• Is there a north-south divide between schools in England?

      Jopling, Michael (Sage, 2018-10-28)
      The article is an opinion piece which examines the extent to which rhetoric about a north-south divide in performance between schools in England is justified. Starting with the catalyst, Sir Michael Wilshaw’s final annual Ofsted reports in 2015 and 2016, it traces how the divide rhetoric has been assimilated into popular discourse by the media and subsequent policy reports, notably in connection with the Northern Powerhouse agenda. The article uses regional school performance data to examine whether claims about the divide are convincing, focusing on the North East which has been recognised as an outlier in both primary and secondary performance. It concludes that the case for a north-south divide is not proven and with an appeal for more contextually sensitive and flexible approaches to assessing local, regional and national school performance to counter the negative effects of this divisive rhetoric.
    • User perceptions of sound quality: implications for the design and use of audio-based mobile applications

      Uther, Maria (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-22)
      This study sought to investigate the effect that contextual cues (in particular, device type and content type) have on the perception of sound quality. A sample of 49 participants were tested on different mobile devices sizes (small – iPhone, medium – iPad Mini, and large – iPad) which had identical sound output characteristics within in different usage contexts (generic content vs. musical training app contexts). Results showed that the users’ perception of generic sound types was affected by device type, with iPhones appearing to have better sound quality compared to larger devices. On the other hand, within application contexts, the application type seemed to affect user perceptions more, with the rhythm training application rating poorer on sound quality, picture quality, and likelihood of future use as compared to the pitch training application (although this may be due to the perceived increased difficulty). Together, these findings demonstrate the influence of device and content cues (when actual physical qualities are controlled) on user sound perception. Interestingly, differences in perceived sound quality was not accompanied by an overriding preference for that device as compared to other devices. Instead, considerations such as ease of use seemed to drive considerations for uptake of applications.
    • Radiotherapy to the primary tumour for newly diagnosed, metastatic prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): a randomised controlled phase 3 trial

      Parker, Christopher C; James, Nicholas D; Brawley, Christopher D; Clarke, Noel W; Hoyle, Alex P; Ali, Adnan; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Attard, Gerhardt; Chowdhury, Simon; Cross, William; Dearnaley, David P; Gillessen, Silke; Gilson, Clare; Jones, Robert J; Langley, Ruth E; Malik, Zafar I; Mason, Malcolm D; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Russell, J Martin; Thalmann, George N; Amos, Claire L; Alonzi, Roberto; Bahl, Amit; Birtle, Alison; Din, Omar; Douis, Hassan; Eswar, Chinnamani; Gale, Joanna; Gannon, Melissa R; Jonnada, Sai; Khaksar, Sara; Lester, Jason F; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi A; Pedley, Ian D; Pudney, Delia M; Sheehan, Denise J; Srihari, Narayanan Nair; Tran, Anna T H; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Sydes, Matthew R (The Lancet, 2018-10-21)
      Background Based on previous findings, we hypothesised that radiotherapy to the prostate would improve overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer, and that the benefit would be greatest in patients with a low metastatic burden. We aimed to compare standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer, with and without radiotherapy. Methods We did a randomised controlled phase 3 trial at 117 hospitals in Switzerland and the UK. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. We randomly allocated patients open-label in a 1:1 ratio to standard of care (control group) or standard of care and radiotherapy (radiotherapy group). Randomisation was stratified by hospital, age at randomisation, nodal involvement, WHO performance status, planned androgen deprivation therapy, planned docetaxel use (from December, 2015), and regular aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Standard of care was lifelong androgen deprivation therapy, with up-front docetaxel permitted from December, 2015. Men allocated radiotherapy received either a daily (55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks) or weekly (36 Gy in six fractions over 6 weeks) schedule that was nominated before randomisation. The primary outcome was overall survival, measured as the number of deaths; this analysis had 90% power with a one-sided α of 2·5% for a hazard ratio (HR) of 0·75. Secondary outcomes were failure-free survival, progression-free survival, metastatic progression-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and symptomatic local event-free survival. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards and flexible parametric models, adjusted for stratification factors. The primary outcome analysis was by intention to treat. Two prespecified subgroup analyses tested the effects of prostate radiotherapy by baseline metastatic burden and radiotherapy schedule. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00268476. Findings Between Jan 22, 2013, and Sept 2, 2016, 2061 men underwent randomisation, 1029 were allocated the control and 1032 radiotherapy. Allocated groups were balanced, with a median age of 68 years (IQR 63–73) and median amount of prostate-specific antigen of 97 ng/mL (33–315). 367 (18%) patients received early docetaxel. 1082 (52%) participants nominated the daily radiotherapy schedule before randomisation and 979 (48%) the weekly schedule. 819 (40%) men had a low metastatic burden, 1120 (54%) had a high metastatic burden, and the metastatic burden was unknown for 122 (6%). Radiotherapy improved failure-free survival (HR 0·76, 95% CI 0·68–0·84; p<0·0001) but not overall survival (0·92, 0·80–1·06; p=0·266). Radiotherapy was well tolerated, with 48 (5%) adverse events (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3–4) reported during radiotherapy and 37 (4%) after radiotherapy. The proportion reporting at least one severe adverse event (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3 or worse) was similar by treatment group in the safety population (398 [38%] with control and 380 [39%] with radiotherapy). Interpretation Radiotherapy to the prostate did not improve overall survival for unselected patients with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer.
    • Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid (γ-PGA)-based encapsulation of Adenovirus to evade neutralizing antibodies.

