• Investigating the experience of viewing extreme real-world violence online: naturalistic evidence from an online discussion forum

      Stubbs, Joshua; Nicklin, Laura; Wilsdon, Luke; Lloyd, Joanne (SAGE, 2023-06-30)
      This study investigates the psychological impact of viewing user-generated content depicting extreme real-world violence. Eight threads were harvested from publicly accessible online discussion forums in which people 17 discussed their experiences of witnessing real-world torture, maiming, or death online. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to systematically analyse these threads. The themes capture the contradictory ways in which people react to viewing extreme real-world violence online, with some finding it intensely distressing and others using it as a resource for psychological grounding or (perceived) strengthening. Based on this analysis, we highlight pathways that may lead to the cessation or continuation of viewing such content and argue that greater research on this seemingly common but under-studied experience is warranted.
    • Determining pointe readiness in young adolescent female dancers: A systematic review

      Hough-Coles, Kelly; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-12-31)
      Dancing 'en pointe' is an integral aspect of ballet for female dancers who start pointe training in young adolescence. The primary objective of this review was to investigate the screening tests used to determine pointe readiness in young adolescent female dancers, and the secondary objective was to determine the injuries associated with pointe training. The search engines Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were mined using Medical Subject Heading terms "pointe", "pointe readiness", "injury", "young", "adolescent", "female", "dancer" and a manual search of relevant articles was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: females; aged 8-20 years; pre-pointe, training en pointe; pointe-related injury. Search strategy followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The following data were extracted; first author, year of publication, study design, participant size, mean age, testing, outcome, and general notes of each study. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Research Triangle Institute Item Bank (RTI-IB). Eight cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. Results suggested topple, airplane, sauté, and relevé tests are statistically better determinants of pointe readiness than chronological age alone. Utilising these methods alongside age, strength, body maturation, range of motion (ROM), and teacher evaluation could provide an all-round insight into a dancer's readiness for pointe. However, the included studies had contradictory outcomes with regards to pointe-related injury and the review's conclusions are limited by methodological design.
    • Postdigital critical pedagogy

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah; Abdi, Ali A; Misiaszek, Greg William (Palgrave, 2022-12-31)
    • Nobody needs a label’: Responses on Facebook to a Team GB equity, diversity and inclusion initiative

      Devonport, Tracey; Biscomb, Kay; Leflay, Kath; Richardson-Walsh, Helen; Richardson-Walsh, Kate; Thelwall, Mike (Taylor & Francis, 2022-12-31)
      In support of the UK Stonewall Rainbow Laces Campaign, which focuses on supporting LGBTQ+ people, the British Olympic Association “Team GB” changed their Facebook logo to ‘Team LGBT+’ for a Day. Using reflexive thematic analysis, we assessed public reactions to an official Facebook post explaining the temporary logo change. During polarised debate, opposition was rarely expressed using directly homophobic sentiments but instead argued that the initiative was divisive by highlighting difference and would be ineffective, reflecting defensive conservative strategies to avoid supporting marginalised groups. Others, engaging in substantial online discussions, claimed to be upset about LGBTQ+ issues being forced on them. Proponents explained the purpose of the Day and the positive impact it could have. Findings suggested the importance of explaining that supporting one marginalised group does not undermine the rights of others, the ongoing difficulties that many face, and that the current situation is not a level playing field.
    • Brief remote intervention to manage food cravings and emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic: a pilot study

