• The effects of integrating children from lower and upper primary school years during lunch times on physical activity and social behavior

      Devonport, Tracey; Powell, Emma; Nevill, Alan; Brady, Abbe (United States Sports Academy, 2021-12-31)
      The present study examined physical activity (PA) and play behaviors of primary school children (N = 210) during segregated and mixed age group play. We hypothesised that providing more choice regarding who to play with would (1) increase PA and (2) reduce anti-social behaviors among children. In a mixed-method design, lunch time observations were recorded using the System for Observing Children’s Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP, Ridgers et al., 2010). These were completed whilst children were physically separated by lower (hereafter referred to as key-stage-one: four-seven years of age) and upper (hereafter referred to as key-stage-two: eight-11 years of age) primary year play, and following integrated age group play. Two playground supervisors and the head teacher were interviewed to ascertain perceptions of behavior under the two conditions. Observational results indicated moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased significantly for mixed play. Significant reductions in anti-social physical behaviors were also observed post-integration. Qualitative results indicate playground supervisors and the head teacher perceived increased post-integration PA to improve post lunch break classroom behavior and reduce anti-social physical and verbal behaviors. Findings illustrate the benefits of mixed age group play for increased physical activity and pro-social behaviors.
    • Postdigital artistic positionality and its potentials for cultural education

      Hayes, Sarah; Jandrić, Petar (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      In 2002, in Culture in Bits, Gary Hall described challenges to the ‘identity’ of cultural studies, pointing to the debate between political economy and cultural studies. Rapid technological change has distracted us since, but these challenges remain. Furthermore, recent developments surrounding the Covid-19 pandemic have also revealed complex interconnections across viral biology and information science, with the global lockdown giving rise to related postdigital artistic activities. In Algorithmic Culture Ted Striphas discussed a delegation of the work of culture to computational processes, which significantly alters the practice, experience, and understanding of culture. This article examines to what extent postdigital art practices offer a form of resistance to political economic ‘illusions’ of democratic forms of public culture found across the Internet, and at which price. If humans and technology are acknowledged as part of a collaborative artistic process, can this address issues pertaining to power, exploitation, and emancipation, in our postdigital age? We conclude that when artists engage with their personal postdigital positionality, this brings such possibilities a little closer in these uncertain times.
    • Cyber-disability hate cases in the UK: the documentation by the police and potential barriers to reporting

      Alhaboby, Zhraa A.; Al-Khateeb, Haider M.; Barnes, James; Jahankhani, Hamid; Pitchford, Melanie; Conradie, Liesl; Short, Emma (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      Disability hate crime is under-reported in the UK with perceived lim-ited support given to the victims. The use of online communication resulted in cyber-disability hate cases, recognised by the Police with the addition of an ‘online-flag’ in the documentation. However, the cases remain under-reported, with potential individual, societal and organisational barriers to reporting espe-cially during a pandemic. This paper aims to contextualise the reporting of cyber-disability hate cases, identify potential barriers, and provide recommendations to improve support to victims by the Police. The retrospective examination was car-ried out on disability-related cyber incidents documented by a police force in the UK for 19 months. Among 3,349 cyber-crimes, 23 cases were included. The anal-ysis covered descriptive statistics and qualitative document analysis (QDA). Only 0.7% of cyber incidents or 6.7% of cyber-hate incidents were disability re-lated. The age of victims ranged between 15 and 61 years, with a mean of 25.8 years. Most of the victims (78%) were from White ethnic background, and the majority were females (61.5%). Three overarching themes emerged from the qualitative data as influencers of reporting or documentation, these were: psy-chological impact, fear for safety, and the type of disability. Cyber-offences re-sulted in a serious impact on wellbeing, however, cases that included people with visible disabilities were more documented. Further awareness-raising targeting the police and public is needed to understand the impact of cyber-offences and recognise the different types of disabilities, which might encourage both report-ing and documentation.
    • Accuracy of ECG chest electrode placements by paramedics; an observational study

