• A conversation analysis of asking about disruptions in method of levels psychotherapy

      Cannon, Caitlyn; Meredith, Joanne; Speer, Susan; Mansell, Warren (Wiley, 2019-12-31)
      Background: Method of Levels (MOL) is a cognitive therapy with an emerging evidence base. It is grounded in Perceptual Control Theory and its transdiagnostic nature means techniques are widely applicable and not diagnosis-specific. This paper contributes to psychotherapy process research by investigating a key technique of MOL, asking about disruptions, and in doing so aims to explore how the technique works and aid the understanding of related techniques in other psychotherapies. Method: Conversation Analysis (CA) is applied to asking about disruptions in twelve real-life therapeutic interactions. Findings: Analyses explore how and when therapists ask about disruptions, with examples presented according to their degree of adherence to the MOL approach. The majority of identified instances project responses consistent with MOL aims; encouraging further talk, focused on the client’s problem, and with a shift to meta-level commentary. Also presented are examples of therapist and client influence on disruptions. Conclusion: The paper provides support for a number of MOL practices, with clinical implications and links to other psychotherapies highlighted.
    • Animal faux pas: two legs good four legs bad for theory of mind, but not in the broad autism spectrum

      Atherton, Gray; Cross, Liam (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Research shows that the general population varies with regards to both autistic traits and theory of mind (ToM) ability. Other work has shown that autistic individuals may not under-perform on ToM tests when the agent of evaluation is anthropomorphic rather than typically human. Two studies examined the relation between ToM and autistic trait profiles in over 650 adults using either the standard Faux Pas Recognition Test (FPT) or an anthropomorphised version (FPTa). Results showed that autistic trait profiles were related to faux pas detection ability in the FPT but not the FPTa. Furthermore, while those with the broad autism phenotype scored significantly worse than those who were typically developed on the FPT, scores did not significantly differ on the FPTa. These findings add to a growing body of work suggesting that ToM ability is not at a global deficit in those on the autistic spectrum, but may relate to the mindreading of specifically human agents.
    • Indigenous Languages of Scotland: culture and the classroom

      Matheson-Monnet, Catherine; Matheson, David (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      Scotland’s indigenous languages were, for very many years, under attack. The Gaelic of the Highlands and Western Isles, arguably one of the earliest written European languages, after Greek and Latin, had a brief apotheosis around 1000CE when it was the language of the Scottish Royal Court. Scots, spoken by the mass of the people, was the language of the renowned Mediaeval poets known as the Makars. Gaelic was effectively ignored but for attempts, by the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, to engender transient bilingualism in order to have the Gaelic diminished and then forgotten. Following the accession of the James VI of Scotland to the throne of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland, the Authorised Edition of the Bible was commissioned and published but only in English, no Scots version being deemed necessary. After the Union of the Parliaments in 1707, what prestige remained to the Scots language diminished rapidly and henceforth almost the entire written output from Scotland has been in English. Exceptions have included Hugh MacDiarmid’s poetry, Liz Lochhead’s translation into Scots of Molière’s Tartuffe (1664/1986), which toured urban working-class areas in the 1980s and to great acclaim, and Trainspotting.
    • Endocrine parameters in association with bone mineral accrual in young female vocational ballet dancers