      Khalil, Ibrahim R; Khechara, Martin P; Kurusamy, Sathishkumar; Armesilla, Angel L; Gupta, Abhishek; Mendrek, Barbara; Khalaf, Tamara; Scandola, Mariastella; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Kowalczuk, Marek; Radecka, Iza (MDPI, 2018-10-08)
      In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in oncolytic adenoviral vectors as an alternative anticancer therapy. The induction of an immune response can be considered as a major limitation of this kind of application. Significant research efforts have been focused on the development of biodegradable polymer poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-based nanoparticles used as a vector for effective and safe anticancer therapy, owing to their controlled and sustained-release properties, low toxicity, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. This study aimed to introduce a specific destructive and antibody blind polymer-coated viral vector into cancer cells using γ-PGA and chitosan (CH). Adenovirus was successfully encapsulated into the biopolymer particles with an encapsulation efficiency of 92% and particle size of 485 nm using the ionic gelation method. Therapeutic agents or nanoparticles (NPs) that carry therapeutics can be directed specifically to cancerous cells by decorating their surfaces using targeting ligands. Moreover, in vitro neutralizing antibody response against viral capsid proteins can be somewhat reduced by encapsulating adenovirus into γ-PGA-CH NPs, as only 3.1% of the encapsulated adenovirus was detected by anti-adenovirus antibodies in the presented work compared to naked adenoviruses. The results obtained and the unique characteristics of the polymer established in this research could provide a reference for the coating and controlled release of viral vectors used in anticancer therapy.
    • Over 100,000 posters: the unprecedented commercialism of the 1966 World Cup in England

      Williams, Jean (Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2018-10-04)
      The world's most popular sport, soccer, has long been celebrated as “the beautiful game” for its artistry and aesthetic appeal. Picturing the Beautiful Game: A History of Soccer in Visual Culture and Art is the first collection to examine the rich visual culture of soccer, including the fine arts, design, and mass media. Covering a range of topics related to the game's imagery, this volume investigates the ways soccer has been promoted, commemorated, and contested in visual terms. Throughout various mediums and formats-including illustrated newspapers, modern posters, and contemporary artworks-soccer has come to represent issues relating to identity, politics, and globalization. As the contributors to this collection suggest, these representations of the game reflect society and soccer's place in our collective imagination. Perspectives from a range of fields including art history, sociology, sport history, and media studies enrich the volume, affording a multifaceted visual history of the beautiful game.
    • Governing through Trust: Community-based link workers and parental engagement in education

