• How neoliberal policy inhibits partnership-building in the primary phase: a new social movements approach

      Jopling, Michael (Sage, 2019-12-31)
      This paper examines the challenges involved in attempting to build collaboration and implement change in a partnership of schools during a period characterised by neoliberal education policy. The partnership was located in a relatively isolated coastal and rural area in the North of England with significant areas of disadvantage and comprised 18 schools, all but two of which provided education for children aged 4-13. Based on research with schools and the local community, the paper explores the difficulties of building consensus for cultural change in schools when neoliberal education policy’s paradoxical dual emphasis on marketisation and neoconservative traditionalism militates against the realities of such coalition-building (Ball, 2001; Bernstein, 2000; Mansell, 2016). It uses new social movement theory to examine the difficulties involved in mobilising schools in a dysfunctional partnership and concludes that, despite its emphasis on school to school support, the forms of neoliberalism and neoconservatism imposed on schools in England magnify the contextual disadvantages that impede the development of effective collaboration.
    • Amotz Zahavi

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2019-05-14)
    • The ability of adults of different size to egress through confined space apertures

      Stewart, Arthur; Nevill, Alan M.; Johnson, Christopher (Sage, 2018-12-31)
      Absolute body size is a strong predictor of minimum wall aperture transit in adults. Key anatomical dimensions scale to egress capability, but men and women exhibit subtle differences. Wherever clearance space is restricted, transit capability is likely to become increasingly limited by enlarged body size associated with increased obesity prevalence.
    • Resisting the iron cage of ‘the student experience’

      Hayes, Sarah; Jandrić, Petar (Solsko polje, 2018-12-25)
      As higher education (HE) has come to be valued for its contribution to the global economy, priorities have been placed on study for a degree to directly meet the needs of industry (Hayes, 2015: p. 125). Furthermore, in UK policy, students have been defined as ‘customers’ by the government since the introduction of tuition fees (Dearing, 1997; Browne, 2010). Together, these developments have emphasized the role of a degree as a consumer ‘product’, purchased to secure future employment (Peters, Jandrić and Hayes, 2018a), rather than an experiential learning ‘process’, that continues well beyond student life (Hayes, 2015 : p. 130). We examine how the student-as-consumer approach in HE policy has recently developed into a strong rhetoric emphasizing ‘the student experience’ as a package, including leisure, well-being, future employment and other ‘extras’. This could be perceived as positive, where all elements of student life are acknowledged. Alternatively, policy discourse concerning ‘the student experience’ could also be critiqued as a concept that now transcends the notion of a degree as a utilitarian product. A disturbing impression is then generated, where universities are now delivering a packaged experience of ‘consumption itself’, to students (Argenton, 2015: p. 921). What students would individually experience, such as a ‘sense of belonging and pride in the university’, is delivered to students, not developed by them. To examine such concerns more closely, we analyse a sample of 20 UK university ‘student experience’ strategies, via a corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Drawing on themes from these texts, we question who ‘the student experience’ rhetoric really benefits? If a rationalized experience is constructed on behalf of students, then universities as ‘cathedrals of consumption’ (Ritzer, 2010) align themselves with any other provider of consumer experiences, where the ‘production’ of academic life has all been taken care of. In such a discourse, students are not necessarily conceptualized as empowered consumers either (Brooks, 2017) but trapped instead within an ‘iron cage’, even before they set foot in the workplace. Yet, despite a distorted picture that neoliberal HE policy discourse may portray, a postdigital understanding of ‘the student experience’ could yet offer helpful insights into possible routes of resistance.
    • The mechanical loading and muscle activation of four common exercises used in osteoporosis prevention for early postmenopausal women

