• Fit to Dance Survey: elements of lifestyle and injury incidence in Chinese dancers

      Dang, Yanan; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine, Inc., 2020-12-31)
      The Fit to Dance survey has been conducted a number of times using primarily Western participants and has provided foundation data for other studies. The purpose of the current study was to replicate the Fit to Dance 2 survey focusing on features of health and injuries in pre-professional and professional Chinese dancers of different genres. Results revealed that respondents (n=1040) were from Chinese Folk dance (44.4%), Chinese Classical Dance (25.6%), ballet (10.2%) and contemporary dance (9.8%). Compared to the Fit to Dance 2 survey, alcohol consumption (29% vs 82%; p<0.01) and smoking (13% vs 21%; p<0.05) were significantly less in Chinese dancers, but a higher percentage reported using weight reducing eating plans (57% vs 23%; p<0.01) or having psychological issues with food (27% vs 24%; p<0.05). Reported injuries in a 12-month period prior to data collection were significantly lower in the current survey (49% vs 80%; p<0.01). The type of injury (muscle and joint/ligament) and perceived cause of injury (fatigue, overwork and reoccurrence of an old injury) were the same in both the current and previous survey. Mean injury rate for the studied 12-month period ranged from 4.9 injuries per dancer (contemporary) to 3.4 injuries per dancer (Chinese Folk dance) which is comparable to previously reported data on western dance populations. This survey has provided the first comprehensive data on the health and injury incidence of Chinese dancers.
    • Exposure to arsenic during pregnancy and newborn mitochondrial DNA copy number: A birth cohort study in Wuhan, China

      Chen, Ruoling; Song, Lulu; Liu, Bingqing; Wang, Lulin; Wu, Mingyang; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Yunyun; Bi, Jianing; Yang, Senbei; Zhang, Bin; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-12-01)
      Background: Arsenic (As) is a widely distributed environmental chemical with potentially different toxicities. However, little is known about the impact of maternal As exposure on newborn mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), which may lie on the pathway linking As exposure to adverse health impacts. Objectives: We aimed to explore whether maternal As exposure was associated with newborn mtDNAcn. Methods: We conducted a birth cohort study of 762 mother-infant pairs in Wuhan, China, 2013-2015. Cord blood mtDNAcn was determined using qPCR. Maternal urinary As levels in each trimester were quantified by ICP-MS. Multiple informant models were used to examine the associations of repeated urinary As levels with cord blood mtDNAcn. Results: The median urinary As levels in the first, second, and third trimesters were 17.2 g/L, 16.0 g/L and 17.0 g/L respectively. In the multivariate model, each doubling increase in the first-trimester urinary As level was associated with a 6.6% (95% CI: -12.4%, -0.5%) decrease in cord blood mtDNAcn. The highest versus lowest quintile of first-trimester urinary As level was related to a 19.0% (95% CI: -32.9%, -2.2%) lower cord blood mtDNAcn. There was significant association of urinary As levels in the second and third trimesters with cord blood mtDNAcn. The inverse relationship between first-trimester urinary As level and cord blood mtDNAcn was more pronounced among female infants. Conclusions: First-trimester As exposure was associated with decreased cord blood mtDNAcn. The potential health impacts of decreased mtDNAcn in early life need to be further clarified.
    • Why does ethics matter in participatory health?

      Bond, Carol; DENECKE, Kerstin; LUQUE, Luis Fernandez; GABARRON, Elia; LOPEZ-CAMPOS, Guillermo (European Federation of Medical Informatics, 2020-04-28)
      Social media and participatory health has emerged as a promising tool for health, including developing diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions. In the realm of online health care delivery, artificial intelligence based counseling apps now enable patients to consult with a chatbot instead of an actual therapist. However, several ethical issues and implications became relevant with this shift to digital interventions and healthcare delivery. This panel will describe ethical issues related to recent developments in participatory health and social media including the digital exposome, importance of involving patients in the design of AI-based applications and ethics of social media research in healthcare.
    • The relationship between vitamin D levels, injury and muscle function in adolescent dancers

