• How lesson study is used in initial teacher education: an international review of literature

      Bamfield, Vivienne; Boyle, Chris; Bethel, Alison; Knowler, Helen; Katene, Will; Koutsouris, George; Norwich, Brahm (Taylor & Francis, 2022-05-31)
      This paper focuses on the use of lesson study (LS) in initial teacher education (ITE) from a mapping review of international research published in peer reviewed journals. This method enables identification of characteristic features of the research field along with any gaps in the existing evidence base. We map out variations in ITE LS practices by employing a 7-dimensional framework of LS to illustrate the range and draw conclusions about the design and use of LS in ITE. We conclude that LS is an example of teacher enquiry-based practice; identified by researchers as one of the means of building the capacity for a self-improving education system. LS and related practices play a crucial role in preparing teachers to adopt a research orientation to their own practice. However, the paper also discusses the organisational challenges and the balance between acquiring skills and reflection for beginning teachers when introducing LS into ITE.
    • Exclusion and the strategic leadership role of Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCos) in England: planning for COVID-19 and future crises

      Done, Elizabeth; Knowler, Helen (Wiley-Blackwell, 2022-05-30)
      A small-scale study funded by the British Educational Association (BERA Small Awards 2020) investigated the role of SENCos in England immediately prior to, during and following the first closure of schools nationally in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed methods research strategy comprising semi-structured interviews and a national online survey generated data related to SENCos’ involvement in strategic planning for crisis conditions, focusing specifically on students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) and concerns around exclusionary practices. Findings suggest that pandemic conditions have exacerbated familiar issues related to the SENCo role and SEND provision in English schools, e.g. engagement in reactive firefighting, onerous workloads, uneven SENCo involvement in strategic planning, and schools’ failure to prioritise students with SEND. Minimal evidence of ‘advocacy leadership’ or of SENCos challenging exclusionary practices was found. Disparities between anecdotal and published data around illegal exclusion found in earlier research were also evidenced.
    • Postdigital artistic positionality and its potentials for cultural education

      Hayes, Sarah; Jandrić, Petar (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      In 2002, in Culture in Bits, Gary Hall described challenges to the ‘identity’ of cultural studies, pointing to the debate between political economy and cultural studies. Rapid technological change has distracted us since, but these challenges remain. Furthermore, recent developments surrounding the Covid-19 pandemic have also revealed complex interconnections across viral biology and information science, with the global lockdown giving rise to related postdigital artistic activities. In Algorithmic Culture Ted Striphas discussed a delegation of the work of culture to computational processes, which significantly alters the practice, experience, and understanding of culture. This article examines to what extent postdigital art practices offer a form of resistance to political economic ‘illusions’ of democratic forms of public culture found across the Internet, and at which price. If humans and technology are acknowledged as part of a collaborative artistic process, can this address issues pertaining to power, exploitation, and emancipation, in our postdigital age? We conclude that when artists engage with their personal postdigital positionality, this brings such possibilities a little closer in these uncertain times.
    • Prostate Cancer: is it beyond a joke? Using silly things to make serious points

      Matheson, David; Kishor, Vaidya (The Curious Academic Publishing, 2021-12-31)
    • Postdigital critical pedagogy

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah; Abdi, Ali A; Misiaszek, Greg William (Palgrave, 2021-12-31)
    • Exploring the professionalisation of further education teachers in England

      Wright, Victoria; Bates, Sandi; Loughlin, Theresa; Clarke, Nicola; Hale, Dayna (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-31)
      The paper captures the professionalisation of teachers in the further education sector by shining a light on their everyday struggle to uphold their ethical goals in support of their students in a climate of performative and regulatory expectations. It reports on a small scale qualitative study in which the six participants were either on the Postgraduate Certificate in Post Compulsory Education course (PGCE in PCE) or on the Masters degree in Professional Practice and Lifelong Education (MA PPLE). They were therefore either student teachers or experienced teachers with different lengths of experience. Students were asked to rank order a set of cards and clarify their decisions. Semi- structured interviews were then undertaken in which the participants were asked to bring artefacts of their choice (potentially from their course of study). Reflection points included the construction of self as teacher and the tensions and impact of a range of expectations nationally and locally. Participants shared responses to continuous change in the sector, their institutions and within their practices. All expressed a common and sustained mission to make a difference, no matter how small, to their students’ lives.
    • The blockchain university: disrupting ‘disruption'

