• Postdigital artistic positionality and its potentials for cultural education

      Hayes, Sarah; Jandrić, Petar (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      In 2002, in Culture in Bits, Gary Hall described challenges to the ‘identity’ of cultural studies, pointing to the debate between political economy and cultural studies. Rapid technological change has distracted us since, but these challenges remain. Furthermore, recent developments surrounding the Covid-19 pandemic have also revealed complex interconnections across viral biology and information science, with the global lockdown giving rise to related postdigital artistic activities. In Algorithmic Culture Ted Striphas discussed a delegation of the work of culture to computational processes, which significantly alters the practice, experience, and understanding of culture. This article examines to what extent postdigital art practices offer a form of resistance to political economic ‘illusions’ of democratic forms of public culture found across the Internet, and at which price. If humans and technology are acknowledged as part of a collaborative artistic process, can this address issues pertaining to power, exploitation, and emancipation, in our postdigital age? We conclude that when artists engage with their personal postdigital positionality, this brings such possibilities a little closer in these uncertain times.
    • Successful strategies for including adults with an intellectual disability into a research study using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)

      Drozd, Mary; Chadwick, Darren; Jester, Rebecca (RCN Publishing, 2021-12-31)
      Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities are not regularly recruited as participants in health research which may be due to perceptions regarding their inability to participate meaningfully with or without significant support and anticipated difficulty in gaining ethical approval because of issues around consent and mental capacity. This means that the voices of people with an intellectual disability are often missing within health research and their experiences and views are unexplored. Aim: To share successful strategies for accessing, recruiting and collecting data from a purposive sample of adults with an intellectual disability using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Discussion: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was a person-centred, flexible and creative approach to adopt. Meaningful collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities, their families, carers, advocacy group managers, specialists within intellectual disability services and research supervisors was vital to the success of conducting this study. Practical strategies for including people with an intellectual disability in a study from the perspective of a novice researcher, an outsider to the field of intellectual disability, have been shared. A limitation is that participants were not included in all stages of the research process. Conclusion: Inclusion of participants with an intellectual disability in research studies is important and achievable for healthcare researchers. A framework to support researchers outside of the specialist field of intellectual disabilities has been presented. Implications for practice: Adults with intellectual disabilities often receive poor healthcare and have poorer outcomes which is perpetuated if their input into research is not facilitated. People with intellectual disabilities make valuable contributions to the evidence base; personal views and perceptions of healthcare are important if health services are to meet individual needs.
    • Prostate Cancer: is it beyond a joke? Using silly things to make serious points

      Matheson, David; Kishor, Vaidya (The Curious Academic Publishing, 2021-12-31)
    • Postdigital critical pedagogy

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Palgrave, 2021-12-31)
    • The blockchain university: disrupting ‘disruption'

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah; Jandric (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      This paper explores the promise of disruption of higher education offered by latest platform technologies - a combination of mobile applications for connecting teachers and students and blockchain technology for secure transactions of information and money. We start with a brief examination of several generations of technological disruptions arriving from the Silicon Valley with a special focus to educational technology. Showing that these disruptions are primarily focused to furthering capitalist mode of production, we question whether the latest disruption could provide different results. Advertised as 'Uber for students, Airbnb for teachers', the Woolf University offers the seductive promise of radical transformation of higher education based on cooperative principles. Our analysis, which is based on early ideas about the development of the Woolf University, indicates that it has the potentials to offer cooperative learning to students, cooperative employment to academic workers, all the while retaining highest quality of teaching and learning modelled after ancient scholastic principles. On that basis, we conclude that the Woolf University, together with other adaptations of blockchain technology for educational purposes, does offer a lot of potential for fundamental disruption of higher education and should be closely watched in the times to come.
    • Talk like an expert: the construction of expertise in news comments concerning climate change