      de Rezende Araújo, Iris Iasmine; Sampaio, Lucas Henrique Ferreira; Bittar, Adriano Jabur; da Silva Hamu, Tânia Cristina Dias; Wyon, Matthew; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto (Thieme, 2020-03-31)
      Vitamin D has been shown to benefit a diverse range of health functions including muscle function. The aim of the present study was to identify serum 25(OH)D3 levels in a sample of adolescent dancers and compare them to muscle function and injury incidence. We incorporated a cross-sectional design to study 49 pre-professional male and female dancers (17±4.44yrs, 52.1±6.72kg, 1.63±0.07m) in full-time training in Brazil. Serum 25[OH]D3 was analyzed by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay; quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and muscle fatigue were measured by isokinetic dynamometer at 60 and 300° s-1. Injury type and location in the previous 6- months were determined by self-report questionnaire. Participants were categorized into 2 groups: normal or insufficient/deficient (>or<30 ng/ml 25[OH]D3). Results indicated the normal serum 25[OH]D3 group had significantly lower fatigue rates than the insufficient/deficient group (p<0.05) but not for the other muscle function parameters. Fifty-seven percent of participants reported at least 1 injury. The most common were sprains (33%) and tendinopathies (19%). Injured dancers had significantly lower peak torque at 60°/s. The link between serum 25[OH]D3 and reduced muscle fatigue resistance has not been shown before, though the underlying mechanisms aren’t apparent and the link between muscular strength and injury has been previously evidenced.
    • Workload intensity and rest periods in professional ballet: Connotations for injury

      Kozai, Andrea; Twitchett, Emily; Morgan, Sian; Wyon, Matthew (Thieme, 2020-03-31)
      Fatigue and overwork have been cited as the main cause of injury with the dance profession. Previous research has shown a difference in workload between professional dancers of different rank, but the role of sex has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to determine workload intensity, rest, and sleep profiles of professional ballet dancers. 48 professional ballet dancers (M=25, F=23) took part in an observational design over 7-14 days using triaxial accelerometer devices. Minutes in METS at different intensities, total time asleep and rest breaks were analysed. Significant main effects for rank (p<0.001) and rank by sex (p=0.003) for total PA, working day activity, post work activity and sleep. Sleep ranged between 2.4-9.6 hours per night. All participants spent more time between 1.5-3 METS outside of work. Significant amounts of exercise where carried out outside of their work day, therefore when injury is reported per 1000 hours dance activity, this extra-curricular activity might need to be included. When looking at potential causes of injury in dance, a global perspective of physical activity is required that includes activity outside of work and sleep patterns, all activities that influence physiological recovery.
    • Global risks of suicidal behaviours and being bullied and their association in adolescents: School-based health survey in 83 countries

      Tang, James Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Wilcox, Holly C; Kang, Chun; Wang, Kun; Wang, Cunku; Wu, Yu; Chen, Ruoling (Elsevier, 2020-01-10)
      Background Global risks of suicidal behaviours (SB) and being bullied as well as their association among adolescents have been poorly understood. We aimed to determine the risks of suicidal ideation (SI), suicide planning (SP), suicide attempt (SA) and being bullied in adolescents and their related associations across gender, countries and different WHO regions. Methods We examined data from the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS), which recorded health behaviours among adolescents aged 12 to 15 years from 83 countries. We computed prevalence rates of SB and being bullied and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multilevel models were employed to examine the association of being bullied with risks of SI, SP and SA. Results The overall prevalence of SI was 16·5%, SP 16·5%, SA 16·4%, and being bullied 35·3%. The highest risks of SB and being bullied were in Africa (SI 19·9%, SP 23·2%, SA 20·8%, being bullied 48·0%). Compared to boys, girls had an increased risk for SI (18·2%) and SP (17·3%) but similar risk for SA (16·7%) and being bullied (33·3%). Being bullied was associated with SA (adjusted odds ratio ‒ aOR 2·14, 95%CI 2·06–2·23), more strongly than SI (1·83, 1·78–1·89) and SP (1·70, 1·65–1·76). The strongest association with SA was in the Western Pacific (2·68, 2·45–2·92) and with SI (2·04, 1·74–2·39) and SP (1·81, 1·68–1·95) were in Southeast Asia. There were no gender differences in aOR for SI and SP, but the aOR for SA among boys (2·28, 2·14–2·42) was significantly greater than among girls (2·04, 1·93–2·15), ratio of two odds ratios was 1.12 (P = 0.008). Interpretation SB and being bullied were common among adolescents worldwide. The findings of gender differences in SB, being bullied and their association could inform the design of prevention programmes to reduce the risks of SI, SP and SA in adolescents worldwide.
    • ‘There is anointing everywhere': An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the role of religion in the recovery of black African service users in England