      Amorim, Tânia; Metsios, George S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Nevill, Alan M.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Wyon, Matthew; Marques, F; Nogueira, L; Adubeiro, N; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Maia, José; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose Little is known on bone mass development in dancers involved in vocational training. The aim of the present study was to model bone mineral content (BMC) accruals and to determine whether circulating levels of oestrogens, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) explain differences in bone mass gains between vocational dance students and matched-controls. Methods The total of 67 vocational female dancers (VFD) and 68 aged-matched controls (12.1±1.9yrs and 12.7±2.0yrs at baseline, respectively) were followed for two consecutive years (34 VFD and 31 controls remained in the study for the full duration). BMC was evaluated annually at impact [femoral neck (FN); lumbar spine (LS)], and non-impact sites (forearm) using DXA. Anthropometry, age at menarche (questionnaire) and hormone serum concentrations (immunoradiometric assays) were also assessed for the same period. Results VFD demonstrated consistently reduced body weight (p<0.001) and BMC at all three anatomical sites (p<0.001) compared to controls throughout the study period. Menarche, body weight, GH and IGF-1 were significantly associated with bone mass changes over time (p<0.05) but did not explain group differences in BMC gains at impact sites (p>0.05). However, body weight did explain the differences between groups in terms of BMC gains at the forearm (non-impact site). Conclusion Two consecutive years of vocational dance training revealed that young female dancers demonstrate consistently lower bone mass compared to controls at both impact and non-impact sites. The studied endocrine parameters do not seem to explain group differences in terms of bone mass gains at impact sites.
    • Measuring training load in dance: the construct validity of session-RPE

      Surgenor, Brenton; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine Inc, 2019-12-31)
      The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) is a practical and non-invasive method that allows a quantification of internal training load (ITL) in individual and team sports. As yet, no study has investigated its construct validity in dance. This study examines the convergent validity between the session-RPE method and an objective heart rate (HR)-based method of quantifying the similar ITL in vocational dance students during professional dance training. METHODS: Ten dance students (4 male, 20±1.16 yrs; 6 female, 20±0.52 yrs) participated in this study. During a normal week of training, session-RPE and HR data were recorded in 96 individual sessions. HR data were analysed using Edwards-TL method. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the convergent validity between the session-RPE and Edwards-TL methods for assessing ITL in a variety of training modes (contemporary, ballet, and rehearsal). RESULTS: The overall correlation between individual session-RPE and Edwards-TL was r=0.72, p<0.0001, suggesting there was a statistically significantly strong positive relationship between session-RPE and Edwards-TL. This trend was observed across all the training modes: rehearsal sessions (r=0.74, p=0.001), contemporary (r=0.60, p=0.001), and ballet (r=0.46, p=0.018) sessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that session-RPE can be considered as a valid method to assess ITL for vocational dance students, and that notably there is some variation between session-RPE and HR-based TL in different dance activities. Med Probl Perform Art 2019;34(1):1–5.
    • Acquiring knowledge prior to diagnosis: a grounded theory of patients’ experiences

      Roddis, Jennifer K.; Holloway, Immy; Bond, Carol S; Galvin, Kathleen T. (The Beryl Institute, 2019-12-31)
      This paper will specifically consider one of the major findings of a wider study (previously reported in Roddis, Holloway, Bond and Galvin1), concerning how patients acquired knowledge and information about their condition before being formally diagnosed. The overall purpose of this research was to explore and explain how people make sense of long-term health conditions. Through the use of both purposive and theoretical sampling within a grounded theory design, experiences of individuals with thrombophilia and asthma were explored.
    • Sporting reunions, contemporary collections and collective biographies: a case study Harry Batt’s ’71 England Team

      Williams, Jean; Compton, Joanna; Scarlett, Belinda (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      As befits its status as the world’s most popular team sport, football has fared better than most other sports and disciplines in its coverage of academic titles. In the twenty first century, increasingly public sites of soccer have also made women and girls contribution to football more easily available to wider audiences. From 2016-2018, an eighteen-month Arts Council England funded project, delivered by the National Football Museum, researched and re-interpreted its women’s football collection. The Chris Ungar collection was purchased in 2015 from a private collector and covered the women’s game internationally from the late nineteenth century to 2015. The documentation process gave curatorial and academic staff the time to explore and research the material, making connections between objects and giving a revised focus to future collection policies. Documentation was the essential first step in opening up a collection for public engagement and academic research. This now forms part of the National Football Museum’s permanent collection given designated collection status by the Arts Council in 2014. This recognises the National Football Museum’s collection as one of outstanding resonance, national significance and quality.
    • Introduction: Women’s football and the #MeToo movement 2019