      Fretwell, Nathan; Osgood, Jayne; O'Tool, Gill; Tsouroufli, Maria (Wiley online library, 2018-09-28)
      This article seeks to further understandings of contemporary patterns of parental government. It explores the politicisation of family life by examining a pilot programme tasked with enhancing parental engagement in education amongst ‘hard-to-reach’ families within the white British community of a large inner-London borough. Focusing on the programme’s signature device – the deployment of community-based ‘link workers’ to bridge home and school – ‘governmentality’ (Foucault, 2009) is used as a theoretical lens through which to foreground the link workers’ role in governing parents. We draw on qualitative data collected from link workers, parents, and school leaders, to argue that link workers represent a mode of governmentality that privileges the instrumental use of trust to achieve strategic objectives, rather than coercive authority. The aim being to produce responsible, self-disciplined parents who act freely in accordance with normative expectations as to what constitutes ‘good’ parenting and effective parental support. As such, the article highlights the link workers’ role in (re)producing the ideal, neoliberal parent. However, governing through trust comes at the cost of being unable to firmly secure desired outcomes. We thereby conclude that this gentle art of parental government affords parents some latitude in resisting institutional agendas.
    • Gendered and classed performances of motherhood and good academic in Greece

      Tsouroufli, Maria (Sage, 2018-09-24)
      The enduring significance of gender and how it intersects with class in the organisation of parenting, domestic, and professional work has been obscured in contemporary neo-liberal contexts. This paper examines how Greek academic women conceptualize and enact motherhood and the classed and gendered strategies they adopt to reconcile ‘good’ motherhood with notions of the ‘good’ academic professional. It draws on semi-structured interviews about the career narratives of 15 women in Greek Medical Schools at the aftermath of the Greek recession. The analysis presented in this paper is informed by a feminist post-structuralist paradigm and an emic approach to intersectionality. Motherhood emerged in the data as a dynamic concept, and a network of practices both constrained and enabled by gendered and classed family and work cultures. Drawing on neo-liberal ‘DIY’ and ‘having it all’ discourse Greek mothers claimed that they could achieve almost anything professionally, if they organised their private lives sensibly. They drew on idealised discourses of motherhood, but they also contradicted these notions by doing non- traditional forms of motherhood, such as remote or transnational motherhood, afforded by their privileged social positioning and academic careers. Further research is required to investigate configurations of classed motherhood in less prestigious professions.
    • What we think about hospital care

      Drozd, Mary; Norris, Kirsty; Chadwick, Darren; Eggison, Peter; Clinch, Christine (2018-09-16)
    • Addition of Docetaxel to First-line Long-term Hormone Therapy in Prostate Cancer (STAMPEDE): Modelling to Estimate Long-term Survival, Quality-adjusted Survival, and Cost-effectiveness

      Woods, Beth S.; Sideris, Eleftherios; Sydes, Matthew R.; Gannon, Melissa R.; Parmar, Mahesh K.B.; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Attard, Gerhardt; Birtle, Alison J.; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir R.; Cook, Audrey; Cross, William R.; Dearnaley, David P.; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D.; Hughes, Robert; Jones, Rob J.; Laing, Robert; Mason, Malcolm D.; Matheson, David; McLaren, Duncan B.; Millman, Robin; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Parikh, Omi; Parker, Christopher C.; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Ritchie, Alastair W.S.; Robinson, Angus; Russell, J. Martin; Simms, Matthew S.; Srihari, Narayanan N.; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John N.; Sundar, Santhanam; Thalmann, George N.; Tolan, Shaun; Tran, Anna T.H.; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; James, Nicholas D.; Sculpher, Mark J. (Elsevier, 2018-09-14)
      Background Results from large randomised controlled trials have shown that adding docetaxel to the standard of care (SOC) for men initiating hormone therapy for prostate cancer (PC) prolongs survival for those with metastatic disease and prolongs failure-free survival for those without. To date there has been no formal assessment of whether funding docetaxel in this setting represents an appropriate use of UK National Health Service (NHS) resources. Objective To assess whether administering docetaxel to men with PC starting long-term hormone therapy is cost-effective in a UK setting. Design, setting, and participants We modelled health outcomes and costs in the UK NHS using data collected within the STAMPEDE trial, which enrolled men with high-risk, locally advanced metastatic or recurrent PC starting first-line hormone therapy. Intervention SOC was hormone therapy for ≥2 yr and radiotherapy in some patients. Docetaxel (75 mg/m2) was administered alongside SOC for six three-weekly cycles. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The model generated lifetime predictions of costs, changes in survival duration, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results and limitations The model predicted that docetaxel would extend survival (discounted quality-adjusted survival) by 0.89 yr (0.51) for metastatic PC and 0.78 yr (0.39) for nonmetastatic PC, and would be cost-effective in metastatic PC (ICER £5514/QALY vs SOC) and nonmetastatic PC (higher QALYs, lower costs vs SOC). Docetaxel remained cost-effective in nonmetastatic PC when the assumption of no survival advantage was modelled. Conclusions Docetaxel is cost-effective among patients with nonmetastatic and metastatic PC in a UK setting. Clinicians should consider whether the evidence is now sufficiently compelling to support docetaxel use in patients with nonmetastatic PC, as the opportunity to offer docetaxel at hormone therapy initiation will be missed for some patients by the time more mature survival data are available. Patient summary Starting docetaxel chemotherapy alongside hormone therapy represents a good use of UK National Health Service resources for patients with prostate cancer that is high risk or has spread to other parts of the body.
    • Adult education for a change: Advocacy, learning festivals, migration, and the pursuit of equity and social justice