      Devonport, Tracey (Frontiers Media, 2022-12-31)
      As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic people have endured potentially stressful challenges which have influenced behaviours such as eating. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of two brief interventions aimed to help individuals deal with food cravings and associated emotional experiences. Participants were 165 individuals residing in United Kingdom, Finland, Philippines, Spain, Italy, Brazil, North America, South Korea, and China. The study was implemented remotely, thus without any contact with researchers, and involved two groups. Group one participants were requested to use daily diaries for seven consecutive days to assess the frequency of experience of their food cravings, frequency of giving in to cravings, and difficulty resisting cravings, as well as emotional states associated with their cravings. In addition to completing daily food diaries, participants in group two were asked to engage in mindful eating practice and forming implementation intentions. Participants assessed their perceived changes in eating, wellbeing, and health at the beginning and end of the intervention. Repeated measures MANOVAs indicated that participants experienced significantly less food cravings (i.e., craving experience, acting on cravings, difficulty resisting), as well as lower intensities of unpleasant states associated with cravings across time (T1 vs. T7). In contrast to our hypothesis, the main effects of the group (food craving diary vs. food craving diary and mindful eating practice) were not significant. Participants reported less eating and enhanced wellbeing at the end of the study (T7 vs. T1). Our findings can be used to inform future remote interventions to manage food cravings and associated emotions and highlight the need for alternative solutions to increase participant engagement.
    • ‘Silence is the sentence’: adult learners’ experiences of a co-created curriculum constructed through free writing tasks

      Scott, Howard; Bennett, Pete (Liverpool John Moores University, 2022-12-31)
      This paper outlines the pedagogical approaches taken on a University Access course, teaching predominantly mature students on a 12-week ‘inclusion in education’ module. The methods aimed to validate and develop literacy and academic skills for students undertaking undergraduate courses. Practice on the programme of study, replicated over three years, is informed by transformative learning theories. We outline how our developing praxis situates students’ self-concepts in confronting past biographical experiences of education and empowers them to improved literacy and purpose. We further propose that such andragogical approaches to teaching and learning can potentially serve as a model for improved literacy practices in post-compulsory education in England – a curriculum and qualification regime in radical need of overhaul and replacement.
    • Hip-Hop party dance: Cardiorespiratory profile and responses to a predefined sequence

      Prates, Claudia Machado; Tsiouti, Nefeli; Fagundes, Alex de Oliveira; Reichert, Thaís; Wyon, Matthew; Haas, Aline Nogueira (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-12-31)
      Hip-hop is a popular dance genre practised worldwide that has gained popularity since the 1970’s. Despite which, studies related to the area and its physiological demands are still scarce. The purpose of this study was to report the cardiorespiratory profile of a group of male and female hip-hop dancers and determine the zones of intensity of a predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. Eight Brazilian professional hip-hop dancers, 4 women and 4 men, mean age 22 ± 2.3 years participated in the study. Using a portable gas analyser (Cosmed K5) their cardiorespiratory variables were measured at two different times: first, during a maximal treadmill test; and later during a predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) were used for calculated the dependent variables: oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and the intensity zones for the predefined hip-hop sequence. Data normality was verified using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was performed to check any sex-related difference (p<0.01). No statistical difference between male and female dancers was found in the cardiorespiratory profile and responses to the predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. On the treadmill, the participants’ VO2peak was 57.3 ± 12.7 ml·kg-1·min-1, and HRmax was 190.0 ± 9.1 b·min-1. The predefined hip-hop party dance sequence was mainly performed (61% of the sequence) in the moderate aerobic zone. However, when the dancers jumped, the intensity of the sequence increased. This information could be used to develop a specific supplementary training protocols for hip-hop dancers, thus helping to improve their physiological fitness parameters and reduce the incidence of injury.
    • Collective writing: the continuous struggle for meaning-making