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah; Jandric (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      This paper explores the promise of disruption of higher education offered by latest platform technologies - a combination of mobile applications for connecting teachers and students and blockchain technology for secure transactions of information and money. We start with a brief examination of several generations of technological disruptions arriving from the Silicon Valley with a special focus to educational technology. Showing that these disruptions are primarily focused to furthering capitalist mode of production, we question whether the latest disruption could provide different results. Advertised as 'Uber for students, Airbnb for teachers', the Woolf University offers the seductive promise of radical transformation of higher education based on cooperative principles. Our analysis, which is based on early ideas about the development of the Woolf University, indicates that it has the potentials to offer cooperative learning to students, cooperative employment to academic workers, all the while retaining highest quality of teaching and learning modelled after ancient scholastic principles. On that basis, we conclude that the Woolf University, together with other adaptations of blockchain technology for educational purposes, does offer a lot of potential for fundamental disruption of higher education and should be closely watched in the times to come.
    • Talk like an expert: the construction of expertise in news comments concerning climate change

      Coen, Sharon; Meredith, Joanne; Woods, Ruth; Fernandez, Ana (SAGE, 2021-12-30)
      This paper explores how readers of UK newspapers construct expertise around climate change (CC). It draws on 300 on-line readers’ comments on news items in The Guardian, Daily Mail and The Telegraph, concerning the release of the IPCC report calling for immediate action on CC. Comments were analysed using discursive psychology. We identified a series of discursive strategies that commenters adopted to present themselves as experts in their commentary. The (mostly indirect) use of category entitlements (implicitly claiming themselves as expert) and the presentation of one’s argument as factual (based on direct or indirect technical knowledge or common sense) emerged as common ways in which readers made claims to expertise, both among the supporters and among the sceptics of CC science. Our findings indicate that expertise is a fluid concept, constructed in diverse ways, with important implications for public engagement with CC science.
    • The effect of hyperarticulation on speech comprehension under adverse listening conditions

      Kangatharan, Jayanthiny; Uther, Maria; Gobet, Fernand (Springer, 2021-09-26)
      Comprehension assesses a listener’s ability to construe the meaning of an acoustic signal in order to be able to answer questions about its contents, while intelligibility indicates the extent to which a listener can precisely retrieve the acoustic signal. Previous comprehension studies asking listeners for sentence-level information or narrative-level information used native listeners as participants. This is the first study to look at whether clear speech properties (e.g. expanded vowel space) produce a clear speech benefit at the word level for L2 learners for speech produced in naturalistic settings. This study explored whether hyperarticulated speech was more comprehensible than non-hyperarticulated speech for both L1 British English speakers and early and late L2 British English learners in quiet and in noise. Sixteen British English listeners, 16 native Mandarin Chinese listeners as early learners of L2 and 16 native Mandarin Chinese listeners as late learners of L2 rated hyperarticulated samples versus non-hyperarticulated samples in form of words for comprehension under four listening conditions of varying white noise level (quiet or SNR levels of +16dB, +12dB or +8dB) (3x2x4 mixed design). Mean ratings showed all three groups found hyperarticulated speech samples easier to understand than non-hyperarticulated speech at all listening conditions. Results are discussed in terms of other findings (Uther et al., 2012) that suggest that hyperarticulation may generally improve speech processing for all language groups.
    • A critical review of mobile learning: phoenix, fossil, zombie or …..?