      Gregory, Pete; Kilner, Tim; Lodge, Stephen; Paget, Suzy (The College of Paramedics, 2021-12-31)
      Background The use of the 12-lead ECG is common in sophisticated prehospital Emergency Medical Services but its value depends upon accurate placement of the ECG-electrodes. Several studies have shown widespread variation in the placement of chest electrodes by other health professionals but no studies have addressed the accuracy of paramedics. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the accuracy of the chest lead placements by registered paramedics. Methods Registered paramedics who attended the Emergency Services Show in Birmingham in September 2018 were invited to participate in this observational study. Participants were asked to place the chest electrodes on a male model in accordance with their current practice. Correct positioning was determined against the Society for Cardiological Science & Technology’s Clinical Guidelines for recording a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (2017) with a tolerance of 19mm being deemed acceptable based upon previous studies. Results 52 eligible participants completed the study. Measurement of electrode placement in the vertical and horizontal planes showed a high level of inaccuracy with 3/52 (5.8%) participants able to accurately place all chest electrodes. In leads V1 - V3, the majority of incorrect placements were related to vertical displacement with most participants able to identify the correct horizontal position. In V4, the tendency was to place the electrode too low and to the left of the pre-determined position whilst V5 tended to be below the expected positioning but in the correct horizontal alignment. There was a less defined pattern of error in V6 although vertical displacement was more likely than horizontal displacement. Conclusions Our study identified a high level of variation in the placement of chest ECG electrodes which could alter the morphology of the ECG. Correct placement of V1 improved placement of other electrodes. Improved initial and refresher training should focus on identification of landmarks and correct placement of V1.
    • A review of the English school meal: ‘Progress or a recipe for disaster?'

      Lalli, Gurpinder (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-31)
      This paper examines the discourse on school meals as evidence suggests that political agendas feed into policy making. The paper fills a void by proposing new insights into how school meals could be reformed following reflections from a doctoral study and a review of the changing narrative on school food in England. Recommendations include rethinking the coverage on school meals by taking into account this multifaceted area of inquiry by recognising the importance of the physical context of the meals and the subjects of school mealtime.
    • The role of mating-relevant factors in the perpetration of digital dating abuse

      Bhogal, Manpal; Tudor, Courtney; Hira, Simran (SAGE, 2021-12-31)
      Previous research has explored offline intimate partner violence from an evolutionary perspective, primarily focusing on the role of individual differences inperpetration and victimisation. However, a current form of intimate partner violence is digital dating abuse, which involves abuse towards a romantic partner, occuring online through the use of electronic communication technology. This form of abuse differs from offline abuse, in that physical proximity is not required. Although research has focused on the effects digital dating abuse has on victims, little research has focused on the perpetration of digital dating abuse. This is important, as research focused on perpetration can inform a wide range of initiatives geared towards understanding the factors which drive this behaviour. Recent research has focused on evolutionary mating-relevant factors that drive the perpetration of digital dating abuse. Here, we extended and replicated previous work by reporting two studies (study 1, n = 114; study 2, n = 162) which explored the roles of mate value discrepancy, intrasexual competition, and relationship-contingent self-esteem in the perpetration of digital dating abuse. We found that mate value discrepancy (study 1 and 2) and intrasexual competition (study 2) positively predicted the perpetration of digital dating abuse. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to provide support that those who report high intrasexual competition, engage in greater levels of digital dating abuse, thus furthering theoretical advancements in this field by showing digital dating abuse is a mate retention tactic. Our findings further our understanding of online behaviour in romantic relationships through an evolutionary psychological lens.
    • Socioeconomic factors and health status disparities associated with difficulty in ADLs and IADLs among long-lived populations in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

      Matheson, David; Santos, Silvana; Nobrega, JC; Medeiros, J; Alves, S; Freitas, J; Silva, J; Simões, R; Santos, T; Brito, A; et al. (SAGE, 2021-12-31)
      Objective: To evaluate the association between socioeconomic factors, health status, and Functional Capacity (FC) in the oldest senior citizens in a metropolis and a poor rural region of Brazil. Method: Cross-sectional study of 417 seniors aged ≥80 years, data collected through Brazil’s Health, Well-being and Aging survey. FC assessed by self-reporting of difficulties in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using “R” statistical software. Results: Socioeconomic and demographic inequalities in Brazil can influence FC in seniors aged 80 years and older. Comparatively, urban long-lived people had a higher prevalence of difficulties for ADLs and rural ones showed more difficulties for IADLs. Among urban oldest seniors, female gender and lower-income were correlated with difficulties for IADLs. Among rural oldest seniors, female gender, stroke, joint disease, and inadequate weight independently were correlated with difficulties for ADLs, while the number of chronic diseases was associated with difficulties for IADLs. Conclusion: Financial constraints may favor the development of functional limitations among older seniors in large urban centers. In poor rural areas, inadequate nutritional status and chronic diseases may increase their susceptibility to functional decline.
    • Successful strategies for including adults with an intellectual disability into a research study using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)

