• The effects of integrating children from lower and upper primary school years during lunch times on physical activity and social behavior

      Devonport, Tracey; Powell, Emma; Nevill, Alan; Brady, Abbe (United States Sports Academy, 2021-12-31)
      The present study examined physical activity (PA) and play behaviors of primary school children (N = 210) during segregated and mixed age group play. We hypothesised that providing more choice regarding who to play with would (1) increase PA and (2) reduce anti-social behaviors among children. In a mixed-method design, lunch time observations were recorded using the System for Observing Children’s Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP, Ridgers et al., 2010). These were completed whilst children were physically separated by lower (hereafter referred to as key-stage-one: four-seven years of age) and upper (hereafter referred to as key-stage-two: eight-11 years of age) primary year play, and following integrated age group play. Two playground supervisors and the head teacher were interviewed to ascertain perceptions of behavior under the two conditions. Observational results indicated moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased significantly for mixed play. Significant reductions in anti-social physical behaviors were also observed post-integration. Qualitative results indicate playground supervisors and the head teacher perceived increased post-integration PA to improve post lunch break classroom behavior and reduce anti-social physical and verbal behaviors. Findings illustrate the benefits of mixed age group play for increased physical activity and pro-social behaviors.
    • A fall from grace: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of unemployment in UK university graduates with common mental health issues

      Cockshott, Christopher J.; Kiemle, Gundi; Byrne, Paula; Gabbay, Mark B. (Scientific Research Publishing, 2021-12-31)
      An exploratory investigation into the experiences of unemployed university graduates with common mental health issues (i.e., depression and anxiety) was conducted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 graduates in their twenties, all of whom had been unemployed between five and 24 months with common mental health issues, generated themes relating to ‘Loss of Expectation and Disorientation’, ‘Waste, Failure and Blame’, and ‘Stigma and Shame’. Participants had experienced a ‘Fall from Grace’ – a descent from a vaunted position of high-esteem and importance as university graduates, with seemingly bright prospects for a privileged future, into a lowly state of unemployment with mental health issues, leaving them feeling tarnished. These findings are discussed in relation to the literature on graduate unemployment, crisis and stigma, raising some practical issues for universities, including counselling services, and how they can better manage the transition to employment for their graduates.
    • Implementing a pressure training program to improve decision-making and execution of skill among premier league academy soccer players

      Devonport, Tracey; Kent, Sofie; Lane, Andy; Nicholls, Wendy (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-31)
      The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention intended to improve academy players’ performance under pressure. Male academy soccer players (n = 82; mean age = 14.12 years, SD = 2.28) completed a baseline pressure task producing performance scores (A) for decision making and skill execution. By completing a pressure task, players received pressure training (PT) (Wood & Wilson, 2012). Players were then randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 41; receiving PT, three cognitive behavior workshops, and reflective diaries) or comparison group (n = 41; receiving PT only). Sixty-eight players (n = 29; intervention group; n = 39; comparison group) repeated the PT task at a six-week follow up (B), and of these, 26 (n = 15; intervention group; n = 11; PT only) also completed a re-test PT task (A) at 12-week follow up. Due to attrition at follow up, chi-square analysis was conducted across experimental groups A-B only. Analysis indicated intervention players scored significantly higher in their decision-making (p = .028) with a significant main effect of age-group on decision-making (p = .003) and skill execution (p = .005). Four players (highest scoring and lowest scoring player within intervention and comparison groups) from each academy age-group (n = 16) took part in individual interviews to explore intervention effectiveness. Thematic analysis found that some players perceived no benefits of the condition they completed, others perceived benefits to confidence, meta-cognitive skills, and challenge appraisals. Methodological implications for future pressure training interventions are presented.
    • Talk like an expert: the construction of expertise in news comments concerning climate change

      Coen, Sharon; Meredith, Joanne; Woods, Ruth; Fernandez, Ana (SAGE, 2021-12-30)
      This paper explores how readers of UK newspapers construct expertise around climate change (CC). It draws on 300 on-line readers’ comments on news items in The Guardian, Daily Mail and The Telegraph, concerning the release of the IPCC report calling for immediate action on CC. Comments were analysed using discursive psychology. We identified a series of discursive strategies that commenters adopted to present themselves as experts in their commentary. The (mostly indirect) use of category entitlements (implicitly claiming themselves as expert) and the presentation of one’s argument as factual (based on direct or indirect technical knowledge or common sense) emerged as common ways in which readers made claims to expertise, both among the supporters and among the sceptics of CC science. Our findings indicate that expertise is a fluid concept, constructed in diverse ways, with important implications for public engagement with CC science.
    • Prostate Cancer: is it beyond a joke? Using silly things to make serious points