      Coen, Sharon; Meredith, Joanne; Woods, Ruth; Fernandez, Ana (SAGE, 2021-12-30)
      This paper explores how readers of UK newspapers construct expertise around climate change (CC). It draws on 300 on-line readers’ comments on news items in The Guardian, Daily Mail and The Telegraph, concerning the release of the IPCC report calling for immediate action on CC. Comments were analysed using discursive psychology. We identified a series of discursive strategies that commenters adopted to present themselves as experts in their commentary. The (mostly indirect) use of category entitlements (implicitly claiming themselves as expert) and the presentation of one’s argument as factual (based on direct or indirect technical knowledge or common sense) emerged as common ways in which readers made claims to expertise, both among the supporters and among the sceptics of CC science. Our findings indicate that expertise is a fluid concept, constructed in diverse ways, with important implications for public engagement with CC science.
    • Online postgraduate teaching: re-discovering human agency

      Aitken, Gill; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2021-08-22)
    • Loot boxes, problem gambling, and problem video gaming: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

      Spicer, Stuart G; Nicklin, Laura L; Uther, Maria; Lloyd, Joanne; Lloyd, Helen; Close, James (SAGE, 2021-07-17)
      Loot boxes are video game-related purchases with a chance-based outcome. Due to similarities with gambling, they have come under increasing scrutiny from media, academics and policymakers alike. Initial evidence suggested that loot box (LB) engagement might be associated with both problem gambling (PG) and problem video gaming (PVG). We therefore conducted a systematic review of the evidence for associations between LB purchasing, PG and PVG. For LB/PG, 12 of 13 publications reported a positive relationship, with a moderately sized mean effect of r = 0.27. For LB/PVG, the mean effect was r = 0.40, although this finding was drawn from only six surveys in total. For PG/PVG, the mean effect was r = 0.21, with only 11 of 20 studies reporting significant effects. Whilst further evidence is required to determine direction of causality, the strength of relationships suggests that policy action on loot boxes may have benefits for harm minimisation.
    • The roles of motivational interviewing and self-efficacy on outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a community-based exercise intervention for inactive mid-older aged adults

      Rose, Catherine; Galbraith, Niall; Rose, Peter (Wiley, 2021-07-14)
      Increasing physical activity (PA) among inactive middle-older aged adults in rural communities is challenging. This study investigates the efficacy of a PA intervention supporting inactive adults in rural/ semi-rural communities. Inactive participants enrolled on either a single signposting session (n=427), or multi-session pathway combining signposting with motivational interviewing (MI) (n=478). Pre-post outcomes data assessed activity levels (IPAQ-S; SISEM), self-efficacy (NGSE) and well-being (WHO-5). Measures were repeated at longitudinal time points (26, 52 weeks) for the MI pathway. Outcomes were contrasted with results from an unmatched comparison group receiving treatment as usual (TAU). Cost-utility (QALY-ICER) and return on investment (NHS-ROI; QALY-ROI) were estimated for short (5 years), medium (10 years) and long (25 years) time horizons. Both pathways significantly increased participants’ PA. The MI pathway resulted in significantly greater increases in PA than signposting-only and TAU. Improvements in psychological outcomes (NGSE; WHO-5) were significantly greater in the MI pathway than TAU. Longitudinal results indicated MI pathway participants sustained increases in light-intensity PA at 52 weeks (p<.001; ηp2=.16). Regression analyses found baseline self-efficacy predicted increased PA at 52 weeks, while baseline wellbeing did not. The relationship between self-efficacy and PA increased successively across time points. However, the magnitude of participants’ increased self-efficacy did not predict PA at any time point. Both pathways were cost-effective and costsaving for participants aged ≥ 61 years from the short time horizon, with the MI pathway having greater return on investment estimates. Overall, MI increased efficacy of a signposting PA intervention, and was cost-saving for older adults.
    • Futures studies, mobilities, and the postdigital condition: Contention or complement