      Tuckett, Alan (Sage Publications, 2018-08-30)
      This paper explores the characteristics of learning festivals and Adult Learners’ Weeks and their use as tools of advocacy in seeking policy change on behalf of under-represented groups, and it considers their impact on public policy affecting adult learners. In addition, it reflects on the role of the week in celebrating a culture of adult learning. The paper includes analysis of the relationship between the development of festivals and policy change affecting adult learners through Adult Learners’ Weeks in the United Kingdom after 1992, exploring, in particular, the role of the Week in affecting policy, participation, and inter-communal understanding arising from increased migration. The paper explores the spread of learning festivals and the sequence of Presidency conferences in the European Union in the years leading up to the Lisbon Memorandum in 2000; the role of festivals in the aftermath of war in the Balkans; and the role of the World Social Forum as an antidote to neo-liberal orthodoxies in international policy discussions. It also considers the success and failure of learning weeks as a tool of advocacy and policy change.
    • Active Students Are Healthier and Happier Than Their Inactive Peers: The Results of a Large Representative Cross-Sectional Study of University Students in Ireland.

      Murphy, Marie H; Carlin, Angela; Woods, Catherine; Nevill, Alan; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Ferguson, Kyle; Murphy, Niamh (Human Kinetics, 2018-08-17)
      Time spent in university represents a period of transition and may be an appropriate time to promote physical activity among young adults. The aim of this study was to assess participation of university students in sport and physical activity in Ireland and to explore the association between physical activity and perceptions of overall health, mental health, and happiness. The Student Activity and Sport Study Ireland was a cross-sectional online survey among a representative sample (n = 8122) of university students in Ireland. Binary logistic regressions were performed to examine associations between self-reported physical activity and gender (predictor variables) and individual perceptions of overall health, mental health, and happiness (binary outcomes). Only 64.3% of respondents met the recommended level of 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week with males significantly more active than females (72.1% vs 57.8% meeting guidelines). Those meeting physical activity guidelines were more likely to report greater overall health and higher mental health and happiness scores compared with their inactive peers. Active students enjoy better health (overall and mental) and are happier than their inactive peers. This provides a clear rationale for providing students with opportunities to be active at university. The data provide a baseline to monitor changes in physical activity patterns.
    • Consensus statement on placebo effects in sports and exercise: The need for conceptual clarity, methodological rigour, and the elucidation of neurobiological mechanisms

      Beedie, Christopher; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Barbiani, Diletta; Camerone, Eleanora; Cohen, Emma; Coleman, Damian; Davis, Arran; Edelsten, Charlotte; Flowers, Elliott; Foad, Abby; Harvey, Simon; Hettinga, Florentina; Hurst, Philip; Lane, Andrew; Lindheimer, Jacob; Schiphof-Godart, Lieke; Szabo, Attila (Taylor and Francis, 2018-08-16)
      In June 2017 a group of experts in anthropology, biology, kinesiology, neuroscience, physiology, and psychology convened in Canterbury, UK, to address questions relating to the placebo effect in sport and exercise. The event was supported exclusively by Quality Related (QR) funding from the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The funder did not influence the content or conclusions of the group. No competing interests were declared by any delegate. During the meeting and in follow-up correspondence, all delegates agreed the need to communicate the outcomes of the meeting via a brief consensus statement. The two specific aims of this statement are to encourage researchers in sport and exercise science to 1. Where possible, adopt research methods that more effectively elucidate the role of the brain in mediating the effects of treatments and interventions. 2. Where possible, adopt methods that factor for and/or quantify placebo effects that could explain a percentage of inter-individual variability in response to treatments and intervention.
    • ‘Playing it right?’ Gendered performances of professional respectability and ‘authenticity’ in Greek academia

