overall survival (OS) and the secondary outcome measure was failure-free survival (FFS). Further exploratory analysis evaluated clinical skeletal-related events, progression-free survival (PFS), and prostate cancer-specific death. Standard Cox-regression and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were employed for analysis. Results and limitations A total of 901 M1 STAMPEDE patients were evaluated after exclusions. Of the patients, 428 (48%) were identified as having a low risk and 473 (52%) a high risk. Patients receiving ADT + AAP had significantly improved OS (low-risk hazard ratio [HR]: 0.66, 95% confidence interval or CI [0.44–0.98]) and FFS (low-risk HR: 0.24, 95% CI [0.17–0.33]) compared with ADT alone. Heterogeneity of effect was not seen between low- and high-risk groups for OS or FFS. For OS benefit in low risk, the number needed to treat was four times greater than that for high risk. However, this was not observed for the other measured endpoints. Conclusions Men with mHNPC gain treatment benefit from ADT + AAP irrespective of risk stratification for “risk” or “volume”. Patient summary Coadministration of abiraterone acetate and prednisolone with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with prolonged overall survival and disease control, compared with ADT alone, in all men with metastatic disease starting hormone therapy for the first time.
    • The placebo and nocebo effect on sports performance: A systematic review

      Hurst, Phillip; Schipof-Godart, Lieke; Szabo, Attila; Raglin, John; Hettinga, Florentina; Roelands, Bart; Lane, Andrew; Foad, Abby; Coleman, Damian; Beedie, Chris (Taylor & Francis, 2019-08-20)
      The aim of this review was to determine the magnitude of the placebo and nocebo effect on sport performance. Articles published before March 2019 were located using Medline, Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, Science Direct, and Scopus. Studies that examined placebo and nocebo effects of an objective dependent variable on sports performance, which included a control or baseline condition, were included in the analysis. Studies were classified into two categories of ergogenic aids: 1) nutritional and 2) mechanical. Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated from 32 studies involving 1,513 participants. Small to moderate placebo effects were found for both placebo (d = 0.36) and nocebo (d = 0.37) effects and when separated by nutritional (d = 0.35) and mechanical (d = 0.47) ergogenic aids. The pooled effect size revealed a small to moderate effect size across all studies (d = 0.38). Results suggest that placebo and nocebo effects can exert a small to moderate effect on sports performance.