      Traxler, John; Connor, Stuart; Hayes, Sarah; Jandrić, Petar (Springer, 2021-07-12)
      This paper explores relationships between recent developments in the fields of mobilities, futures, and postdigital studies. The article covers six main themes: questions and their histories; definitions; research methods and ethics; the nature and ownership of knowing and learning; understandings of time, space, identity, community and relationships; political processes and political legitimacy. The article was written in three steps. In the first step, the leading author (John Traxler) has identified the relevant themes. In the second step, proponents of each position have freely responded to the themes (futures studies, Stuart Connor; postdigital theory, Sarah Hayes and Petar Jandrić; mobilities, John Traxler). In the third step, the responses have been collectively (re)mixed and edited, identifying complementary and conflicting concepts and ideas. The article was initiated a month before the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, and it was completed just over a year later. Thusly, responses and analyses have included the pandemic experience without explicitly focusing to the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper concludes with drawing together contributions, seeking underlying commonalities and differences, and looking for trends, convergence, and change. Epistemically, the three positions discussed in this paper are far from commensurable. Yet they are compatible and complementary, in a postdigital dialogue, in a sense that they all need each others’ inputs on the road to a better understanding of our current condition, and the road to a better future.
    • Recruitment, retention and compliance of overweight inactive adults with intermediate hyperglycaemia to a novel walking intervention

      Faulkner, Maria; McNeilly, Andrea; Davison, Gareth; Rowe, David; Hewitt, Allan; Nevill, Alan; Duly, Ellie; Trinick, Tom; Murphy, Marie (MDPI, 2021-07-05)
      This study evaluated the effectiveness of strategies used to recruit and retain overweight, inactive adults with intermediate hyperglycaemia (IHG) to a novel walking programme. Participant compliance to the nine-month randomised controlled trial (RCT) is also presented. Inactive overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) adults (N = 42; n = 19 male, n = 23 female) aged between 18–65 years, with IHG were identified via three recruitment strategies (NHS database reviews, diabetic clinics, and a University population). Participants were randomly assigned to either Intervention Group (IG n = 22; n = 11 male, n = 11 female) or Usual Care (UC n = 20; n = 8 male, n = 12 female). IG followed a nine-month novel behaviour change intervention where they walked in accordance with physical activity guidelines using the beat of music to maintain appropriate cadence. UC received standard physical activity advice. Recruitment, retention, and intervention compliance were calculated using descriptive statistics (means or frequencies). Recruiting from a University population was the most successful strategy (64.2% response rate) followed by NHS database reviews (35.8%) and then diabetic clinics (0%). Study retention was ≥80% in both groups throughout the RCT. Intervention compliance was highest from baseline to four months (70.1 ± 39.2%) and decreased as the study progressed (43.4 ± 56.1% at four to six months and 37.5 ± 43.5% at follow-up). In total, 71.4% of IG walking completed throughout the study was at least moderate intensity. A novel walking intervention incorporating the use of music along with behaviour change techniques appears to positively influence the recruitment, retention, and walking compliance of this population.
    • The association between training load indices and upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in elite soccer players

      Tiernan, Caoimhe; Comyns, Thomas; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles (SAGE, 2021-06-17)
      This study aimed to investigate the association between training load indices and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) across different lag periods in elite soccer players. Internal training load was collected from 15 elite soccer players over one full season (40 weeks). Acute, chronic, Acute:Chronic Workload Ratio (ACWR), Exponentially Weighted Moving Averages (EWMA) ACWR, 2, 3 and 4-week cumulative load, training strain and training monotony were calculated on a rolling weekly basis. Players completed a daily illness log, documenting any signs and symptoms, to help determine an URTI. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between training load indices and URTIs across different lag periods (1 to 7-days). The results found a significant association between 2-week cumulative load and an increased likelihood of a player contracting an URTI 3 days later (Odds Ratio, 95% Confidence Interval: OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 0.026-1.431). Additionally, a significant association was found between 3-week cumulative load and a players’ increased risk of contracting an URTI 4 days later (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 0.013–1.006). These results indicate that accumulated periods of high training load (2- and 3-week) associated with an increased risk of a player contracting an URTI, which may lead to performance decrements, missed training sessions or even competitions.
    • It is like ‘judging a book by its cover’: An exploration of the lived experiences of Black African mental health nurses in England