      Jandrić, Petar; Luke, Timothy; Sturm, Sean; McLaren, Peter; Jackson, Liz; MacKenzie, Alison; Tesar, Marek; Georgina, Stewart; Peter, Roberts; Abegglen, Sandra; et al. (Springer, 2022-12-31)
      This paper is a summary of philosophy, theory, and practice arising from collective writing experiments conducted between 2016 and 2022 in the community associated with the Editors’ Collective and more than 20 scholarly journals. The main body of the paper summarises the community’s insights into the many faces of collective writing. Appendix 1 presents the workflow of the article’s development. Appendix 2 lists approximately 100 collectively written scholarly articles published between 2016 and 2022. Collective writing is a continuous struggle for meaning-making, and our research insights merely represent one milestone in this struggle. Collective writing can be designed in many different ways, and our workflow merely shows one possible design that we found useful. There are many more collectively written scholarly articles than we could gather, and our reading list merely offers sources that the co-authors could think of. While our research insights and our attempts at synthesis are inevitably incomplete, ‘Collective Writing: The Continuous Struggle for Meaning-Making’ is a tiny theoretical steppingstone and a useful overview of sources for those interested in theory and practice of collective writing.
    • A systematic review of inequalities in the mental health experiences of Black African, Black Caribbean and Black-mixed UK populations: implications for action

      Devonport, Tracey; Ward, Gavin; Morrissey, Hana; Burt, Christine; Patel, Rizwanah; Manning, Rachel; Paredes, Rachel; Nicholls, Wendy (Springer, 2022-12-31)
      Background: Measurable differences in the experience and treatment of mental health conditions have been found to exist between different racial categories of community groups. The objective of this research was to review the reported mental health of Black African-Caribbean communities in the UK, determinants of mental health, and interventions to enhance their experiences of mental health services. Method: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement was applied. To be included, papers must be: published in a peer reviewed journal; report on adult populations (over 18) from any of Black African, Black Caribbean or Black mixed people in the UK; and assess (quantitative), or discuss (qualitative) mental health experiences, determinants of mental health, or interventions intended to enhance experiences of mental health services among the target population. The aims, inclusion criteria, data extraction, and data quality evaluation were specified in advance. Searches were conducted using EBSCO (PsychInfo; MEDLINE; CINAHL Plus; psychology and behavioural sciences collection). The search strategy included search terms relating to the aim (see Appendix 1). Risk of bias was assessed using a standard tool, records were organised using Endnote, and data were extracted and synthesised using Microsoft Excel. Results: Thirty-six studies were included, of which 26 were quantitative and six reported exclusively on Black participants. Black populations were less likely to access mental health support via traditional pathways due to stigma and mistrust of mental health services. Black Africans especially, sought alternative help from community leaders, which increased the likelihood of accessing treatment at the point of crisis or breakdown, which in turn increased risk of being detained under the Mental Health Act and via the criminal justice system. Discussion: Findings suggest a cycle of poor mental health, coercive treatment, stigma, and mistrust of services as experienced by Black communities. Evidence was limited by poorly defined ethnic categories, especially where Black populations were subsumed into one category. It is recommended that mental health services work collaboratively with cultural and faith communities in supporting Black people to cope with mental illness, navigate mental health pathways, and provide culturally appropriate advice.
    • In most supermarkets food does not cost £3 per day...’: The impact of the school food voucher scheme during COVID-19

      Lalli, Gurpinder Singh (Wiley, 2022-12-31)
      Households with children eligible for Free School Meals (FSM) are at risk of food insecurity. This paper reports on a rapid-response study that investigated the impact of the school food voucher scheme during the COVID-19 crisis on young people, families and schools. It pays close attention to the reliance of the state on the good will of society and its citizens in feeding those most in need. The capabilities approach is used to highlight factors that inhibited and restricted use of the vouchers to produce the capability of having good nutrition for children in need of free school meals. The approach moves towards creating a society where children and young people are able to lead a life of their own choice and contribute to key policy decisions. This qualitative study funded by the British Education Research Association (BERA) was conducted between September 2020 and March 2021. The study posed two research questions: i) how have schools responded to COVID-19 in relation to food during holiday provision? ii) what have families identified as barriers to accessing the school food voucher scheme? Data collection involved online interviews with young people, schools and organisations (i.e. public health, director from the food industry etc.). The findings highlight the difficulties with accessing and using the school food voucher and implications for future policy directions. Due to this being a small scale study, it is not generalisable to the wider population but does highlight localised issues.
    • Analysis of the physiological response in junior tennis players during short-term recovery: Understanding the magnitude of recovery until and after the 25 seconds rule