      Montgomery, Gallin; Abt, Grant; Dobson, Catherine; Smith, Tina; Evans, Will; Ditroilo, Massimiliano (Elsevier, 2018-12-11)
      High impact exercise can reduce postmenopausal bone loss, however stimulus frequency (loading cycles per second) can affect osteogenesis. We aimed to examine the effect of stimulus frequency on the mechanical loading of four common osteoporosis prevention exercises, measuring body acceleration and muscle activation with accelerometry and electromyography (EMG), respectively. Fourteen early postmenopausal women completed randomised countermovement jumps (CMJ), box-drops (BD), heel-drops (HD) and stamp (STP) exercises for continuous and intermittent stimulus frequencies. Sacrum accelerometry and surface electromyography (EMG) of four muscles were recorded. CMJ (mean ± SD: 10.7 ± 4.8 g & 10.0 ± 5.0 g), BD (9.6 ± 4.1 g & 9.5 ± 4.0 g) and HD (7.3 ± 3.8 g & 8.6 ± 4.4 g) conditions generated greater peak acceleration than STP (3.5 ± 1.4 g & 3.6 ± 1.7 g) across continuous and intermittent trials. CMJ and BD generated greater acceleration gradients than STP across continuous and intermittent trials. CMJ generated greater rectus femoris EMG than all other exercises, CMJ and BD generated greater semitendinosus and tibialis anterior EMG than HD across continuous and intermittent trials. CMJ and BD provide greater peak acceleration than STP and remain similar during different stimulus frequencies. CMJ, BD and HD may exceed STP in maintaining postmenopausal bone health.
    • A brief report on the associations amongst social media use, gender, and body esteem in a UK student sample

      Ormsby, Hollie; Owen, Alison; Bhogal, Manpal Singh (Springer, 2018-12-06)
      Research into the effects of social media on personal wellbeing have been controversial in recent years, with recent research highlighting links between social media use and body esteem. This conceptual replication study aimed to explore relationships amongst social media use, body esteem and gender amongst UK university students (n=100). Participants completed measures of social media use and body image esteem. It was hypothesised that social media intensity and usage would negatively predict body esteem, with high social media intensity relating to lower body esteem. We find that gender was the only significant predictor of body esteem, with women having lower body esteem compared to men. We were unable to replicate previous findings, as our findings show no relationships amongst social media intensity, use, and body esteem.
    • The Attachment control system and computational modeling: Origins and prospects

      Petters, Dean David (American Psychological Association, 2018-11-29)
      From his first attempts to explain attachment phenomena in the 1940s through his Attachment and Loss trilogy (Bowlby, 1969/1982, 1973, 1980), John Bowlby reformulated the theoretical underpinnings of attachment theory several times. He initially attempted to explain attachment phenomena in psychoanalytic terms. Then he invoked ethological theory in the explanation of how and why people behave as they do in close personal relationships. The mature theoretical framework that he presented between 1969 and 1982 in the attachment and loss trilogy retained strengths and insights, ultimately situating them within an overarching control systems framework. This article describes key stages in Bowlby's theoretical development, with particular emphasis placed on the emergence of control systems theory as a cornerstone of the mature theory. It also compares Bowlby's control systems approach to contemporary cognitive science approaches. It concludes by suggesting how Bowlby's control systems formulation could evolve along the path opened up by contemporary work in computational modeling and how it could benefit by doing so.
    • Associations of adverse childhood experiences and social support with self-injurious behaviour and suicidality in adolescents: are there any gender differences?

      Wana, Yuhui; Chen, Ruoling; Ma, Shuangshuang; McFeeters, Danielle; Sun, Ying; Haoa, Jiahu; Taoa, Fangbiao (Cambridge University Press, 2018-11-27)
      Background There is little investigation on the interaction effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and social support on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in community adolescent populations, or gender differences in these effects. Aims To examine the individual and interaction effects of ACEs and social support on NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in adolescents, and explore gender differences. Method A school-based health survey was conducted in three provinces in China between 2013–2014. A total of 14 820 students aged 10–20 years completed standard questionnaires, to record details of ACEs, social support, NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Results Of included participants, 89.4% reported one or more category of ACEs. The 12-month prevalence of NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 26.1%, 17.5% and 4.4%, respectively; all were significantly associated with increased ACEs and lower social support. The multiple adjusted odds ratio of NSSI in low versus high social support was 2.27 (95% CI 1.85–2.67) for girls and 1.81 (95% CI 1.53–2.14) for boys, and their ratio (Ratio of two odds ratios, ROR) was 1.25 (P = 0.037). Girls with high ACEs scores (5–6) and moderate or low social support also had a higher risk of suicide attempt than boys (RORs: 2.34, 1.84 and 2.02, respectively; all P < 0.05). Conclusions ACEs and low social support are associated with increased risk of NSSI and suicidality in Chinese adolescents. Strategies to improve social support, particularly among female adolescents with a high number of ACEs, should be an integral component of targeted mental health interventions. Declaration of interest None.
    • Monitoring exercise-induced muscle fatigue and adaptations: Making sense of popular or emerging indices and biomarkers