      Traxler, John (MDPI, 2021-09-08)
      The established mobile learning paradigm is now two decades old; it grew out of the visions and resources of e-learning research communities in universities in the world’s more economically developed regions. Whilst it has clearly been able to demonstrate many practical, pedagogic and conceptual achievements, it is now running out of steam. It has failed to adapt to a world where mobile technologies are pervasive, ubiquitous and intrusive and where people and communities can now own their own learning. This paper looks at the evolution of the established mobile learning paradigm and explores the current global, demographic, social and technical environment in order to develop a new paradigm, more suited to the changed and changing realities and priorities. This is mobile learning2.0. The paper looks at the axioms and values of this paradigm and its possible tools and techniques. The treatment is discursive and critical. The paper reimagines the concepts and practices of learning with mobiles. It embraces many significant themes at a high level including inclusive and equitable education; learning theories and design; pedagogical frameworks and methodologies; digital and media literacies; social media and learning environments; online collaboration and communities; Informal and formal learning.
    • Girls In the juvenile Justice system in England and Wales, 2002-17

      Arnull, Elaine; Park, Jihye; Heimer, Karen (Taylor & Francis, 2021-09-02)
      This paper addresses a gap in the literature on youth justice in England and Wales by examining disaggregated patterns of juvenile court processing (i.e., proven offences) and custody. It provides new evidence to show that gendered effects are best observed over time. Looking at juvenile justice data over time allows us to see the effects of policy that are obscured in the short-term. This is especially important when considering small and specific populations, such as girls. It is often assumed that policy impacts smaller groups in the justice system (in this case, girls) in the same way as the larger group (in this case, boys), with boys’ experiences representing the norm (Estrada et al. 2016). In this paper, we call into question that assumption by considering female and male proven offences and juvenile custody over time in England and Wales and show why gendered impacts should be given proper consideration (Sherman & Black 2015). We also examine changes in the gender gap in proven offences and juvenile custody over time.
    • Balanced forced-diuresis compared to control as a reno-protective approach in cardiac surgery: secondary outcome of a randomized controlled trial, assessment of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels

      Luckraz, Heyman; Giri, Ramesh; Wrigley, Benjamin; Nagarajan, Kumaresan; Senanayake, Eshan; Sharman, Emma; Beare, Lawrence; Nevill, Alan; Heart-Centre, American Hospital, PO Box 5566, Dubai, UAE. HeymanLuckraz@aol.com. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-08-24)
      Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a recognised biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI).This study investigated the impact of balanced forced-diuresis using RenalGuard® system (RG), in reducing acute kidney injury (AKI) rates and the associated NGAL levels (6-h post-CPB plasma level) post adult cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods: Patients included in the study were at high-risk for AKI post cardiac surgery, namely history of diabetes and/or anaemia, e-GFR 20–60 ml/min/1.73 m2, Logistic EuroScore > 5, anticipated CPB time > 120 min. Patients were randomized to either RG (n = 110) or managed as per current practice (control = 110). RIFLE-defined AKI rate (based on serum creatinine level increase) within first 3 days of surgery and 6-h post CPB NGAL levels were the primary and secondary end-points. Results: Pre and intra-operative characteristics between the two groups were similar (p > 0.05) including the pre-op NGAL levels, the oxygen delivery (ecDO2i) and the carbon dioxide production (ecVCO2i) during CPB. Patients in the RG group had a significantly lower post-operative RIFLE-defined AKI rate compared to control (10% (11/110) v/s 20.9% (23/110), p = 0.03). Overall, median 6-h post CPB NGAL levels in patients with AKI were significantly higher than those who did not develop AKI (211 vs 150 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Patients managed by balanced forced-diuresis had lower post-operative NGAL levels (146 vs 178 ng/ml, p = 0.09). Using previously reported NGAL cut-off level for AKI (142 ng/ml), binary logistic regression analysis confirmed a beneficial effect of the RG system, with an increased risk of AKI of 2.2 times in the control group (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.14–4.27, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Overall, the 6-h post-CPB plasma NGAL levels were significantly higher in patients who developed AKI. Patients managed with the novel approach of balanced forced-diuresis, provided by the RenalGuard® system, had a lower AKI rate and lower NGAL levels indicating a lesser degree of renal tissue injury. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov website, NCT02974946, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02974946.
    • ‘Grey’ exclusions matter: mapping illegal exclusionary practices and the implications for children with disabilities in England and Australia