      Tuffour, Isaac (Wiley, 2020-01-08)
      Introduction Religion is an important impetus for recovery. However, there has been little work examining the role of religion in recovery for black African service users (BASUs) in England. Aim The aim of this study is to explore how religion influences recovery from mental illness for BASUs in England. Method 12 black African service users were purposively selected and interviewed using face‐to‐face semi‐structured interviews. Data was analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results The study generates fascinating insights that BASUs views about mental illness and recovery are influenced by Pentecostalism and traditional African healing systems. Discussion The participants' perceptions of their mental illness experiences and recovery which are characterised by the pragmatism of Pentecostalism and cultural beliefs are consistent with what is reported in the literature. Implications for Practice The findings of the study show that broad changes are needed to accommodate the religious coping of BASUs in their recovery journey.
    • A conversation analysis of asking about disruptions in method of levels psychotherapy

      Cannon, Caitlyn; Meredith, Joanne; Speer, Susan; Mansell, Warren (Wiley, 2019-12-31)
      Background: Method of Levels (MOL) is a cognitive therapy with an emerging evidence base. It is grounded in Perceptual Control Theory and its transdiagnostic nature means techniques are widely applicable and not diagnosis-specific. This paper contributes to psychotherapy process research by investigating a key technique of MOL, asking about disruptions, and in doing so aims to explore how the technique works and aid the understanding of related techniques in other psychotherapies. Method: Conversation Analysis (CA) is applied to asking about disruptions in twelve real-life therapeutic interactions. Findings: Analyses explore how and when therapists ask about disruptions, with examples presented according to their degree of adherence to the MOL approach. The majority of identified instances project responses consistent with MOL aims; encouraging further talk, focused on the client’s problem, and with a shift to meta-level commentary. Also presented are examples of therapist and client influence on disruptions. Conclusion: The paper provides support for a number of MOL practices, with clinical implications and links to other psychotherapies highlighted.
    • Indigenous Languages of Scotland: culture and the classroom

      Matheson-Monnet, Catherine; Matheson, David; Bell, Robert; Broadfoot, Patricia; Cowen, Robert; Ferrer, Ferran (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      Scotland’s indigenous languages were, for very many years, under attack. The Gaelic of the Highlands and Western Isles, arguably one of the earliest written European languages, after Greek and Latin, had a brief apotheosis around 1000CE when it was the language of the Scottish Royal Court. Scots, spoken by the mass of the people, was the language of the renowned Mediaeval poets known as the Makars. Gaelic was effectively ignored but for attempts, by the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, to engender transient bilingualism in order to have the Gaelic diminished and then forgotten. Following the accession of the James VI of Scotland to the throne of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland, the Authorised Edition of the Bible was commissioned and published but only in English, no Scots version being deemed necessary. After the Union of the Parliaments in 1707, what prestige remained to the Scots language diminished rapidly and henceforth almost the entire written output from Scotland has been in English. Exceptions have included Hugh MacDiarmid’s poetry, Liz Lochhead’s translation into Scots of Molière’s Tartuffe (1664/1986), which toured urban working-class areas in the 1980s and to great acclaim, and Trainspotting.
    • Physiological characteristics of musical theatre performers and the effect on cardiorespiratory demand whilst singing and dancing

      Wyon, Matthew; Stephens, Nicola (Science & Medicine, Inc., 2019-12-31)
      Musical Theatre (MT) combines acting, singing and dancing within a performance. The purpose of the current study was two-fold; firstly, to report on the cardiorespiratory fitness of pre-professional MT dancers and secondly, to examine the cardiorespiratory demand of singing whilst dancing. Twenty-one participants (F=16, M=5; 20 ±1.23 yrs; 169.1 ±9.24cm; 62.7 ±10.56kg) in their final year of pre-professional training volunteered for the study. All participants carried a maximal aerobic capacity test on a treadmill using a portable breath-by-breath gas analyser. Nine participants completed a 4-minute section from Chorus Line twice; singing and dancing, and just dancing, in a randomised order whilst wearing the same portable gas analyser. Blood lactate was measured at the end of each trial. Male participants had significantly greater peak oxygen consumption (M vs. F; 67.6 ±2.30 vs. 55.6 ±4.42 ml.kg-1 .min-1 , p<0.001) and anaerobic threshold (% of peak VO2) (M vs. F; 54.6 ±4.04% vs. 43.1 ±3.68% p<0.001) whilst maximum heart rate and heart rate at anaerobic threshold were similar. The physiological demands of dancing vs. singing+dancing were similar with the exception of the singing+dancing trial having significantly reduced mean breathing frequency and increased lactate (p<0.01). MT dancers’ aerobic capacity is greater than that observed in other theatre-based dance genres. The observed breathing frequency and lactate differences in the Chorus-line trails could be due to singing reducing breathing frequency thereby influencing cardiorespiratory recovery mechanics and subsequently blood lactate levels.
    • School related gender based violence: an intersectional approach