      Drozd, Mary; Chadwick, Darren; Jester, Rebecca (RCN Publishing, 2021-12-31)
      Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities are not regularly recruited as participants in health research which may be due to perceptions regarding their inability to participate meaningfully with or without significant support and anticipated difficulty in gaining ethical approval because of issues around consent and mental capacity. This means that the voices of people with an intellectual disability are often missing within health research and their experiences and views are unexplored. Aim: To share successful strategies for accessing, recruiting and collecting data from a purposive sample of adults with an intellectual disability using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Discussion: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was a person-centred, flexible and creative approach to adopt. Meaningful collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities, their families, carers, advocacy group managers, specialists within intellectual disability services and research supervisors was vital to the success of conducting this study. Practical strategies for including people with an intellectual disability in a study from the perspective of a novice researcher, an outsider to the field of intellectual disability, have been shared. A limitation is that participants were not included in all stages of the research process. Conclusion: Inclusion of participants with an intellectual disability in research studies is important and achievable for healthcare researchers. A framework to support researchers outside of the specialist field of intellectual disabilities has been presented. Implications for practice: Adults with intellectual disabilities often receive poor healthcare and have poorer outcomes which is perpetuated if their input into research is not facilitated. People with intellectual disabilities make valuable contributions to the evidence base; personal views and perceptions of healthcare are important if health services are to meet individual needs.
    • Talk like an expert: the construction of expertise in news comments concerning climate change

      Coen, Sharon; Meredith, Joanne; Woods, Ruth; Fernandez, Ana (SAGE, 2021-12-30)
      This paper explores how readers of UK newspapers construct expertise around climate change (CC). It draws on 300 on-line readers’ comments on news items in The Guardian, Daily Mail and The Telegraph, concerning the release of the IPCC report calling for immediate action on CC. Comments were analysed using discursive psychology. We identified a series of discursive strategies that commenters adopted to present themselves as experts in their commentary. The (mostly indirect) use of category entitlements (implicitly claiming themselves as expert) and the presentation of one’s argument as factual (based on direct or indirect technical knowledge or common sense) emerged as common ways in which readers made claims to expertise, both among the supporters and among the sceptics of CC science. Our findings indicate that expertise is a fluid concept, constructed in diverse ways, with important implications for public engagement with CC science.
    • The value of postdigital humans as objects, or subjects, in McDonaldised Society

      Hayes, Sarah; Maggi, Savin-Baden (Springer, 2021-05-14)
      Postdigital human encounters could be said to take shape differently depending on how they are either subjectively valued, or objectively evaluated. Digital technologies and humans are now intimately intertwined with shared and sometimes equal capabilities to perform human tasks. Yet still it may be argued that different disciplinary identities prevent computing and the humanities from being thought of as equivalent. Over many decades, humans and computers have been objectively evaluated in McDonaldised society, via rational language and measures where computing techniques are simply applied to improve productivity. Since the Covid-19 lockdown people have described more personal and subjective digital encounters from their homes, with their virtual identities growing as their physical presence has diminished. This chapter speculates on whether new postdigital positionalities are emerging that might finally challenge more dominant, rational interpretations of what computing means in individual lives. If so, perhaps a more subjective analysis of these new forms of postdigital participation will bring the humanities into computing, instead of vice versa. This could help to reveal the unique positionality in each individual postdigital human encounter, where subjective self-description may now be seen to be more appropriate than objective rationality.
    • Prostate Cancer: is it beyond a joke? Using silly things to make serious points

      Matheson, David; Kishor, Vaidya (The Curious Academic Publishing, 2021-05-02)
    • The experiences of adults with intellectual disabilities attending a mindfulness-based group intervention

      Croom, Sarah; Chadwick, Darren; Nicholls, Wendy; McGarry, Ali (Wiley, 2021-03-31)
      A growing body of research supports the efficacy of mindfulness-based intervention programmes (MBPs) for people with intellectual disabilities. Existing literature calls for focus on the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities participating in MBPs. This study explored the experiences of nine adults with intellectual disabilities attending an eightweek group MBP delivered within the community. Two audio-recorded group discussions and seven semi-structured interviews were thematically analysed. Themes were: participants’ experience of the group as a meaningful and enjoyable activity; opportunities for socialisation, sharing, friendship and support; the significance of participant-facilitator relationships; and how participants’ understood and experienced the mindfulness exercises and concepts. Some understanding of mindfulness was evident and participants demonstrated an ability to engage in mindfulness exercises. Findings inform the development of effective MBPs for people with intellectual disabilities.
    • Optimierung im englischen Schulsystem: Was Schüler*innen sagen