      Done, Elizabeth J; Knowler, Helen; Armstrong, David (Wiley, 2021-08-24)
      This paper provides an outline of, and rationale for, an international research project that will identify commonalities and disparities in illegal school exclusionary practices in Australia and England. The aims here are to situate such practices within a global context and to map the events and processes through which children and young people, particularly those with ‘special’ educational needs and disabilities, are removed from school in Australia and England. The research we advocate is premised on evidence that inequitable and illegal exclusionary practices are endemic in education systems globally; hence, ‘pushout syndrome’ in the USA, ‘off rolling’ in England, facilitated ‘dropout’ in Italy and ‘grey exclusions’ in Australia. The authors argue that the repeated commissioning of research by national governments and school inspectorates, intended to accurately ascertain the scale of this problem and its impact on the life trajectories of the excluded, serves to defer meaningful action to prevent its occurrence. School exclusion, whether legal or illegal, can be conceptualized as a process rather than an event, and this paper discusses a descriptive continuum through which exclusionary practices in Australia and England can be mapped An experiential continuum is proposed that facilitates a thematic mapping of contributory factors, identified from a relevant literature, as a preliminary analytical framework for future research.
    • How should adult handgrip strength be normalized? Allometry reveals new insights and associated reference curves

      Nevill, Alan M; Tomkinson, Grant R; Lang, Justin J; Wutz, Wyatt; Myers, Tony D (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2021-08-24)
      Introduction Handgrip strength (HGS) is an important indicator of health. Because HGS is strongly associated with body size, most investigators normalize HGS for some measure of body size as a more sensitive indicator of strength within a population. We aimed to (1) identify the optimal body size dimension to remove (normalize) HGS for differences in body size among adults, and (2) generate norm-referenced centiles for HGS using the identified body size dimension. Methods Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a representative sample of the U.S. non-institutionalized civilian population. Exclusions resulted in a final sample of 8690 adults aged 20 years and older. HGS was measured using handheld dynamometry. Body size dimensions included body mass, height, and waist circumference. The most appropriate dimension(s) associated with HGS were identified using allometry. We fitted centile curves for normalized HGS using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS). Results Findings suggest that neither body mass nor body mass index is appropriate to normalize HGS. Incorporating all three body size dimensions of body mass, height, and waist circumference, or the reduced sub-sets of body mass and height, or height alone, suggest that the most appropriate normalizing (body size) dimension associated with HGS should be a cross-sectional or surface area measure of an individual’s body size (i.e., L2, where L is a linear dimension of body size). Given that height was also identified as the signally best body size dimension associated with HGS, we recommend HGS be normalized by height2 (i.e., HGS/HT2). Centile curves for HGS/HT2 by age group and gender were therefore provided. Conclusion Scaling HGS by height2 may help normalize strength for population-based research.
    • Online postgraduate teaching: re-discovering human agency

      Aitken, Gill; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2021-08-22)
    • Teaching in the age of Covid-19 - a longitudinal study

      Jandrić, Petar; Bozkurt, Aras; McKee, Miranda; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2021-08-19)
      This article presents a longitudinal study of global teaching and learning experiences during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study is based on material presented in two articles written 1 year apart from each other by a group of 84 authors from 20 countries. The first article, ‘Teaching in the Age of Covid-19’, consists of short testimonies and workspace photographs collected between 18 March and 5 May 2020. The second article, ‘Teaching in the Age of Covid-19 – One Year Later’, consists of short testimonies and workspace photographs collected between 17 March and 31 May 2021. This material is analysed in several different ways. Some parts of the paper treat the testimonies as personal, positional, narratives, while other parts of the paper examine the testimonies for what they represent as data. Readers are invited to read the original testimonies, view the original images and move back and forth between both narratives and data. As narratives, each author has demonstrated their individual postdigital positionality through praxis. As data, these mutually constitutive accounts offer a much larger, powerful commentary, on the position of educators across the globe during this pandemic. The discussion and conclusion blend the two understandings into a postdigital data-narrato-logy, where data and narrative interact in ways similar to interactions between theory and practice within the concept of praxis.
    • Balanced forced‐diuresis as a renal protective approach in cardiac surgery: Secondary outcomes of electrolyte changes