      Theofilidis, George; Bogdanis, Gregory C.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Karatzaferi, Christina (MDPI, 2018-11-26)
      Regular exercise with the appropriate intensity and duration may improve an athlete’s physical capacities by targeting different performance determinants across the endurance–strength spectrum aiming to delay fatigue. The mechanisms of muscle fatigue depend on exercise intensity and duration and may range from substrate depletion to acidosis and product inhibition of adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) and glycolysis. Fatigue mechanisms have been studied in isolated muscles; single muscle fibers (intact or skinned) or at the level of filamentous or isolated motor proteins; with each approach contributing to our understanding of the fatigue phenomenon. In vivo methods for monitoring fatigue include the assessment of various functional indices supported by the use of biochemical markers including blood lactate levels and more recently redox markers. Blood lactate measurements; as an accompaniment of functional assessment; are extensively used for estimating the contribution of the anaerobic metabolism to energy expenditure and to help interpret an athlete’s resistance to fatigue during high intensity exercise. Monitoring of redox indices is gaining popularity in the applied sports performance setting; as oxidative stress is not only a fatigue agent which may play a role in the pathophysiology of overtraining syndrome; but also constitutes an important signaling pathway for training adaptations; thus reflecting training status. Careful planning of sampling and interpretation of blood biomarkers should be applied; especially given that their levels can fluctuate according to an athlete’s lifestyle and training histories.
    • The confidence delusion: A sociological exploration of participants' confidence in sport-for-development

      Scott, David S. (Sage, 2018-11-25)
      Although sport is widely utilised as a tool for personal development, capacity building, and fostering peace, there are still numerous theoretical gaps in our knowledge about how sport influences individuals’ identities, and how this translates into their everyday lives. Within the academic literature there has been seemingly little focus placed upon participants’ emotional and embodied accounts of their sport-for-development (SfD) experiences. This paper uses phenomenologically-inspired theory to explore individuals’ lived experiences of a SfD course, and their descriptions of the social interactions and feelings of confidence they encountered, in order to address this lack of experiential data. An ethnographic methodology was used to collect data through four sports leadership course observations, and cyclical interviews over 4–10 months with eleven course attendees, plus individual interviews with five tutors. Participants’ understandings of their course experiences and the subsequent influence these understandings had on their lives were described through their use of the term confidence. A further phenomenological and sociological interrogation of this term enabled confidence to be seen as being experienced as a ‘frame’ and ‘through the body’ by participants. This study provides original conceptualisations of confidence in relation to participants’ SfD experiences, as well as important discussions regarding the role of emotions and embodiment in understanding the impact of SfD on participants’ everyday lives.
    • The influence of mate choice motivation on non-financial altruism

      Bhogal, Manpal Singh; Bartlett, James; Farrelly, Daniel (Springer, 2018-11-19)
      Several studies have found that individuals are more altruistic towards potential mates than others, suggesting altruistic behavior may be a mating signal. Much of the literature focuses on financial altruism using economic games, however altruism can also comprise of non-financial acts, which this experiment examined in an attempt to replicate and refine previous findings. A study was conducted with 199 participants, who viewed both high attractive and low attractive opposite-sex images and were asked how likely they would be to altruistically share their research credits with the person in the image, whilst controlling for self-rated attractiveness. The findings suggest that both men and women were more altruistic towards pictures of high attractive than low attractive potential mating partners (Cohen’s d = 0.37). This study therefore partially replicates previous research examining the role of mate choice effects when exploring non-financial altruism.
    • Key somatic variables in young backstroke swimmers