      Williams, Jean (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      This special edition of Sport in History is an output from the largest academic conference dedicated to the international history of women’s football held so far, at the National Football Museum on the 8 and 9 March, 2018, to mark International Women’s Day. Twenty speakers presented across a range of topics, and community artists worked with a range of contributors to make a new textile-based artwork, as part of the wider Hidden Histories of Women’s Football project, which concluded on 30 September 2018 with the inaugural reunion of women football players mentioned by Jean Williams in the final article of this collection. So one of the key themes of this collection as a whole is how the memory of football as both a sport and as a cultural industry is changing, in part thanks to the revised commitment of the museum and heritage sector to better celebrate the women’s game. From 1 March 2019 the National Football Museum has committed to improve its representation of women in football to 50% of the work. As the museum was founded in Preston in 1995 and moved to Manchester in 2012, with a mission to research, interpret and publicize the football history, most of which have been based on collector Harry Langton’s acquistions. The commitment in 2019 to diversify women’s football therefore is a major change in the Museum’s approach and evidence of how academics can work with public history bodies to produce rigorous, and readily accessible, work that reaches a wide and varied audience. This collection reflects that collaboration with work from key individuals in the Museum, Archives and Library sectors, as well as academics and independent researchers.
    • Anticipating a 4th Industrial revolution and the futures of learning: a discussion paper for Wolverhampton Learning City Region

      Connor, Stuart; Mahoney, Mary; Lewis, Natalie (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-12-31)
      What learning is needed for the 21st Century and what changes can be made for learners today and for tomorrow? What skills, knowledge and experience are needed for jobs that do not exist yet? What institutions and relations and practices will be needed to support the school leavers, apprentices and graduates of 2020 and 2040? In a world that it is projected to change rapidly and unevenly, what role will learning have in helping anticipate and shape the future? Public sector, market, third sector leaders are faced with some critical challenges and choices. Exponential advances in genetic engineering, nanotechnology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, robotics, graphene and additive manufacturing (3D printing) are set to constitute a 4th industrial revolution. A 4th industrial revolution is not just characterised by particular technologies but the fusions between these technologies, the capacity to redraw the lines between physical, digital, and biological domains and the potential scale, speed and spread of these changes. The breadth of skills and functions afforded by new technologies will not only have an impact on the number and type of jobs available across all sections of the job market, but also have the potential to challenge existing divisions of labour and the nature, value and meaning of work and learning. Of course, one of the major challenges and contradictions when anticipating futures, is how can one prepare for the unknown? This is a major challenge. There is no consensus as to the number of jobs that will be lost or created as a result of a 4th industrial revolution, but it is anticipated there will be no more routine jobs in the future. Investment in the development of knowledge and skills in science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) subjects is self-evident, but social, creative and critical thinking skills will be vital as they not only prove resistant to automation, but are essential to efforts to anticipate and engage with the disruption and challenges of a 4th industrial revolution. By anticipating the changes on the horizon, there is an opportunity to review and redefine the needs of today’s and tomorrow’s learners. Due to the scale of change that is anticipated it is argued that no one agency will be in a position to meet the grand challenges of a 4th industrial revolution. The level, scale and pace of change require both long-term thinking and cross-sector action. Subsequently a potential role for a nascent learning region will be to help to surface, assess and develop the future readiness of all those who live and work in the region.
    • Between the post and the com-post: Examining the postdigital ‘work’ of a prefix

      Sinclair, Christine; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2019-11-26)
      In examining the work of the prefix ‘post’, we aim to contribute to the current postdigital dialogue. Our paper does not provide a rationale for the use of ‘postdigital’ in the title of this journal: that has been thoroughly explored elsewhere. We want instead to consider the work the prefix might do. We look at ‘post’, as it appears to ‘act’ in the terms of ‘postmodernism’ and ‘posthumanism’, suggesting that modernism and humanism are in need of questioning and reworking. We also examine what gets ‘post-ed’, or sometimes ‘com-posted’. (Com- is another interesting prefix, meaning ‘with’.) We then consider how these inquiries inform our understanding of a ‘postdigital reality’ that humans now inhabit. We understand this as a space of learning, struggle, and hope, where ‘old’ and ‘new’ media are now ‘cohabiting artefacts’ that enmesh with the economy, politics and culture. In entering this postdigital age, there really is no turning back from a convergence of the traditional and the digital. However, this is not simply a debate about technological and non-technological media. The postdigital throws up new challenges and possibilities across all aspects of social life. We believe this opens up new avenues too, for considering ways that discourse (language-in-use) shapes how we experience the postdigital.
    • The moral impact of studying science