      Tsouroufli, Maria (Herriot Watt University, 2019-12-31)
      Despite increasing attention to SRGBV, little consideration has been given to the multiple identities of teachers and students and their role in perceptions and performances of SRGBV. This paper explores the intersections of gender with constructs of ethnicity, culture, religion and sexuality norms and enactments of SRGBV in three secondary schools in England. It draws on qualitative interview data collected for the project ‘Developing Gender Equality Charter Marks in order to overcome gender stereotyping in education across Europe’. The intersectionality of gender with sexual norms emerged in essentialist views about female academic and professional competence and normative expectations of sexual conduct, sustaining a culture of gender disrespect and a gender regime in which SRGBV was the penalty of transgressions of gender and sexual norms and the means to reiterate male privilege in two schools. The intersectionality of gender with culture, ethnicity and religion emerged in one of the three schools in teachers’ discourses of ethnic deficit associated with perceived lack of ability, freedom, and choice in ethnic minority girls’ lives and inappropriate expressions of sexuality that diverted from white British norms. Further research is required to enhance knowledge about the performances of SRGBV alongside other axes of power and discrimination.
    • Where quality counts: The perceived influence of in-hospital care on family donation decisions

      Walker, Wendy; Nicholls, Wendy; Rodney, Amanda (ELPAT, 2019-12-31)
      Background: Theoretically, public support for deceased organ donation may be high, yet the availability of organs for transplantation remains a global concern. A key area of organ loss is the rate of family consent to donation. Families are necessary partners in the organ donation process, and their related experiences are known to influence donation decisions. Aim: This presentation provides insight into the perceived influence of in-hospital care on family donation decision-making. The study findings are derived from a systematic review and thematic synthesis of secondary research involving family members who experienced an approach for organ donation in a hospital setting. Method: A protocol was developed and registered in an international database of prospective systematic reviews. Studies were identified by searching three electronic databases, Google search engine and by hand-examination of relevant research reports. Study selection was supported by the application of predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Specifically, we sought to include qualitative studies of European, Australasian and North American (Western world) origin, reported in English and published over the past two decades. A date range of 1998-2018 was guided by an early theoretical argument that the rates of organ donation could be increased by enhancing the quality of hospital care (DeJong et al. 1998). A process of thematic synthesis (Thomas and Harden 2008) was used to extract and combine family-reported experiences of care. Results: Descriptive themes depicting donor and non-donor family narrative accounts of the donation process revealed the significance of the care experience in the organ donation decision. At the analytic stage we aim to generate a comprehensive set of quality care indicators that can be used as a basis for evidence-informed practice development and as an item pool for questionnaire design. Evaluation and measurement present opportunity to elicit the key components of care foremost in improving the rates of family consent to deceased organ donation.
    • Measuring training load in dance: the construct validity of session-RPE

      Surgenor, Brenton; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine Inc, 2019-12-31)
      The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) is a practical and non-invasive method that allows a quantification of internal training load (ITL) in individual and team sports. As yet, no study has investigated its construct validity in dance. This study examines the convergent validity between the session-RPE method and an objective heart rate (HR)-based method of quantifying the similar ITL in vocational dance students during professional dance training. METHODS: Ten dance students (4 male, 20±1.16 yrs; 6 female, 20±0.52 yrs) participated in this study. During a normal week of training, session-RPE and HR data were recorded in 96 individual sessions. HR data were analysed using Edwards-TL method. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the convergent validity between the session-RPE and Edwards-TL methods for assessing ITL in a variety of training modes (contemporary, ballet, and rehearsal). RESULTS: The overall correlation between individual session-RPE and Edwards-TL was r=0.72, p<0.0001, suggesting there was a statistically significantly strong positive relationship between session-RPE and Edwards-TL. This trend was observed across all the training modes: rehearsal sessions (r=0.74, p=0.001), contemporary (r=0.60, p=0.001), and ballet (r=0.46, p=0.018) sessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that session-RPE can be considered as a valid method to assess ITL for vocational dance students, and that notably there is some variation between session-RPE and HR-based TL in different dance activities. Med Probl Perform Art 2019;34(1):1–5.
    • The visual non-verbal memory trace is fragile when actively maintained but endures passively for tens of seconds