      Tuffour, Isaac (Wiley, 2021-06-14)
      The aim of this paper was to explore the experiences of perceived prejudices faced in England by Black African mental health nurses. Purposive sampling was used to identify five nurses from sub-Saharan Africa. They were interviewed using face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings were reported under two superordinate themes: Judging a book by its cover and opportunities. The findings showed that Black African nurses experience deep-rooted discrimination and marginalisation. Aside from that, because of their ethnicity and the fact that they speak English as a second language, they face discrimination and have difficulty achieving leadership roles. These findings provide key stakeholders, such as nursing trade unions and professional associations, as well as NHS employers, with the opportunity to act to counter hegemony in the NHS and recognise that discriminatory and racially related barriers hinder Black African nurses from reaching their full professional potential.
    • Accuracy of ECG chest electrode placements by paramedics; an observational study

      Gregory, Pete; Kilner, Tim; Lodge, Stephen; Paget, Suzy (The College of Paramedics, 2021-06-01)
      Background The use of the 12-lead ECG is common in sophisticated prehospital Emergency Medical Services but its value depends upon accurate placement of the ECG-electrodes. Several studies have shown widespread variation in the placement of chest electrodes by other health professionals but no studies have addressed the accuracy of paramedics. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the accuracy of the chest lead placements by registered paramedics. Methods Registered paramedics who attended the Emergency Services Show in Birmingham in September 2018 were invited to participate in this observational study. Participants were asked to place the chest electrodes on a male model in accordance with their current practice. Correct positioning was determined against the Society for Cardiological Science & Technology’s Clinical Guidelines for recording a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (2017) with a tolerance of 19mm being deemed acceptable based upon previous studies. Results 52 eligible participants completed the study. Measurement of electrode placement in the vertical and horizontal planes showed a high level of inaccuracy with 3/52 (5.8%) participants able to accurately place all chest electrodes. In leads V1 - V3, the majority of incorrect placements were related to vertical displacement with most participants able to identify the correct horizontal position. In V4, the tendency was to place the electrode too low and to the left of the pre-determined position whilst V5 tended to be below the expected positioning but in the correct horizontal alignment. There was a less defined pattern of error in V6 although vertical displacement was more likely than horizontal displacement. Conclusions Our study identified a high level of variation in the placement of chest ECG electrodes which could alter the morphology of the ECG. Correct placement of V1 improved placement of other electrodes. Improved initial and refresher training should focus on identification of landmarks and correct placement of V1.
    • DFE Memorandum of Understanding for Faith Schools A gateway to inequality?

      Smith, Matthew; Mcconnell, Simi (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05-31)
    • Comparing individual and population differences in VE/VCO2 slopes using centile growth curves and log-linear allometry

      Nevill, Alan M; Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Arena, Ross; Myers, Tony D (European Respiratory Society, 2021-05-27)
      Identifying vulnerable groups and/or individuals’ cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important challenge for clinicians/researchers alike. To quantify CRF accurately, the assessment of several variables is now standard practice including maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) and ventilatory efficiency, the latter assessed using the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope. Recently, reference values (centiles) for VE/VCO2 slopes for men and women aged 20 to 80 have been published, using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) data (treadmill protocol) from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND Registry). In the current observational study we provide centile curves for the FRIEND Registry VE/VCO2 slopes, fitted using the generalised additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), to provide individuals with a more precise estimate of where their VE/VCO2 slopes fall within the population. We also confirm that by adopting allometric models (incorporating a log-transformation), the resulting ANCOVAs provided more normal and homoscedastic residuals, with superior goodness-of-fit using the Akaike information criterion AIC=14 671 (compared with traditional ANCOVA's AIC=15 008) that confirms allometric models are vastly superior to traditional ANCOVA models. In conclusion, providing sex-by-age centile curves rather than referring to reference tables for ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slopes) will provide more accurate estimates of where an individual's particular VE/VCO2 slope falls within the population. Also, by adopting allometric models researchers are more likely to identify real and valid inferences when analysing population/group differences in VE/VCO2 slopes.
    • Cyber-disability hate cases in the UK: the documentation by the police and potential barriers to reporting