      Sammoud, Senda; Nevill, Alan M.; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Helmi, Chaabene; Hachana, Younes (Routledge, 2018-11-15)
      The purpose of this study was to estimate the optimal body size, limb-segment length, girth or breadth ratios for 100-m backstroke mean speed performance in young swimmers. Sixty-three young swimmers (boys [n = 30; age: 13.98 ± 0.58 years]; girls [n = 33; age: 13.02 ± 1.20 years]) participated in this study. To identify the optimal body size and body composition components associated with 100-m backstroke speed performance, we adopted a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. The multiplicative allometric model exploring the association between 100-m backstroke mean speed performance and the different somatic measurements estimated that biological age, sitting height, leg length for the lower-limbs, and two girths (forearm and arm relaxed girth) are the key predictors. Stature and body mass did not contribute to the model, suggesting that the advantage of longer levers was limb-specific rather than a general whole-body advantage. In fact, it is only by adopting multiplicative allometric models that the abovementioned ratios could have been derived. These findings highlighted the importance of considering somatic characteristics of young backstroke swimmers and can help swimming coaches to classify their swimmers and enable them to suggest what might be the swimmers’ most appropriate stroke (talent identification).
    • The velvet cage of educational con (pro) sumption

      Ritzer, George; Jandrić, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor & Francis Online, 2018-11-13)
      In the year that George Ritzer publishes the ninth edition of The McDonaldization of Society, moving his famous theory firmly Into the Digital Age, critical educator Petar Jandrić and sociologist Sarah Hayes invited George to a dialogue on the digital transformation of McDonaldization and its critical application to Higher Education. In this article, George first traces for us the origins of his theory that has endured for four decades. A key dimension of McDonaldization is the ‘iron cage’ of control, via rationalization. Once contained within physical sites of bricks and mortar, now, we encounter a ‘velvet cage’ in sites of digital consumption, at the hands of non-human technologies, that threaten human labor and autonomy. Whilst the concept of the McUniversity is not without some critique, this interview provides compelling reasons to open new dialogue about McDonaldization in augmented settings such as Higher Education. With the rise of prosuming machines such as blockchain and bitcoin, that can both produce and consume without intervention from human ‘prosumers’, universities cannot afford to ignore the challenges of prosumer capitalism, which George concludes, will explode into unprecedented and unpredictable directions in the years to come.
    • Comparison of the effects of exercise and anti-TNF treatment on cardiovascular health in rheumatoid arthritis: results from two controlled trials

      Metsios, George S. (Springer, 2018-11-12)
      People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both pharmacological treatment and exercise are suggested in the management of CVD risk in RA. This study explored the effects of exercise and anti-TNF treatment on CVD risk in RA. Twenty RA patients (70% female, 50 (10) years) completed a 3-month exercise intervention and 23 RA patients (65% female, 54 (15) years) started anti-TNF treatment. Markers of disease activity, CVD risk, and vascular function were assessed before and after 3-months of intervention/treatment. Both exercise and anti-TNF treatment improved functional ability and fatigue, anti-TNF treatment was more successful in improving inflammation, disease activity, functional ability and pain. Exercise induced a reduction in overall CVD risk and improvement in vascular function, which was significantly different from anti-TNF treatment where no such changes were found. These findings showed that exercise and anti-TNF had differential effects on CVD risk in RA, and should be combined for optimal CVD risk reduction. Whereas anti-TNF treatment is likely to impact on CVD risk through reducing the systemic inflammatory load, exercise should be recommended to people with RA as an effective self-management strategy to reduce CVD risk further. Once RA patients have responded successfully to anti-TNF treatment, increasing exercise should be encouraged to reduce the risk for CVD. Thus, supporting exercise programmes when the disease is controlled, is likely to enhance the uptake and the maintenance of exercise, which will result in additional benefits to cardiovascular health and wellbeing in people with RA.
    • Exercise and redox status responses following alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in G6PD deficient individuals

      Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Fragkos, Apostolos; Tzatzakis, Theofanis; Deli, Chariklia K.; Papanikolaou, Konstantinos; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z. (MDPI, 2018-11-12)
      G6PD deficiency renders cells more susceptible to oxidative insults, while antioxidant dietary supplementation could restore redox balance and ameliorate exercise-induced oxidative stress. To examine the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on redox status indices in G6PD deficient individuals, eight male adults with G6PD deficiency (D) participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive ALA (600 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks separated by a 4-week washout period. Before and at the end of each treatment period, participants exercised following an exhaustive treadmill exercise protocol. Blood samples were obtained before (at rest), immediately after and 1h after exercise for later analysis of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), uric acid, bilirubin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PC). ALA resulted in significantly increased resting TAC and bilirubin concentrations. Moreover, TAC increased immediately and 1h after exercise following both treatment periods, whereas bilirubin increased immediately after and 1h after exercise following only ALA. No significant change in uric acid, TBARS or PC was observed at any time point. ALA supplementation for 4 weeks may enhance antioxidant status in G6PD individuals; however, it does not affect redox responses to acute exercise until exhaustion or exercise performance.
    • Systematic review: the consequences of psychosocial effects of inflammatory bowel disease on patients′ reproductive health

      Purewal, Satvinder; Chapman, Sarah; Czuber-Dochan, Wladyslawa; Selinger, Christian; Steed, Helen; Brookes, Matthew (Wiley, 2018-11-08)
      Summary Background: High levels of voluntary childlessness and pregnancy‐related fears have been reported amongst inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Aims: To investigate what factors determine IBD patients’ childbearing decisions; and to examine psychosocial consequences of IBD on various aspects of patients' reproductive health. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched in a pre‐specified and structured manner. Results: A total of 41 articles with data on 7122 patients were included. Between one‐fifth to one‐third of IBD patients had chosen voluntary childlessness. Around 50% of all IBD patients have poor knowledge of pregnancy‐related issues in IBD. Poor knowledge of pregnancy‐related issues in IBD was associated with voluntary childlessness. Observational studies have found preconception counselling is associated with patients choosing parenthood. Pregnancy‐related fears and concerns are multifaceted, stemming partly from lack of knowledge of pregnancy‐related issues in IBD. Many female patients are considered at increased risk for pregnancy because between one‐fifth to one‐third of patients do not use contraception. Research evidence for sexual dysfunction after disease diagnosis and treatment is inconsistent. There are limited data on patients’ pregnancy, postpartum and parenting experiences. A few shortcomings of the literature are evident; sample sizes were small, participation rates were low, use of non‐validated questionnaires was common, and few studies included men and/or ethnic minority groups. The design of intervention studies is also weak. Conclusion: This review recommends pre‐conception counselling for all IBD patients of childbearing age to tackle poor knowledge and allow patients to make an informed decision on their reproductive health.
    • Effects of berberine on blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic Literature review and a meta-analysis

      Liang, Yaping; Xu, Xiaojia; Yin, Mingjuan; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Lingfeng; Chen, Ruoling; Ni, Jindong (The Japan Endocrine Society, 2018-11-03)
      We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of Berberine on glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify potential factors may modifying the hypoglycemic effect. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database to identify randomized controlled trials that investigated the effect of Berberine. We calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Twenty-eight studies were identified for analysis, with a total of 2,313 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The pool data showed that Berberine treatment was associated with a better reduction on FPG (WMD = –0.54 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.77 to –0.30), PPG (WMD = –0.94 mmol/L, 95% CI: –1.27 to –0.61), and HbA1c (WMD = –0.54 mmol/L, 95% CI: –0.93 to –‍0.15) than control groups. Subgroup-analyses indicated that effects of Berberine on blood glucose became unremarkable as the treatment lasted more than 90 days, the daily dosage more than 2 g/d and patients aged more than 60 years. The efficiency of Berberine combined with hypoglycaemics is better than either Berberine or hypoglycaemic alone. The dosage and treatment duration of Berberine and patients’ age may modify the effect.
    • Evidence of functional deficits at the single muscle fiber level in experimentally-induced renal insufficiency