      Riordan, Sally (Springer, 2019-08-11)
      Science and religion are most usually compared on epistemic grounds: what do they tell us about the natural world and what methods do they use to determine those truths? The suggestion here is that the two fields should be compared on moral grounds: how do scientific and religious experiences affect the way a person lives his or her life? A hypothesis is presented in this vein: engaging in scientific work or education alters a person’s moral outlook on everyday matters. In this chapter, I articulate and motivate this claim by framing it against both theological and philosophical debate. I explore how it might be tested as a claim in moral psychology. The resulting vision presented here is of science and religion engaged in dialogue—at times necessarily embroiled—not only about the nature of the world, but regarding how best we navigate our way in it.
    • Breaking down boundaries? Exploring mutuality through art-making in an open studio mental health setting

      Lewis, Lydia; Spandler, Helen (Intellect Ltd, 2019-05-31)
      Community-based participatory arts projects have been shown to promote well-being and mental health recovery. One reason for this is because they provide opportunities for mutuality – connectedness to others and different kinds of sharing and reciprocity. Yet research into mental health arts projects has not focused on shared creative practice between participants/members and practitioners. This article reports on qualitative research in an arts and mental health organization employing an open studio approach in which art therapists made art alongside members. It explores the possibilities for, and tensions associated with, generating mutuality between studio managers and members through this approach. Conducted from a critically engaged, feminist sociological perspective, the study encompassed an analytical focus on power, especially gender relations. Findings are presented along three themes: (de)constructing and obscuring relational asymmetries; mutual acceptance and its limits; and maintaining, working with and challenging ‘boundaries’. Implications for applied arts and mental health practice are highlighted.
    • Amotz Zahavi

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2019-05-14)
    • Are professional footballers becoming lighter and more ectomorphic? Implications for talent identification and development

      Nevill, Alan M.; Okojie, Daniel I.; Smith, Julian; O'Donoghue, Peter G.; Webb, Tom (SAGE, 2019-03-21)
      The identification and development of talent is an essential component of modern professional football. The recognition of key physical characteristics of such footballers who successfully progress through talent development programs is of considerable interest to academics and those working in professional football. Using Football Yearbooks, we obtained the height, body mass and ages of all players from the English top-division over the seasons 1973–4, 1983–4, 1993–4, 2003–4 and 2013–4, calculating body-mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) and reciprocal ponderal index (RPI) (cm/kg0.333). The mean squad size increased over these decades from n = 22.4 (1973–4) to n = 27.8 (2013–4). Height also increased linearly by approximately 1.2 cm per decade. Body mass increased in the first four decades, but declined in the final season (2013–4). Regression analysis confirmed inverted “u” shape trends in both body mass and BMI, but a “J” shape trend in RPI, indicating that English top-division professional footballers are getting more angular and ectomorphic. We speculate that this recent decline in BMI and rise in RPI is due to improved quality of pitches and increased work-load required by modern-day players. Defenders were also found to be significantly taller, heavier, older and, assuming BMI is positively associated with lean mass, more muscular than other midfielders or attackers. The only characteristic that consistently differentiated successful with less successful players/teams was age (being younger). Therefore, English professional clubs might be advised to attract young, less muscular, more angular/ectomorphic players as part of their talent identification and development programs to improve their chances of success.
    • Adopting a Janus perspective: moving forwards and backwards through our teacher professional experiences