      Alhaboby, Zhraa A.; Al-Khateeb, Haider M.; Barnes, James; Jahankhani, Hamid; Pitchford, Melanie; Conradie, Liesl; Short, Emma (SpringerCham, Switzerland, 2021-05-21)
      Disability hate crime is under-reported in the UK with perceived lim-ited support given to the victims. The use of online communication resulted in cyber-disability hate cases, recognised by the Police with the addition of an ‘online-flag’ in the documentation. However, the cases remain under-reported, with potential individual, societal and organisational barriers to reporting espe-cially during a pandemic. This paper aims to contextualise the reporting of cyber-disability hate cases, identify potential barriers, and provide recommendations to improve support to victims by the Police. The retrospective examination was car-ried out on disability-related cyber incidents documented by a police force in the UK for 19 months. Among 3,349 cyber-crimes, 23 cases were included. The anal-ysis covered descriptive statistics and qualitative document analysis (QDA). Only 0.7% of cyber incidents or 6.7% of cyber-hate incidents were disability re-lated. The age of victims ranged between 15 and 61 years, with a mean of 25.8 years. Most of the victims (78%) were from White ethnic background, and the majority were females (61.5%). Three overarching themes emerged from the qualitative data as influencers of reporting or documentation, these were: psy-chological impact, fear for safety, and the type of disability. Cyber-offences re-sulted in a serious impact on wellbeing, however, cases that included people with visible disabilities were more documented. Further awareness-raising targeting the police and public is needed to understand the impact of cyber-offences and recognise the different types of disabilities, which might encourage both report-ing and documentation.
    • Response to the Comment by Armstrong and Welsman on ‘Developing a new curvilinear allometric model to improve the fit and validity of the 20-m shuttle run test as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults and youth’

      Nevill, Alan M; Ramsbottom, Roger; Sandercock, Gavin; Bocachica-González, Carlos Eduardo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Tomkinson, Grant (Springer, 2021-05-20)
    • Toward improved triadic functioning: Exploring the interactions and adaptations of coaches, parents and athletes in professional academy soccer through the adversity of COVID-19

      Maurice, James; Devonport, Tracey J.; Knight, Camilla J. (Frontiers Media, 2021-05-19)
      On March 23rd, 2020, elite soccer academies in the UK closed in compliance with the government enforced lockdown intended to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. This forced parents, players, and coaches to reconsider how they interacted with, and supported, one another. The aims of the present study were (a) to explore the perceptions of players, parents, and coaches (i.e., the athletic triangle) regarding how they interacted and collaborated with one another during the COVID-19 pandemic to support wellbeing and performance, and; (b) to identify opportunities to enhance workings of those within the athletic triangle resulting from adaptions made following enforced lockdown. Using an interpretive description methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five coaches, six players, and six parents from an English elite academy soccer club. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings highlighted (a) the importance of support and the different means of communication used between members of the athletic triangle to facilitate such support; (b) the increased understanding of each member of the athletic triangle, leading to enhanced relationships, and; (c) how members of the athletic triangle adapted practice to facilitate relationship development during the pandemic and beyond. The identification of these considerations has implications for coach and parent education initiatives to allow for optimal functioning of the athletic triangle as elite academy soccer clubs return from lockdown. These include (a) the importance of continued communication between coach, athlete and parent; (b) increasing understanding of each individual within the athletic triangle; and (c) utilising key interpersonal and technological skills learnt during the lockdown to further facilitate engagement within the athletic triangle.