      Matheson, David; Kishor, Vaidya (The Curious Academic Publishing, 2021-05-02)
    • The experiences of adults with intellectual disabilities attending a mindfulness-based group intervention

      Croom, Sarah; Chadwick, Darren; Nicholls, Wendy; McGarry, Ali (Wiley, 2021-03-31)
      A growing body of research supports the efficacy of mindfulness-based intervention programmes (MBPs) for people with intellectual disabilities. Existing literature calls for focus on the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities participating in MBPs. This study explored the experiences of nine adults with intellectual disabilities attending an eightweek group MBP delivered within the community. Two audio-recorded group discussions and seven semi-structured interviews were thematically analysed. Themes were: participants’ experience of the group as a meaningful and enjoyable activity; opportunities for socialisation, sharing, friendship and support; the significance of participant-facilitator relationships; and how participants’ understood and experienced the mindfulness exercises and concepts. Some understanding of mindfulness was evident and participants demonstrated an ability to engage in mindfulness exercises. Findings inform the development of effective MBPs for people with intellectual disabilities.
    • A cross-cultural exploratory study of health behaviours and wellbeing during Covid-19

      Devonport, Tracey; Ruiz, Montse; Chen-Wilson, Jo; Nicholls, Wendy; Cagas, Jon; Fernandez-Montalvo, J; Choi, Y; Robazza, C (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-03-31)
      This study explored the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on perceived health behaviours; physical activity, sleep, and diet behaviours, alongside associations with wellbeing. Participants were 1140 individuals residing in the UK (n = 230), South Korea (n = 204), Finland (n = 171), Philippines (n = 132), Latin America (n = 124), Spain (n = 112), North America (n = 87), and Italy (n = 80). They completed an online survey reporting possible changes in the targeted behaviours as well as perceived changes in their physical and mental health. Multivariate analyses of covariance variance (MANCOVA) on the final sample (n = 1131) revealed significant mean differences regarding perceived physical and mental health ‘over the last week’, as well as changes in health behaviours during the pandemic by levels of physical activity and country of residence. Follow up analyses indicated that individuals with highest decrease in physical activity reported significantly lower physical and mental health, while those with highest increase in physical activity reported significantly higher increase in sleep and lower weight gain. UK participants reported lowest levels of physical health and highest increase in weight while Latin American participants reported being most affected by emotional problems. Finnish participants reported significantly higher ratings for physical health. The physical activity by country interaction was significant for wellbeing. MANCOVA also revealed significant differences across physical activity levels and four established age categories. Participants in the oldest category reported being significantly least affected by personal and emotional problems; youngest participants reported significantly more sleep. The age by physical activity interaction was significant for eating. Discussed in light of Hobfoll’s (1998) conservation of resources theory, findings endorse the policy of advocating physical activity as a means of generating and maintaining resources combative of stress and protective of health.
    • The value of postdigital humans as objects, or subjects, in McDonaldised Society

      Hayes, Sarah; Maggi, Savin-Baden (Springer, 2021-03-21)
      Postdigital human encounters could be said to take shape differently depending on how they are either subjectively valued, or objectively evaluated. Digital technologies and humans are now intimately intertwined with shared and sometimes equal capabilities to perform human tasks. Yet still it may be argued that different disciplinary identities prevent computing and the humanities from being thought of as equivalent. Over many decades, humans and computers have been objectively evaluated in McDonaldised society, via rational language and measures where computing techniques are simply applied to improve productivity. Since the Covid-19 lockdown people have described more personal and subjective digital encounters from their homes, with their virtual identities growing as their physical presence has diminished. This chapter speculates on whether new postdigital positionalities are emerging that might finally challenge more dominant, rational interpretations of what computing means in individual lives. If so, perhaps a more subjective analysis of these new forms of postdigital participation will bring the humanities into computing, instead of vice versa. This could help to reveal the unique positionality in each individual postdigital human encounter, where subjective self-description may now be seen to be more appropriate than objective rationality.
    • Optimierung im englischen Schulsystem: Was Schüler*innen sagen