      Jopling, Michael; Riordan, Sally (Psychosozial-Verlag, 2021-03-31)
      Dieser Beitrag untersucht die Auswirkungen von extremer Optimierung bzw. der Marktideologien des Neoliberalismus im Rahmen der englischen Schulpolitik. Gerade da sie in der Bildungsforschung noch unterrepräsentiert sind, benutzen wir die Meinungen von Schüler*innen, die wir in einem Forschungsprojekt gesammelt haben, um dieses Thema zu analysieren. Das Projekt untersuchte Schulen, die die Unterstützung und Versorgung benachteiligter Schüler*innen zu verbessern und die negativen Auswirkungen der neoliberalen (Optimierungs-)Politik auszugleichen versuchten. Es zeigt sich, dass der Fokus der Optimierung auf Leistung und Standardisierung die Effektivität von Ausgleichsmaßnahmen begrenzt sowie die Möglichkeiten beschränkt, auf die Meinungen der Schüler*innen zu hören oder das Lernen mit ihren Interessen und Kontexten zu verbinden.
    • Parental feeding, child eating and physical activity: differences in children living with and without asthma

      Heath, Gemma; Clarke, Rebecca; Nagakumar, Prasad; Pattison, Helen; Farrow, Claire (MDPI, 2021-03-26)
      This study aimed to establish the differences in parental attitudes toward feeding and activity, as well as child eating and activity levels, between families of children living with and without asthma. Parents of children and young people aged between 10 and 16 years living both with asthma (n = 310) and without asthma (n = 311) completed measures for parental feeding, parental attitudes toward child exercise, child eating, child activity level and asthma control. Children living with asthma had a significantly higher BMIz (BMI standardised for weight and age) score, were significantly more likely to emotionally overeat and desired to drink more than their peers without asthma. Parents of children with asthma reported greater use of food to regulate emotions, restriction of food for weight control, monitoring of child activity, pressure to exercise and control over child activity. When asthma symptoms were controlled, parental restriction of food for weight management predicted greater child BMIz scores, and higher child activity predicted lower child BMIz scores. These relationships were not found to be significant for children with inadequately controlled asthma. Differences in parental attitudes toward feeding and exercise, and child eating and exercise behaviors, between families may help to explain the increased obesity risk for children with asthma.
    • Networked learning in 2021: a community definition

      Gourlay, Lesley; Rodríguez-Illera, José Luis; Barberà, Elena; Bali, Maha; Gachago, Daniela; Pallitt, Nicola; Jones, Chris; Bayne, Siân; Hansen, Stig Børsen; Hrastinski, Stefan; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-03-25)
    • The effect of HVP training in vowel perception on bilingual speech production

      Kangatharan, Jayanthiny; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria (Consentia Beam, 2021-03-10)
      Prior investigations (Giannakopoulou et al., 2013) have indicated high variability phonetic training intervention can help L2 English adult learners change the perception of vowels such that they shift their attention to primary cues (spectral features) rather than secondary cues (e.g. duration) to correctly identify vowels in L2. This experiment explores if high-variability training impacts on L2 adult learners’ production of L2 speech. Production samples from a prior experiment were used to conduct ratings of accuracy (Giannakopoulou, 2012). In the current experiment, the production samples were transcribed and rated for accuracy by twenty native English listeners. The intelligibility levels of L2 learners’ speech samples as indexed by higher accuracy in transcription were observed as having been rated higher following training than prior to training. The implications of the results are considered with regard to theories on the connection between speech production and perception, and Flege’s (1995) Speech Learning Model.
    • Developing a consensus-based scoring rubric to enhance practice-based assessment of student nurses' clinical competence: A Delphi study

      Almalkawi, Ibraheim; Jester, Rebecca; Terry, Louise (Elsevier, 2021-03-08)
      Background Concerns about reliability and validity of practice-based assessment of professional competencies are frequently reported in the literature. Difficulty in understanding competency statements or distinguishing different achievement levels has been found to be a major factor. Objectives To develop a consensus-based scoring rubric based on stakeholders' interpretations of level descriptors for student nurses' professional values competencies. Design Two rounds of Classic e-Delphi. Settings This study was conducted in a London based university using Bristol Online Survey website as a host. Participants 100 stakeholders with vested interests in undergraduate pre-registration nurse education were purposefully invited to participate. Method Round one collected free-text interpretations of the United Kingdom Nursing and Midwifery Council professional values competency statements. Round two used a Likert scale questionnaire to measure the level of agreement to the level descriptor statements generated through round one. Responses were analysed through content analysis in round one and consensus measure in round two. A threshold of 70% agreement to determine consensus was set in advance. Results In round one, 47 participants provided their interpretations of the competency statements. In round two, 51 participants completed the questionnaire. All 24 items achieved a strong consensus with 86%–100% of participants agreeing or strongly agreeing with the statements. Conclusions A Delphi study was successfully used to develop a consensus-based scoring rubric with clearly stated descriptors for professional values competency statements. This scoring rubric holds the potential to enhance practice-based assessment across all healthcare professional disciplines.
    • An exploration of UK paramedics’ experiences of cardiopulmonary resuscitation induced consciousness