      Morais, Jorge E; Bragada, José A; Silva, Rui; Nevill, Alan M.; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Marinho, Daniel A (SAGE, 2022-07-03)
      Literature lacks evidence about the physiological recovery of tennis players between points. This study aimed to: (i) verify the heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) recovery variance in young tennis players from the end of a tennis drill until the 25-s mark and onwards (65-s limit), performed at several intensities, and (ii) test the curve fitting that better characterizes the players’ HR and V̇O2 recovery, from the end of the drill until the 65-s mark. The sample was composed of 13 male tennis players (age: 16.80 ± 1.61 years) recruited from a National Tennis Association. Players were instructed to perform a drill test (“two-line drill wide mode”) based on an intensity increment protocol. Three levels of intensity were used based on the reserve HR and V̇O2. A significance level effect was observed on the HRreserve and V̇O2reserve (P < .001). At all three levels of intensity, the first 25 s were enough to significantly (P < .001) recover the HRreserve and V̇O2reserve. The same significance trend (P < .001) was maintained until the 65 s but with a lower magnitude over time. Overall, the HR and V̇O2 curve fitting indicated a cubic relationship at the three levels of intensity (except the V̇O2 at the first level). Considering the specific test performed, players significantly elicited their physiological profile for every additional 10 s (after the 25-s rule) in the three levels of intensity performed. Despite this being a drill test and not a competitive point, coaches, players, and tennis organizations should be aware of these findings.
    • The impact of treatment with bile acid sequestrants on quality of life in patients with bile acid diarrhoea

      Kumar, Aditi; Galbraith, Niall; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Jain, Manushri; Phipps, Oliver; Butterworth, Jeffrey; Steed, Helen; McLaughlin, John; Brookes, Matthew (BMC, 2022-07-02)
      Background Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) can be severely debilitating and negatively affect patients’ quality of life (QoL). We carried out a multi-centre prospective study exploring QoL outcomes in patients with BAD after treatment with colesevelam. Methods Patients with or without a positive 23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) scan were recruited and categorised into four groups: SeHCAT negative control group (CG), idiopathic BAD, post-cholecystectomy (PC) and post-terminal ileal resection for Crohn’s disease (CD). Patients with a positive SeHCAT were treated with colesevelam and dosing was titrated to symptomatic response. Patients were reviewed at 4- and 8-weekly intervals and QoL was evaluated by EQ-5D-3L, SF-36, IBDQ-32 at each visit (where relevant). Patients with a negative SeHCAT (CG cohort) completed one set of questionnaires before being discharged from the study. Results 47 patients (BAD = 24, PC = 12, CD = 11) completed paired QoL questionnaires before and after treatment and 30 CG patients completed a baseline questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in IBDQ-32 mean scores before and after treatment in CD patients [134.6 (95%CI 112.5–156.6) and 158.4 (136.1–180.6), respectively (p = 0.007). Following treatment, BAD patients had significantly improved mean SF-36 scores in the “Role limitation due to physical health” dimension (p = 0.02) and in the overall mental component summary (p = 0.03). Prior to starting treatment, BAD patients had the lowest scores in the ‘activity’ dimension of the EQ-5D-3L (p = 0.04), which improved significantly after treatment (p = 0.002). Overall, the BAD and CD cohort showed improved mean scores with treatment in all components of the SF-36 and EQ-5D-3L, while the PC cohort showed a general decline in mean scores after treatment. 55% of patients clinically responded to treatment of which 41.7%, 58.3% and 81.8% responded from the BAD, PC and CD groups respectively. Correlations between those deemed as responders with improvements on the SF-36 and EQ-5D dimensions were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our results demonstrate improved QoL in the BAD and CD cohort with treatment. Further larger studies are recommended specifically investigating the PC cohort and whether patients may improve with newer treatments such as FXR agonists.
    • Reflecting on community development research: how peer researchers influence and shape community action projects