      McKeown, Denis; Mercer, Thomas; Bugajska, Kinga; Duffy, Paul; Barker, Emma (Springer Nature, 2019-12-23)
      Despite attempts at active maintenance in the focus of attention, the rather fragile nature of the visual non-verbal memory trace may be revealed when the retention interval between target memoranda and probed recall on a trial is extended. In contrast, a passively maintained, or unattended visual memory trace may be revealed as persisting proactive interference extending across quite extended intervals between trials in a recent probes task. The present study, comprising five experiments, used this task to explore the persistence of such a passive visual memory trace over time. Participants viewed some target visual items (for example, abstract colored patterns) followed by a variable retention interval and a probe item. The task was to report whether the probe matched one of the targets or not. A decaying active memory trace was indicated by poorer performance as the memory retention interval was extended on a trial. However, when the probe was a member of the target set from the preceding trial, task performance was poorer than a comparison novel probe, demonstrating proactive interference. Manipulations of the inter-trial interval revealed that the temporal persistence of the passive memory trace of an old target was impressive, and proactive interference was largely resilient to a simple ‘cued forgetting’ manipulation. These data support the proposed two-process memory conception (active-passive memory) contrasting fragile active memory traces decaying over a few seconds with robust passive traces extending to tens of seconds.
    • The effects of physical activity or sport-based interventions on psychological factors in adults with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review

      Bondár, RZ; di Fronso, S; Bortoli, L; Robazza, C; Metsios, GS; Bertollo, M (Wiley, 2019-12-12)
      © 2019 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd Background: Inactivity is a major factor contributing to adverse health in people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). While it is generally agreed that physical activity (PA)/sport-based interventions promote cognitive and social development in the general population, little is known about their specific benefits in adults with ID. The aims of this systematic review were (a) to examine the effects of PA/sport-based interventions on intention, motivation and attitude regarding PA/sport participation in adults with ID and (b) to investigate the influence of these psychological factors on behavioural change (e.g. PA level) and quality of life. Methods: A systematic review has been conducted searching four electronic databases (i.e. SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed and Cochrane Library). Studies were included if written in English, peer reviewed, had primary research data, and measured intention, motivation, attitude, behavioural outcomes or quality of life. Results: Thirteen articles met our inclusion criteria of which 10 explored the effects of PA/sport as part of a multi-component intervention. Most investigated outcomes were exercise self-efficacy and quality of life. Five studies measured exercise self-efficacy, and four of them found significant changes. One study found a significant improvement in quality of life and another study in life satisfaction. We observed lack of sport-based interventions, few data about people with severe ID and limited psychological measures. Conclusions: Personal and environmental factors are key components of behavioural change. Support of caregivers and individualised instructions may benefit exercise self-efficacy. There is lack of information about the effects of psychological factors on behavioural change and quality of life in adults with ID.
    • The effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular physiology in rheumatoid arthritis

      Metsios, GS; Moe, RH; van der Esch, M; van Zanten, JJCSV; Fenton, SAM; Koutedakis, Y; Vitalis, P; Kennedy, N; Brodin, N; Bostrom, C; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-12-04)
      © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality is highly prevalent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with debilitating effects for the individual as well as significant healthcare impact. Current evidence demonstrates that engaging in aerobic and resistance exercise (i.e. structured physical activity) can significantly improve patient-reported and clinical index-assessed outcomes in RA. In addition to this, engagement in exercise programmes improves, in a dose-dependent manner, the risk of developing CVD as well as CVD symptoms and outcomes. The present narrative review uses evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as controlled trials, to synthesize the current state-of-the-art on the potential effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on CVD risk factors as well as on cardiac and vascular function and structure in people with RA. Where there is a lack of evidence in RA to explain potential mechanisms, relevant studies from the general population are also discussed and linked to RA.
    • Paradoxical paradigm proposals- Learning languages in mobile societies

      Traxler, John; Read, Timothy; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Barcena, Elena (Federación Argentina de Asociaciones de Profesores de Inglés, 2019-11-30)
      The concept of paradigms gives us the capacity to look analytically at historical scientific and intellectual episodes in a broader framework. It does however potentially also give us the capacity to look more analytically at contemporary scientific and intellectual activity and make conjectures and predictions. This paper looks at various contemporary pedagogic paradigms, including language learning and mobile learning, and suggests both their failings and then their replacement by an over-arching pedagogic paradigm more suited to societies permeated by personal digital technologies. This might be called the mobility, learning and language paradigm. The paper uses these examples as a way of exploiting paradigmatic thinking in order to catalyse intellectual progress.
    • Between the post and the com-post: Examining the postdigital ‘work’ of a prefix