      Bates, Sandi; Wright, Victoria (Taylor & Francis, 2019-03-20)
      The paper reports on collaborative journal writing and dialogue sustained by two education professionals with a view to engaging in meaningful reflective practice. The transition from journal writing to reporting in this paper was underpinned by knowledge of the place of reflective practice in teacher education and continuous professional development. Knowledge of the limited opportunities and time for meaningful continuous professional development; as experienced across the education sector, also informed a desire to share the writing experience with a view to encouraging other teachers to develop writing communities. As teacher educators, we relate how we came to write together and sustained a dialogue that provided us with newly framed insights in to our professional lives and experiences. Our journalling told our stories and was very much in the spirit of evocative autoethnography. We describe how we naturally included sensory description related to the time and place of writing. We also used more evocative language, including the use of metaphors. Themes of critical reflection, reflexivity, embodied reflection and evocative autoethnography are therefore explored in the light of our writing experience. The journals and the associated dialogue highlight the values of such small and time constrained moments as informal professional development opportunities.
    • Between the blabbering noise of individuals or the silent dialogue of many: a collective response to ‵Postdigital Science and Education′ (Jandrić et al. 2018)

      Arndt, Sonja; Asher, Gordon; Knox, Jeremy; Ford, Derek R.; Hayes, Sarah; Lăzăroiu, George; Jackson, Liz; Mañero Contreras, Julia; Buchanan, Rachel; D’Olimpio, Laura; Smith, Mark; Suoranta, Juha; Pyyhtinen, Olli; Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Steketee, Anne; Mihăilă, Ramona; Stewart, Georgina; Dawson, Mark; Sinclair, Christine; Peters, Michael A. (Springer, 2019-03-18)
      This article is a multi-authored response to an editorial ‵Postdigital Science and Education′ published in 2018 by Petar Jandrić, Jeremy Knox, Tina Besley, Thomas Ryberg, Juha Suoranta and Sarah Hayes in Educational Philosophy and Theory as a mission statement for the journal Postdigital Science and Education. Nineteen authors were invited to produce their sections, followed by two author-reviewers who examined the article as a whole. Authors’ responses signal the sense of urgency for developing the concept of the postdigital and caution about attempts at simplifying complex relationships between human beings and technology. Whilst the digital indeed seems to become invisible, we simultaneously need to beware of its apparent absence and to avoid overemphasizing its effects. In this attempt, authors offer a wide range of signposts for future research such as ‘the critical postdigital’ and ‘postdigital reflexivity’; they also warn about the group’s own shortcomings such as the lack of ‘real’sense of collectivity. They emphasize that postdigital education must remain a common good, discuss its various negative aspects such as smartphone addiction and nomophobia, and exhibit some positive examples of postdigital educational praxis. They discuss various aspects of postdigital identities and point towards the need for a postdigital identity theory. With these varied and nuanced responses, the article opens a wide spectrum of opportunity for the development of postdigital approaches to science and education for the future.
    • Socioeconomic and ethnic status of two- and three-year-olds undergoing dental extractions under general anaesthesia in Wolverhampton, 2011-2016

      Harper, Robert; Nevill, Alan M.; Senghore, Ngimbe; Khan, Ishfaq (Springer Nature Publishing, 2019-03-08)
      Introduction Socioeconomic and ethnic status have in the past been implicated as possible causes of dental caries. Aims To assess the role that relative social depravation and ethnicity has on dental caries in two- and three-year-olds undergoing DGA in Wolverhampton. Design and methods Retrospective analysis of hospital records of 213 patients over a six-year period (2011-2016). A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests were used to test statistical significance. Results The most significant factor between ethnicity, year and sex, was ethnicity (P = 0.026), with the greatest difference between mean number of teeth extracted per treatment visit for Other Whites (mean = 6.3) compared with White British (mean = 4.0) (difference P = 0.012). The association between the difference in extracted quadrant and year of treatment was significant (P = 0.011), with the greatest frequency of extractions involving three and four quadrants in the later years of 2015 and 2016. Seventy percent of children treated were living in the 20% most deprived areas (deciles one and two) compared with children living in more affluent areas (deciles three to ten) (P <0.001). Conclusion An important public health issue is highlighted which needs to be addressed, both at a national level and locally, through early oral health education for mothers from relatively deprived areas; particularly those of Other White ethnicity.
    • A narrative review of family members’ experience of organ donation request after brain death in the critical care setting