      Jopling, Michael; Riordan, Sally (Psychosozial-Verlag, 2021-03-01)
      Dieser Beitrag untersucht die Auswirkungen von extremer Optimierung bzw. der Marktideologien des Neoliberalismus im Rahmen der englischen Schulpolitik. Gerade da sie in der Bildungsforschung noch unterrepräsentiert sind, benutzen wir die Meinungen von Schüler*innen, die wir in einem Forschungsprojekt gesammelt haben, um dieses Thema zu analysieren. Das Projekt untersuchte Schulen, die die Unterstützung und Versorgung benachteiligter Schüler*innen zu verbessern und die negativen Auswirkungen der neoliberalen (Optimierungs-)Politik auszugleichen versuchten. Es zeigt sich, dass der Fokus der Optimierung auf Leistung und Standardisierung die Effektivität von Ausgleichsmaßnahmen begrenzt sowie die Möglichkeiten beschränkt, auf die Meinungen der Schüler*innen zu hören oder das Lernen mit ihren Interessen und Kontexten zu verbinden.
    • Cyber-disability hate cases in the UK: the documentation by the police and potential barriers to reporting

      Alhaboby, Zhraa A.; Al-Khateeb, Haider M.; Barnes, James; Jahankhani, Hamid; Pitchford, Melanie; Conradie, Liesl; Short, Emma (Springer, 2021-01-31)
      Disability hate crime is under-reported in the UK with perceived lim-ited support given to the victims. The use of online communication resulted in cyber-disability hate cases, recognised by the Police with the addition of an ‘online-flag’ in the documentation. However, the cases remain under-reported, with potential individual, societal and organisational barriers to reporting espe-cially during a pandemic. This paper aims to contextualise the reporting of cyber-disability hate cases, identify potential barriers, and provide recommendations to improve support to victims by the Police. The retrospective examination was car-ried out on disability-related cyber incidents documented by a police force in the UK for 19 months. Among 3,349 cyber-crimes, 23 cases were included. The anal-ysis covered descriptive statistics and qualitative document analysis (QDA). Only 0.7% of cyber incidents or 6.7% of cyber-hate incidents were disability re-lated. The age of victims ranged between 15 and 61 years, with a mean of 25.8 years. Most of the victims (78%) were from White ethnic background, and the majority were females (61.5%). Three overarching themes emerged from the qualitative data as influencers of reporting or documentation, these were: psy-chological impact, fear for safety, and the type of disability. Cyber-offences re-sulted in a serious impact on wellbeing, however, cases that included people with visible disabilities were more documented. Further awareness-raising targeting the police and public is needed to understand the impact of cyber-offences and recognise the different types of disabilities, which might encourage both report-ing and documentation.
    • Products, training, and technology

      Williams, Jean; Vamplew, Wray; Riess, Steven (Bloomsbury, 2021-01-28)
      Sports products can be divided into three major categories. First, spectator products, which are sold either at the sites of events or mediated electronically and made globally available by satellite technology. Secondly, player products which may include games, equipment and costume, instruction and assistance, facilities, clubs, and training. Thirdly, associated products which are goods and services which have been allied with sport in some way, but which are not really necessary to the playing or watching of sport, though they can heighten the enjoyment (Vamplew 2018). These might include a varied range of products which stand alone, but are integral to experiential enjoyment, such as music, food and drink, social media, mainstream media, merchandise, and different spectator experiences (including VIP boxes and special areas with enhanced hospitality) and so forth. As will be shown below, technology had a significant role in developments within all these categories All sports products can be affected also by cultural values through the beliefs, attitudes, and emotions of both producers and consumers. While income, wealth, and prices clearly have a major role in the marketing of sport, as with any other visitor attraction experience, culture also influences the taste demand. Tastes can vary across individuals who maybe like to experience “value for money” or a “grand day out” and are also affected by class, gender, and nationality. Tastes can also be influenced by opinion-makers including entrepreneurs and commercial advertisers, or dictated by law, as the “safe standing” movement in Britain at association football grounds indicates. This chapter, though far from comprehensive, explores some of these cultural issues in an introductory overview.
    • Postdigital-biodigital: an emerging configuration

      Peters, Michael; Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-15)
      This dialogue (trilogue) is an attempt to critically discuss the technoscientific convergence that is taking place with biodigital technologies in the postdigital condition. In this discussion Sarah Hayes, Petar Jandrić and Michael A. Peters examine the nature of the convergences, their applications for bioeconomic sustainability and associated ecopedagogies. The dialogue paper raises issues of definition and places the technological convergence (‘nano-bio-info-cogno’) - of new systems biology and digital technologies at the nano level - in an evolutionary context to speculate, on the basis of the latest research, future possibilities. The paper also reviews these developments within familiar landscapes of posthumanism and postmodernism, raises the question of political bioeconomy, and the role of postdigital education within it.
    • Biodigital philosophy, technological convergence, and new knowledge ecologies