      Arnull, Elaine; Kanjilal, Mahuya (Oxford University Press, 2022-06-21)
      This paper explores how the selection of peer researchers influences and shapes peer research projects. It draws on two empirical studies formed from two community action projects in England. Peer research is a method for involving young people as coresearchers within their community or in specific settings such as educational environments and the two projects recruited school children of different ages and ethnic backgrounds; in both cases they were representative of the potential participant population. One project (Community House) was based in a junior school setting and concentrated on evaluating a community centre project. The second project (Knife Angel: Hear My Voice) was a youth work setting and brought together a group of young people to explore an intervention aimed at impacting crime and violence in the local community. This paper discusses how the demographic characteristics of the peer researchers shaped, influenced and impacted the success of both community action projects. We discuss how children and young people bring their unique skills to preparing the questionnaire and dissemination. Using researcher reflexivity, we consider the methodological implications of the findings and contribute to theory building about community action and the impact of participatory research.
    • FELTAG in rearview: FE from the past to the future through plague times

      Scott, Howard; Iredale, Alison; Harrison, Bob; Traxler, John; Smith, Matt (Edward Elgar, 2022-06-16)
    • The relationship of year group and sex on injury incidence and countermovement jump in adolescent ballet dancers: a cross-sectional analysis

      Kolokythas, Nico; Metsios, George S.; Galloway, Shaun; Allen, Nick; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-06-15)
      Introduction: Pre-professional ballet training involves long training hours from an early age that could influence young dancers’ physical performance and injury incidence. This cross-sectional analysis investigated the relationship of year group and sex, with countermovement jump, and injury incidence (primary outcome) in adolescent ballet dancers at a pre-professional dance school. Method: Countermovement jump (CMJ) height was recorded at the start of the academic year on 179 participants (M=68, F=111) spread across eight year-groups. Injury aetiology and incidence was prospectively recorded over a six-month period (Sep - Feb) by the medical team using a time-loss definition. Results: Between-subject statistically significant differences were reported for sex (F=101.49; p<0.001), year group (F=12.57; p<0.001) and sex*year group (F=9.22; p<0.001). Mean CMJ across the year groups ranged between 24.7-41.3cm for males and 23.5-25.1cm for females. Injury incidence per dancer was 0.84 (CI:0.13,1.56) and injury incidence per 1000hrs dance was 1.94 (CI:1.63, 2.25). No statistically significant differences, between sexes or year groups, were reported for injury incidence per 1000 dance hours, and time-loss. Hours dancing was statistically significantly positively associated with CMJ (r=.481, p<0.05) and negatively associated with injury incidence (r=-.253, p<0.05) for males; for females it was positively associated with time loss (r=.254, p<0.05). Conclusion: Even though CMJ was cross-sectionally monitored, the expected increased physical abilities in males as they grew older and progressed through their training was observed. Females did not indicate similar increase in their physical ability, but they seemed to become more susceptible to injuries as they grow older. The lack of this speculative physiological development for the females may be associated with the ballet-only approach in their training. The use of CMJ as an injury screening tool may be limited, however, it could still be used as a tool to monitor physiological and fundamental motor skill development of adolescent dancers, as jumping is an integral part of ballet.
    • Perceived severity and management of low back pain in adult dancers in the United States