      Tsouroufli, Maria (2018-08-01)
      This paper draws on the career narrative interviews with 15 female academics to unravel the performative politics of gender in Greek Medical Schools. I explore the gender positioning and embodied performances of Greek women as they relate to the contingencies of participation, recognition, and esteem in academic medicine and framed within the wider gendered discourses and structures of the increasingly neo-liberal Greek academia and society. Drawing on Butler’s notion of performativity, I illustrate the possibilities of making the successful Greek female academic subject through subjection to normative, gendered discourses of respectability, encompassing integrity, respectable aesthetics, and affective work and scripted along intersecting privileges of class and heteronormativity. I argue that although Greek women’s gendered professional authenticity and respectability projects demonstrate intentionality and agency, they leave little, if any, room for displacement of gender norms. Gender transformation and promotion of gender equality in Greek academia requires institutional support and political action.
    • Effects of situational variables on the physical activity profiles of elite soccer players in different score line states.

      Redwood-Brown, Athalie J; O'Donoghue, Peter G; Nevill, Alan M; Saward, Chris; Dyer, Nicholas; Sunderland, Caroline (Wiley, 2018-07-28)
      The aim of this study were to investigate the effects of playing position, pitch location, team ability and opposition ability on the physical activity profiles of English premier league soccer players in difference score line states. A validated automatic tracking system (Venatrack Ltd.) was used to track players in real time (at 25 Hz) for total distance covered, high speed running distance and sprint distance. This is the first study to include every team from an entire season in the English premier league, resulting in 376 games, 570 players and 35 000 rows of data from the 2011-12 season being analyzed using multi-level modelling. Multi-level regression revealed an inverted "u" shaped association between total distance covered and goal difference (GD), with greater distances covered when GD was zero and reduced distances when GD was either positive or negative. A similar "u" shaped association was found with high speed distance covered at home. In addition distance covered (both at home and away) were predicted by playing position. All activity profiles (with the exception of sprint distance at home) were predicted by pitch location and time scored. Lastly, distance away from home and high speed running at home were predicted by opposition ability. Score line appears to effect player activity profiles across a number of situational factors and thus should be considered by managers when preparing and selecting teams to maximize performance. The current study also highlighted the need for more sensitive score line definitions in which to consider score line effects.
    • Understandings of ‘Teaching Excellence’ in Higher Education: A comparative study of English and Australian academics’ perspectives

      Bartram, Brendan; Hathaway, Tanya; Rao, Namrata (Taylor and Francis, 2018-07-26)
      In the current higher education (HE) environment, indicators of ‘teaching excellence’ (TE) are increasingly under the spotlight. The literature offers a wide range of models and perspectives, but also highlights the need for greater (comparative) scrutiny of the perceptions of those at the centre – staff teaching across the disciplines in different countries. This article aims to contribute to ongoing debates by investigating and comparing the views of 120 academic staff teaching in one of two countries – England and Australia – in an attempt to deepen our appreciation of their definitions and understandings. The findings from this two-stage enquiry using online questionnaires and interviews indicate broad commonalities in the ways academics define TE, centred on facilitative, interactive pedagogy related to individual professional aspirations; they also reveal widely shared reservations about the term’s legitimacy and institutional/marketized (ab)use. As such, the findings offer policy-makers and institutions useful insights at a time where TE definitions and metrics are growing global pre-occupations.
    • Spotlight on Bereavement Care in the ICU

      Walker, Wendy; Trapani, Dr Josef (Wiley, 2018-07-23)
      Intensive care units (ICUs) are dedicated to supporting and saving lives; yet, despite medical advances, a significant number of critically ill patients die in this setting. International mortality rates in adult ICUs in North America (Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2016; Society of Critical Care Medicine, 2018), the UK (Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre, 2018) and Australasia (Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society, 2017) have been reported to range between 7.9% and 29%, and are generally lower for paediatric ICU (PICU) patients (Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society, 2017; Paediatric Intensive Care Audit Network, 2017; Society of Critical Care Medicine, 2018). Between April 2016 and March 2017, 255 National Health Service adult critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland participated in an audit of patient outcomes. The reported 13.7% mortality rate was equivalent to 23 142 non-survivors (Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre, 2018). Hence, bereavement; ‘the situation of having recently lost a significant other’ (Buckley et al., 2015, p.64) is an inherent feature of ICU practice and nursing in critical care.
    • Exploring mentors' interpretation of terminology and levels of competence when assessing nursing students: An integrative review.