      Peters, Michael; Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2021-01-11)
      New technological ability is leading postdigital science, where biology as digital information, and digital information as biology, are now dialectically interconnected. In this article we firstly explore a philosophy of biodigitalism as a new paradigm closely linked to bioinformationalism. Both involve the mutual interaction and integration of information and biology, which leads us into discussion of biodigital convergence. As a unified ecosystem this allows us to resolve problems that isolated disciplinary capabilities cannot, creating new knowledge ecologies within a constellation of technoscience. To illustrate our arrival at this historical flash point via several major epistemological shifts in the post-war period, we venture a tentative typology. The convergence between biology and information reconfigures all levels of theory and practice, and even critical reason itself now requires a biodigital interpretation oriented towards ecosystems and coordinated Earth systems. In this understanding, neither the digital humanities, the biohumanities or the posthumanities sit outside of biodigitalism. Instead, posthumanism is but one form of biodigitalism that mediates the biohumanities and the digital humanities, no longer preoccupied with the tradition of the subject, but with the constellation of forces shaping the future of human ontologies. This heralds a new biopolitics which brings the philosophy of race, class, gender and intelligence, into a compelling dialogue with genomics and information.
    • Biodigital technologies and the bioeconomy: The global new Green Deal?

      Peters, Michael; Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-11)
    • Patterns of occupational stress in police contact and dispatch personnel: Implications for physical and psychological health

      Galbraith, Niall; Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Galbraith, Victoria (Springer Nature, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose Occupational stress in police call handlers is researched less frequently than in operational or front-line police, despite the role’s unique challenges. Occupational stress is potentially manageable, thus improved understanding of its contributors and consequences is important for effective intervention. We aimed to compare levels and sources of organisational stress in police contact and dispatch personnel with UK benchmarks. Secondly, to test whether different typologies of stress were associated with physical health, mental health and substance use. Finally, to examine whether non-organisational factors (socio-demographic factors and family interference with work (FIW)) predicted organisational stress typologies. Methods A sample (n = 720) of police and civilian staff in a UK police call and dispatch centre were surveyed. Results The strongest sources of stress were competing and high demands, low control, insufficient managerial support and ambiguity surrounding workplace change – all of which indicated need for ‘urgent action’ according to UK benchmarks. Substance use and particularly mental health difficulties were higher than published norms. A latent profile analysis grouped respondents into a low stress group and two high stress profiles: As stress increased across profiles, this corresponded with worse physical and mental health and higher substance use. FIW predicted membership of both high stress profiles. Conclusion Despite non-operational roles, police contact and despatch personnel can experience high occupational stress which is associated with physical and mental health difficulties and substance use. Organisational-level interventions which address lack of control, conflicting role demands as well as enhance management support and communication around change might be most effective in this group.
    • An exploration of UK paramedics’ experiences of cardiopulmonary resuscitation induced consciousness

      Gregory, Pete; Mays, Ben; Kilner, Tim; Sudron, Ceri (The College of Paramedics, 2020-12-31)
      Introduction: Consciousness may occur during cardiopulmonary resuscitation despite the absence of a palpable pulse. This phenomenon, known as CPR-Induced Consciousness (CPR-IC) was first described over three decades ago and there has been an increase in case reports describing CPR-IC. However, there remains limited evidence in relation to the incidence of CPR-IC and to practitioners’ experiences of CPR-IC. Methods: A mixed methods, cross-sectional survey of paramedics who were registered with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) and working in the United Kingdom (UK) at the time of the survey. Participants who had experienced CPR-IC were asked to provide details about the number of episodes, a description of how consciousness was manifested, and whether or not it interfered with resuscitation. Results: 293 eligible participants completed the study and 167 (57%) said that they had witnessed CPR-IC. Of those, over 56% reported that they had experienced it on at least two occasions. CPR-IC was deemed to interfere with resuscitation in nearly 50% of first experiences but this fell to around 31% by the third experience. The most common reasons for CPR-IC to interfere with resuscitation were; patient resisting clinical interventions, increased rhythm and pulse checks, distress, confusion and reluctance to perform CPR. Conclusions: The prevalence of CPR-IC in our study was similar to earlier studies; however, unlike the other studies, we did not define what constituted interfering CPR-IC. Our findings suggest that interference may be related as much to the exposure of the clinician to CPR-IC as to any specific characteristic of the phenomenon itself.
    • Evaluation of the iHEART mental health education programme on resilience and wellbeing of UK secondary school adolescents