      Luckraz, Heyman; Giri, Ramesh; Wrigley, Benjamin; Nagarajan, Kumaresan; Senanayake, Eshan; Sharman, Emma; Beare, Lawrence; Nevill, Alan (Wiley, 2021-08-19)
      Objectives Forced-diuresis during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can be associated with significant electrolyte shifts. This study reports on the serum electrolyte changes during balanced forced-diuresis with the RenalGuard® system (RG) during CPB. Methods Patients at risk of acute kidney injury (AKI)—(history of diabetes &/or anaemia, e-GFR 20–60 ml/min/1.73 m2, anticipated CPB time >120 min, Log EuroScore >5)—were randomized to either RG (study group) or managed as per current practice (control group). Results The use of RG reduced AKI rate (10% for RG and 20.9% in control, p = .03). Mean urine output was significantly higher in the RG group during surgery (2366 ± 877 ml vs. 765 ± 549 ml, p < .001). The serum potassium levels were maintained between 3.96 and 4.97 mmol/L for the RG group and 4.02 and 5.23 mmol/L for the controls. Median potassium supplemental dose was 60 (0–220) mmol (RG group) as compared to 30 (0–190) mmol for control group over first 24 h (p < .001). On Day 1 post-op, there were no significant differences in the serum sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and chloride levels between the two groups. Otherwise, postoperative clinical recovery was also similar. Conclusions Balanced forced-diuresis with the RG reduced AKI rates after on-pump cardiac surgery compared to controls. Although the RG group required higher doses of IV potassium replacement in the postoperative period, normal serum levels of potassium were maintained by appropriate intravenous potassium supplementation and the clinical outcomes between groups were similar.
    • Teaching in the age of Covid-19—1 year later

      Jandrić, Petar; Hayes, David; Levinson, Paul; Christensen, Line Lisberg; Lukoko, Happiness Onesmo; Kihwele, Jimmy Ezekiel; Brown, James Benedict; Reitz, Charles; Mozelius, Peter; Nejad, Harry G; et al. (Springer, 2021-08-10)
    • Successful strategies for including adults with an intellectual disability into a research study using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)

      Drozd, Mary; Chadwick, Darren; Jester, Rebecca (RCN Publishing, 2021-08-05)
      Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities are not regularly recruited as participants in health research which may be due to perceptions regarding their inability to participate meaningfully with or without significant support and anticipated difficulty in gaining ethical approval because of issues around consent and mental capacity. This means that the voices of people with an intellectual disability are often missing within health research and their experiences and views are unexplored. Aim: To share successful strategies for accessing, recruiting and collecting data from a purposive sample of adults with an intellectual disability using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Discussion: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was a person-centred, flexible and creative approach to adopt. Meaningful collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities, their families, carers, advocacy group managers, specialists within intellectual disability services and research supervisors was vital to the success of conducting this study. Practical strategies for including people with an intellectual disability in a study from the perspective of a novice researcher, an outsider to the field of intellectual disability, have been shared. A limitation is that participants were not included in all stages of the research process. Conclusion: Inclusion of participants with an intellectual disability in research studies is important and achievable for healthcare researchers. A framework to support researchers outside of the specialist field of intellectual disabilities has been presented. Implications for practice: Adults with intellectual disabilities often receive poor healthcare and have poorer outcomes which is perpetuated if their input into research is not facilitated. People with intellectual disabilities make valuable contributions to the evidence base; personal views and perceptions of healthcare are important if health services are to meet individual needs.
    • Atmospheres, spaces and job crafting: home visits in alternative provision

      Page, Damien (Informa UK Limited, 2021-08-04)
      Neglected in policy and the public consciousness, Alternative Provision is the expanding putty of the education sector, working within the gaps left by other agencies to re-engage children. Yet to engage children, Alternative Provision must first engage families and home visits are crucial to this process. Often triggered by absences or safeguarding concerns, homes visits are inherently risky both to the safety of practitioners but also to the fragile trust that is built with families. Rather than being purely objective practices, home visits are deeply embodied, sensuous experiences: from the apprehension and neighbour-scrutiny of the doorstep to inside homes that are sometimes sealed, sometimes permeable, practitioners engage in ‘way-finding’ through room and histories, spaces of affective atmospheres made and unmade, crafted and destroyed through the interaction of people, artefacts and light. And here, improvising, practitioners craft their jobs as equally as they craft engagement.