      Kentish-Barnes, N.; Siminoff, L.A.; Walker, Wendy; Urbanski, M.; Charpentier, J.; Thuong, M.; Sarti, A.; Shemie, S.D.; Azoulay, E. (Springer, 2019-03-06)
      Introduction Family members of critically ill patients suffer from high levels of anxiety and depression in the ICU, and are at risk of developing post-ICU syndrome following ICU discharge. In the case of brain death, and potential organ donation, the family is at the center of the decision process: within a limited time frame, the family will be informed that the patient is brain-dead and will be approached about potential organ donation. Materials and methods Family experience with organ donation has been the topic of several research papers allowing one to gain knowledge about family members’ experience of organ donation, emphasizing specific needs, adequate support, and pointing out gaps in current delivery of family-centered care. In this narrative review, experts, clinicians, and researchers present the various legal systems regarding family implication in organ donation decisions; describe factors that influence the decision-making process; highlight family perspectives of care and respect for potential donors in the ICU environment; describe the impact of organ donation discussions and decisions on post-ICU syndrome; and suggest communication skills and support to be developed in the future. A research agenda for the next decade is also encouraged. Conclusion Overall, challenges remain and concern all persons involved in the process, ICU doctors and nurses, the organ procurement organization, family members, and, in some cases, the patients themselves. Looking at the big picture will provide opportunities for further improvements.
    • Challenges of maternal and prenatal care in Nigeria

      Ekpenyong, Mandu Stephen; Bond, Carol; Matheson, David (Insight Medical Publishing, 2019-02-27)
      Background and aim: Evidence in the literature indicates that maternal health care by a skilled birth attendant is one of the key strategies for maternal survival. However, the rate of maternity care utilization and reduction of maternal death is very low in Nigeria. This study was designed to explored factors influencing women utilization of maternal and prenatal care in Nigeria. Hence, the need to understand factors that serves as barriers to accessing maternal and prenatal care in Nigeria using the Socio-ecological Model (SEM). Methods: A mixed method was employed for this study. Data collection used questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Questionnaires were distributed to 330 respondents of which 318 of them were retrieved and qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted for 6 participants. The study was conducted in one of the tertiary health facilities in Nigeria, amongst mothers aged 15-45 years. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analyzing the quantitative data whilst a qualitative content analysis was done for the qualitative data. Results: The study established that education, income level, costs associated with seeking care, distance and time taken to travel were significantly associated with maternity health care services utilization. The study concludes that; costs of treatment, distance and time, income level, staff attitude and women’s autonomy were critical in determining women utilization of maternity care services.
    • The postdigital challenge of redefining academic publishing from the margins

      Jandrić, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor and Francis, 2019-02-27)
      This paper explores relationships between knowledge production and academic publication and shows that the current political economy of mainstream academic publishing has resulted from a complex interplay between large academic publishers, academics, and hacker-activists. The process of publishing is a form of ‘social production’ that takes place across the economy, politics and culture, all of which are in turn accommodating both old and new technology in our postdigital age. Technologies such as software cannot be separated from human labour, academic centres cannot be looked at in isolation from their margins, and the necessity of transdisciplinary approaches does not imply the disappearance of traditional disciplines. In the postdigital age, the concept of the margins has not disappeared, but it has become somewhat marginal in its own right. We need to develop a new language of describing what we mean by ‘marginal voices’ in the social relations between knowledge production and academic publication. Universities require new strategies for cohabitation of, and collaboration between, various socio-technological actors, and new postdigital politics and practice of knowledge production and academic publishing.