      Collings, Rosalyn; Kelley, Thomas; Kessel, Anthony; Rubenstein, Brian; Monnickendam, Charlotte; Solomon, Andrew (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose There is abundant evidence of impaired mental well-being in adolescents and young adults. We present the findings of a preliminary study based on a novel structured mental health education programme – Innate Health Education and Resilience Training (iHEART) – in a cohort of secondary school adolescents in the UK. Methodology A curriculum-based 10-week programme was delivered by trained facilitators. 205 students enrolled in the study. An additional 64 participants were within an age-matched non-intervention control group. A non-randomised control mixed methodology approach was used. All students, pre- and post-programme, completed a quantitative questionnaire – the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Survey. Qualitative measures were used to assess participants’ perceptions of changes in their resilience and mental well-being. Findings Those who received the intervention showed a small improvement in mental well-being relative to those who did not; with a similar change in resilience. Qualitative findings regarding impulse control and emotional resilience provided positive findings. Originality/Value iHEART may be a promising new intervention offering a step change in mental health education for improving resilience, mental well-being and the ability for participants to navigate psychological challenges.
    • Low back pain and injury in ballet, modern, and hip-hop dancers: a systematic literature review

      Ambegoankar, Jatin; Wyon, Matthew; Smith, Tina; Henn, Erica (International Federation of Sports Physical Therapy, 2020-12-31)
      Background: Anecdotally, low back pain is a common complaint for many dancers; a comparison across recent research is needed to support or disprove this theory across genres. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of low back pain and low back injury in ballet, modern, and hip-hop dancers through a systematic literature review. A secondary goal was to identify trends amongst dance genres, level of mastery, gender, and age, if possible. Study Design: Literature review. Methods: PRISMA search strategy terms between November 2017 and March 2018 with an ADA grading evaluation and a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Risk of Bias assessment. Twenty-five ballet articles, 5 modern, and 3 hip-hop met the inclusion criteria. Results: Prevalence of low back pain or injury seems relatively high in ballet dance; little research exists on the prevalence of back pain in hip-hop or modern dancers. Twenty-five of the 33 studies relied on a questionnaire to gather their data. Conclusion: Ballet dancers are at risk for low back pain or injury independent of gender, age or level of mastery; there is not enough evidence to draw any conclusions about modern dancers or hip-hop dancers and their relationship to low back pain/injury currently. Future studies need a higher level of evidence and a reduced risk of bias. What is known about the subject: There are several injury studies on ballet dancers, but they report ‘low back pain’ or ‘injury’ as a footnote to other injuries. Few studies use modern and hip-hop dancers as participants. The research on ballet dancers fluctuates wildly in reported prevalence, and differing reporting methods prevent direct comparison. What this study adds to existing knowledge: This study illuminates the dearth of research, especially those of high-quality and non-ballet participants. This study aims to call attention to this gap and promote vigorous scholarship for related research moving forward.
    • Bilateral differences on dancers’ dynamic postural stability during jump landing

      Clarke, Frances; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wilson, Margaret; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2020-12-31)
      Purpose: Although traditional dance training aims to train dancers’ legs equally, the recognised practice of predominately starting and repeating exercises on one side more than the other has led to suggestions that technique classes may cause lateral bias. Such an imbalance could lead to a greater risk of injury, however, despite this potential risk, little is known about the effects of bilateral differences on dancers’ postural stability during jump landings, a key dynamic action in dance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of possible bilateral differences on dynamic postural stability during single-leg landing using a time to stabilisation protocol. Methods: Thirty-two injury-free female dance university undergraduates (19+1.9 years; 164.8+6.7cm; 62.6+13.6kg) volunteered. They completed a two foot to one-foot jump over a bar onto a force platform stabilising as quickly as possible. The landing leg was randomly assigned, and participants completed three trials for each leg. Results: No significant differences in dynamic postural stability between the right and left leg were revealed and poor effect size was noted (p>0.05): MLSI: t= -.04, df= 190, p= .940 (CI= -.04,.04, r2 = 0); APSI: t= .65, df= 190, p= .519 (CI= -.06-,.12, r2 =.09); VSI: t= 1.85, df= 190, p= .066 (CI= -.02,.68, r2 = .27); DPSI: t= 1.88, df= 190, p= .061 (CI= -.02, .70, r2 30 = .27). Conclusion: The results of this study on jump landings do not support the notion that dance training may cause lateral bias with its associated risk of injury, although lateral bias may be present elsewhere. Furthermore, dancers’ perceptions of their leg dominance did not correlate with their ability to balance in single-leg landings or to absorb GRFs often associated with injury. Even when unequal training exists, it may not have detrimental effects on the dancer’s postural stability