      Gregory, Pete; Mays, Ben; Kilner, Tim; Sudron, Ceri (The College of Paramedics, 2021-03-01)
      Introduction: Consciousness may occur during cardiopulmonary resuscitation despite the absence of a palpable pulse. This phenomenon, known as CPR-Induced Consciousness (CPR-IC) was first described over three decades ago and there has been an increase in case reports describing CPR-IC. However, there remains limited evidence in relation to the incidence of CPR-IC and to practitioners’ experiences of CPR-IC. Methods: A mixed methods, cross-sectional survey of paramedics who were registered with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) and working in the United Kingdom (UK) at the time of the survey. Participants who had experienced CPR-IC were asked to provide details about the number of episodes, a description of how consciousness was manifested, and whether or not it interfered with resuscitation. Results: 293 eligible participants completed the study and 167 (57%) said that they had witnessed CPR-IC. Of those, over 56% reported that they had experienced it on at least two occasions. CPR-IC was deemed to interfere with resuscitation in nearly 50% of first experiences but this fell to around 31% by the third experience. The most common reasons for CPR-IC to interfere with resuscitation were; patient resisting clinical interventions, increased rhythm and pulse checks, distress, confusion and reluctance to perform CPR. Conclusions: The prevalence of CPR-IC in our study was similar to earlier studies; however, unlike the other studies, we did not define what constituted interfering CPR-IC. Our findings suggest that interference may be related as much to the exposure of the clinician to CPR-IC as to any specific characteristic of the phenomenon itself.
    • Injury occurrence in hip hop dance: An online cross-sectional cohort study of breakers

      Tsiouti, Nefeli; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2021-03-01)
      Breaking is the most physical of the hip hop dance styles, but little research has examined the health and well-being of its participants. Using a cross-sectional recall design a self-report online health and wellbeing survey was open for a 5-month period. 320 adult break dancers (16% professional, 65% student/recreational) with a minimum of 6-months experience completed the survey. The main outcome measures were self-report injury incidence and aetiology and training hours. Respondents (52%) trained between 4-9 hours per week over 3 days; significantly less than theatrical dancers. 71.1% reported a dance-related injury and 44.5% reporting being currently injured at time of survey. Self-reported types of injury were significantly different from other dance genres; the most frequently injured were arms/hands (40.6%), shoulders (35.9%), knees (32.2%), neck (22.8%) and ankles (15.6%). When injured, 29% respondents either took their own preventative steps or continued to dance carefully, 20% sought medical professional help; “yourself” was the most cited influence on returning to dance after injury (47%). The current survey highlighted the potential differences between different dance genres particularly regarding injury incidence and aetiology.
    • Implementing a pressure training program to improve decision-making and execution of skill among premier league academy soccer players

      Devonport, Tracey; Kent, Sofie; Lane, Andy; Nicholls, Wendy (Taylor & Francis, 2021-02-25)
      The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention intended to improve academy players’ performance under pressure. Male academy soccer players (n = 82; mean age = 14.12 years, SD = 2.28) completed a baseline pressure task producing performance scores (A) for decision making and skill execution. By completing a pressure task, players received pressure training (PT) (Wood & Wilson, 2012). Players were then randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 41; receiving PT, three cognitive behavior workshops, and reflective diaries) or comparison group (n = 41; receiving PT only). Sixty-eight players (n = 29; intervention group; n = 39; comparison group) repeated the PT task at a six-week follow up (B), and of these, 26 (n = 15; intervention group; n = 11; PT only) also completed a re-test PT task (A) at 12-week follow up. Due to attrition at follow up, chi-square analysis was conducted across experimental groups A-B only. Analysis indicated intervention players scored significantly higher in their decision-making (p = .028) with a significant main effect of age-group on decision-making (p = .003) and skill execution (p = .005). Four players (highest scoring and lowest scoring player within intervention and comparison groups) from each academy age-group (n = 16) took part in individual interviews to explore intervention effectiveness. Thematic analysis found that some players perceived no benefits of the condition they completed, others perceived benefits to confidence, meta-cognitive skills, and challenge appraisals. Methodological implications for future pressure training interventions are presented.