      Sinclair, Christine; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2019-11-26)
      In examining the work of the prefix ‘post’, we aim to contribute to the current postdigital dialogue. Our paper does not provide a rationale for the use of ‘postdigital’ in the title of this journal: that has been thoroughly explored elsewhere. We want instead to consider the work the prefix might do. We look at ‘post’, as it appears to ‘act’ in the terms of ‘postmodernism’ and ‘posthumanism’, suggesting that modernism and humanism are in need of questioning and reworking. We also examine what gets ‘post-ed’, or sometimes ‘com-posted’. (Com- is another interesting prefix, meaning ‘with’.) We then consider how these inquiries inform our understanding of a ‘postdigital reality’ that humans now inhabit. We understand this as a space of learning, struggle, and hope, where ‘old’ and ‘new’ media are now ‘cohabiting artefacts’ that enmesh with the economy, politics and culture. In entering this postdigital age, there really is no turning back from a convergence of the traditional and the digital. However, this is not simply a debate about technological and non-technological media. The postdigital throws up new challenges and possibilities across all aspects of social life. We believe this opens up new avenues too, for considering ways that discourse (language-in-use) shapes how we experience the postdigital.
    • Improving reference equations for cardiorespiratory fitness using multiplicative allometric rather than additive linear models: Data from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database Registry

      Nevill, Alan M; Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Arena, Ross (Elsevier, 2019-11-22)
      New improved reference equations for cardiorespiratory fitness have recently been published, using Data from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND Registry). The new linear equation for VO2max (ml.kg−1.min−1) was additive, derived using multiple-linear regression. An alternative multiplicative allometric model has also been published recently, thought to improve further the quality of fit. The purpose of the current study was to compare the accuracy and quality/goodness-of-fit of the linear, additive model with the multiplicative allometric model using the FRIEND database. The results identified that the allometric model out performs the linear model based on all model-comparison criteria. The allometric model demonstrates; 1) greater explained variance (R2 = 0.645; R = 0.803) vs. (R2 = 0.62; R = 0.79), 2) residuals that were more normally distributed, 3) residuals that yielded less evidence of curvature, 4) superior goodness-of-fit statistics i.e., greater maximum log-likelihood (MLL) and smaller Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) statistics, 5) less systematic bias together with smaller unexplained standard error of estimates. The Bland and Altman plots also confirmed little or no evidence of curvature with the allometric model, but systematic curvature (lack-of-fit) in the linear model. The multiplicative allometric model to predict VO2max was; VO2max (ml.kg−1.min−1) = M-0.854 · H1.44 · exp. (0.424–0.346 · (sex) -0.011.age), where M = body mass and H = height (R2 = 0.645; R = 0.803) and sex is entered as a [0,1] indicator variable (male = 0 and female = 1). Another new insight obtained from the allometric model (providing construct validity) is that the height-to-body-mass ratio is similar to inverse body mass index or the lean body mass index, both associated with leanness when predicting VO2max. In conclusion adopting allometric models will provide more accurate predictions of VO2max (ml.kg−1.min−1) using more plausible, biologically sound and interpretable models.
    • Comparisons between adolescent bullies, victims, and bully-victims on perceived popularity, social impact, and social preference

      Guy, Alexa; Lee, Kirsty; Wolke, Dieter (Frontiers Media SA, 2019-11-22)
      This study investigated the effect of bullying role, i.e., bully, victim, and bully-victim, on three measures of peer status; perceived popularity, social preference, and social impact. In addition to completing peer nominations for these measures of peer status, adolescents (n = 2,721) aged 11 to 16 years from 5 secondary schools completed an online survey that assessed bullying involvement (self- and peer-reported), self-esteem, and behavioral difficulties. Compared to uninvolved adolescents, all bullying roles had a greater social impact. Bullies scored higher than all other roles for perceived popularity, whereas victims and bully-victims were the lowest in social preference. These significant group comparisons remained when controlling for demographic variables, behavioral difficulties, self-esteem and prosocial behavior. Overall, the perceived popularity found for bullies suggests that these adolescents are socially rewarded by peers for their victimization of others. These findings highlight the need to address the whole peer system in raising the social status of those who are victimized, whilst reducing the rewards received by bullies for their behavior.