      Henn, Erica; Smith, Tina; Ambegaonkar, Jatin; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-06-15)
      Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) lifetime prevalence in dancers reportedly ranges from 17%-88%. LBP can have negative secondary consequences on dancers’ lives and careers. Still, how LBP impacts dancer function and medical care-seeking behaviors, and whether these issues differ across dance genres, is understudied. Materials and Methods: 289 ballet, modern, and hip-hop dancers and teachers (median age=20.3 years; range:18-69) in the United States age 18 years and older completed an online 24 question survey assessing LBP related self-reported injury history, impact on their lives, and management strategies. We defined LBP as occurrence of acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions of the back. Results: 257 participants (88.9% of 289 total) reported at least one instance of LBP during their lifetime and 220 participants reported LBP in the prior four weeks. Of these 220, 72 (32.7%) had LBP severe enough to limit their activities of daily living. Of the 213 who had LBP and danced during that time, 89 (41.8%) reported that LBP limited their dancing. Pain intensity (median:4 on a 0-10 scale, IQR:3.0) and LBP prevalence were similar across dance genres. Dancers sought multiple medical professionals, most often chiropractors (n=94, 33.8%), medical doctors (n=77, 27.7%), and physiotherapists (n=60, 21.6%). 90 dancers (35.0% of those with LBP) never sought medical care for their LBP at all. Dancers who did seek care reported higher pain intensities (median:4, IQR:3.8) than those who did not (median:3, IQR:3.0). Conclusion: Overall, most participants did suffer from LBP. LBP negatively impacts dancers’ everyday activities and dancing. Pain intensity and loss of function may impact care-seeking. Our findings highlight the need for all dance stakeholders to educate dancers about their health, provide resources for dancer healthcare, and proactively create an environment that supports injury reporting behaviors in dancers.
    • Neuromuscular training in pre-professional ballet dancers: A feasibility randomised controlled trial

      Kolokythas, Nico; Metsios, George S.; Galloway, Shaun; Allen, Nick; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-06-15)
      Introduction: It is well documented that there is high prevalence of injuries in preprofessional and professional ballet dancers. Current evidence from high in quality and quantity research on injury prevention in sport, indicates that interventions can reduce injury risks by 30 to 50%. Injury prevention research in dance, is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility (adherence, fidelity, and practicality) of a randomised controlled trial for the utilisation of neuromuscular training in pre-professional ballet dancers. Methods: A convenience sample of 22 pre-professional ballet dancers were randomised into the intervention and the control group. The intervention group took part in a neuromuscular based training workout, five times per week before the ballet class, for ten weeks. The intervention was an adaptation of the FIFA 11+, an injury prevention intervention and is called 11+ Dance. The intervention consisted of low intensity bodyweight exercises, lasted 20-30 minutes and was performed daily. Results: Intervention adherence was 38±8%, with higher participation at the beginning of the study. Attendance for the pre- and post testing was low 45% and 36% for the intervention and control group, respectively, mainly due to injury. There were no adverse effects reported, however, the participants reported delayed onset muscle soreness at the beginning of the intervention, indicating that there may be a potential training effect. Fear of muscle hypertrophy and fatigue were also reported as reasons for attrition. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed statistically non-significant differences for the CMJ F(1,9)= 0.36, p = .564, 𝜂𝜂𝑝𝑝 2 = .04, RSI F(1, 7)= 0.02, p= .885, 𝜂𝜂𝑝𝑝 2= 0.003, and IMTP F(1, 12)= 0.002, p= 0.967, 𝜂𝜂𝑝𝑝 2= .000. Conclusion: The results of the study, together with the feedback from the participants suggest that some protocol modifications are necessary, for the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial in a pre-professional setting. The current trial has produced valuable information for the intervention frequency and load prescription.
    • Postdigital ecopedagogies of attainment and progress

      Hayes, Sarah L; Jandrić, Petar; Ford, Derek R. (Springer, 2022-06-09)
      Human attainment is based on a particular model of chronological achievements. People and society are assessed in terms of making progress towards ‘something better’. This approach through modernity sees technology treated as a resource to harness for gain regardless of environmental costs. In education, this linear progress model is mirrored: accessing learning, completing study in a timeframe, attaining an award and progress beyond education. Though Covid-19 has interrupted these components of ‘success’, a consensus that children, students, workers and the economy all need to ‘catch up’ after the pandemic exists, even when people are not catching up from an equal positionality. In this competitive, neoliberal progress model attempts to widen participation in education have only had limited success. Additionally, new convergences between digitalisation and biological sciences now provide a broader world view on relations between technologies, progress and humans (Peters, et. al. 2021). This chapter examines the possible ‘demise of a model of progress based on the old system of arranging living forms into a linear hierarchy’ (Bowler 2021: vii). It reviews related assumptions, and considers implications for ecopedagogies of attainment, when unpredictable developments in technology now begin to alter how we might understand progress itself.
    • Gross motor coordination and their relationship with body mass and physical activity level during growth in children aged 8-11 years old: a longitudinal and allometric approach