      Almalkawi, Ibraheim; Jester, Rebecca; Terry, Louise (Elsevier, 2018-07-18)
      The purpose of this integrative review is to evaluate the empirical and theoretical literature on the challenges mentors face in interpreting and assessing levels of competence of student nurses in clinical practice. An integrative review of the literature. An extensive and systematic literature search was conducted covering the period 1986-September 2016 across twelve databases covering health and education related publications. Grey literature was searched from wide relevant sources. Sources were eligible for review when they referred to mentor's interpretation or assessment of student nurses' level of competence in practice settings. Methodological rigor of the included studies was evaluated with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool.
    • Nurse practitioner consultations in primary health care: a case study-based survey of patients' pre-consultation expectations, and post-consultation satisfaction and enablement.

      Barratt, Julian; Thomas, Nicola (Cambridge journals, 2018-07-17)
      Research has not yet fully investigated links to consultation duration, patient expectations, satisfaction, and enablement in nurse practitioner consultations. This study was developed to address some of these research gaps in nurse practitioner consultations, particularly with a focus on expectations, satisfaction, and enablement.AimTo explore the influence of pre-consultation expectations, and consultation time length durations on patient satisfaction and enablement in nurse practitioner consultations in primary health care. Survey component of a larger convergent parallel mixed methods case study designed to conjointly investigate the communication processes, social interactions, and measured outcomes of nurse practitioner consultations. The survey element of the case study focusses on investigating patients' pre-consultation expectations and post-consultation patient satisfaction and enablement. A questionnaire measuring pre-consultation expectations, and post-consultation satisfaction and enablement, completed by a convenience sample of 71 adults consulting with nurse practitioners at a general practice clinic. Initial fieldwork took place in September 2011 to November 2012, with subsequent follow-up fieldwork in October 2016. Respondents were highly satisfied with their consultations and expressed significantly higher levels of enablement than have been seen in previous studies of enablement with other types of clinicians (P=0.003). A significant, small to moderate, positive correlation of 0.427 (P=0.005) between general satisfaction and enablement was noted. No significant correlation was seen between consultation time lengths and satisfaction or enablement.
    • ‘We have to wait in a queue for our turn quite a bit’ Examining children’s physical activity during primary physical education lessons

      Powell, Emma; Woodfield, Lorayne; Nevill, Alan; Powell, Alexander J; Myers, Tony D (Sage, 2018-07-16)
      The overall purpose of this study was to examine children’s physical activity (PA) during primary physical education (PE). This was achieved through the following two research objectives: (1) to measure children’s PA, lesson context and teacher promotion of PA during PE lessons; and (2) to explore teachers’ and children’s perspectives on PA levels during PE lessons. Evidence suggests that children’s PA during PE is below recommended levels and further research is required to understand the reasons why. Through a mixed method design, 138 children were observed using the System for Observing Fitness and Instruction Time, 80 children participated in group interviews, and 13 teachers were interviewed, across three primary schools in England. Findings indicated that the mean percentage of lesson time allocated to moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was 42.4% and the average lesson length was 35.3 minutes. Qualitative themes identified were: ‘knowledge and beliefs’; ‘teacher pedagogy’; and ‘teacher development’. The findings indicate that a change in perspective is needed, which includes a focus on PA during primary PE lessons. Intervention work is required that targets teachers’ knowledge and beliefs towards PE along with the development of effective teaching strategies. However, this needs to be grounded in an ecological approach which will allow researchers and schools to target the various levels of influence. It is strongly recommended that interventions are grounded in behaviour change theory, as this study indicates that sharing knowledge about pedagogical strategies to increase children’s MVPA does not necessarily produce changes in teachers’ behaviours.