      Giuriato, Matteo; Lovecchio, Nicola; Carnevale Pellino, Vittoria; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kawczyński, Adam; Nevill, Alan M.; Biino, Valentina (PeerJ, 2022-06-08)
      Background: Gross motor coordination (GMC) is fundamental to the harmonious development of physical skills during the growth of children. This research aimed to explore the developmental changes in GMC during childhood, having controlled for the differences in children's body size and shape using a longitudinal, allometric scaling methodology. Methods: A total of 104 children from North-East Italy of third-fourth- and fifth-grade students and each participant were tested for three consequently years. Subjects performed the short version of korperkoordinationstest fur kinder (KTK3) and the anthropometric characteristics were simultaneously collected. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ-C) was used to evaluate the weekly physical engagement. Results: Ontogenetic multiplicative models suggested nonlinear associations with GMC across the children's developmental years. Linear physique was a significant predictor associated with the development of GMC across time. PAQ-C was significantly associated with GMC from 8 to 13 years old. Conclusion: Growth does not respect linear trends. A greater lean body mass could be assessed as a reliable predictor of GMC in children. The crucial period of life to improve the GMC is 8-10 years, while stabilization becomes evident from 10 to 13 years.
    • Radiotherapy to the prostate for men with metastatic prostate cancer in the UK and Switzerland: Long-term results from the STAMPEDE randomised controlled trial

      Parker, Chris C; James, Nicholas D; Brawley, Christopher D; Clarke, Noel W; Ali, Adnan; Amos, Claire L; Attard, Gerhardt; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Adrian; Cross, William; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2022-06-07)
      Background STAMPEDE has previously reported that radiotherapy (RT) to the prostate improved overall survival (OS) for patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer with low metastatic burden, but not those with high-burden disease. In this final analysis, we report long-term findings on the primary outcome measure of OS and on the secondary outcome measures of symptomatic local events, RT toxicity events, and quality of life (QoL). Methods and findings Patients were randomised at secondary care sites in the United Kingdom and Switzerland between January 2013 and September 2016, with 1:1 stratified allocation: 1,029 to standard of care (SOC) and 1,032 to SOC+RT. No masking of the treatment allocation was employed. A total of 1,939 had metastatic burden classifiable, with 42% low burden and 58% high burden, balanced by treatment allocation. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses used Cox regression and flexible parametric models (FPMs), adjusted for stratification factors age, nodal involvement, the World Health Organization (WHO) performance status, regular aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, and planned docetaxel use. QoL in the first 2 years on trial was assessed using prospectively collected patient responses to QLQ-30 questionnaire. Patients were followed for a median of 61.3 months. Prostate RT improved OS in patients with low, but not high, metastatic burden (respectively: 202 deaths in SOC versus 156 in SOC+RT, hazard ratio (HR) = 0·64, 95% CI 0.52, 0.79, p < 0.001; 375 SOC versus 386 SOC+RT, HR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.96, 1.28, p = 0·164; interaction p < 0.001). No evidence of difference in time to symptomatic local events was found. There was no evidence of difference in Global QoL or QLQ-30 Summary Score. Long-term urinary toxicity of grade 3 or worse was reported for 10 SOC and 10 SOC+RT; long-term bowel toxicity of grade 3 or worse was reported for 15 and 11, respectively. Conclusions Prostate RT improves OS, without detriment in QoL, in men with low-burden, newly diagnosed, metastatic prostate cancer, indicating that it should be recommended as a SOC.