      Mitrou, Georgia I.; Sakkas, Georgos K.; Poulianiti, Konstantina P.; Karioti, Aggeliki; Tepetes, Konstantinos; Christodoulidis, Grigorios; Giakas, Giannis; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Geeves, Michael A.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Karatzaferi, Christina (Elsevier, 2018-11-03)
      Chronic kidney disease patients present with metabolic and functional muscle abnormalities, called uremic myopathy, whose mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. We investigated whether chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) affects skeletal muscle contractile properties at the cellular level. CRI was induced surgically in New Zealand rabbits (UREM), with sham-operation for controls (CON), and samples were collected at 3 months post-surgery, following euthanasia. All protocols had University Ethics approval following national and European guidelines. Sample treatments and evaluations were blinded. Maximal isometric force was assessed in 382 permeabilized psoas fibers (CON, n = 142, UREM, n = 240) initially at pH7, 10 °C (‘standard’ conditions), in subsets of fibers in acidic conditions (pH6.2, 10 °C) but also at near physiological temperature (pH7, 30 °C and pH6.2, 30 °C). CRI resulted in significant smaller average cross sectional areas (CSAs) by ∼11% for UREM muscle fibers (vs CON, P < 0.01). At standard conditions, UREM fibers produced lower absolute and specific forces (i.e. normalized force per fiber CSA) (vs CON, P < 0.01); force increased in 30 °C for both groups (P < 0.01), but the disparity between UREM and CON remained significant. Acidosis significantly reduced force (vs pH7, 10 °C P < 0.01), similarly in both groups (in UREM by −48% and in CON by −43%, P > 0.05). For the first time, we give evidence that CRI can induce significant impairments in single psoas muscle fibers force generation, only partly explained by fiber atrophy, thus affecting muscle mechanics at the cellular level.
    • Nurse practitioner consultations in primary health care: patient, carer, and nurse practitioner qualitative interpretations of communication processes

      Barrett, Julian; Thomas, Nicola (Cambridge University Press, 2018-10-31)
      Aim To advance understanding of the discrete nature of the communication processes and social interactions occurring in nurse practitioner consultations. Background Preceding qualitative investigations of nurse practitioner consultations have, when conducting interviews with participants, often exclusively sampled either nurse practitioners or patients. Furthermore, previous qualitative studies of the nature of nurse practitioner consultations have not typically also sampled carers attending with patients for nurse practitioner consultations. Accordingly this study was developed, in part, to address this exclusivity of sampling in qualitative research of nurse practitioner consultations by developing an inclusive sample of patient, carer and nurse practitioner participants of nurse practitioner consultations, so as to conjointly develop an understanding of the multiple perceptions of those participants of communication processes occurring in nurse practitioner consultations. Methods Qualitative component of a larger mixed methods case study of communication processes and social interactions in nurse practitioner consultations, utilising individual semi-structured interviews with the patient (n = 9), carer (n = 2) and nurse practitioner (n = 3) participants of video-recorded consultations derived from a nurse practitioner-led general practice clinic. Interview transcripts were initially analysed via an emergent thematic analysis, followed up by computer-assisted qualitative data analysis with NVivo 9. Findings The participants’ perceptions of nurse practitioner consultation communication processes and social interactions were represented through six themes: Consulting style of nurse practitioners; Nurse practitioner – GP comparisons; Lifeworld content or lifeworld style; Nurse practitioner role ambiguity; Creating the impression of time and Expectations for safety netting. The findings identify a need for policy makers to address a perceived ambiguity of the nature of the nurse practitioner role amongst patients and carers. The benefits of nurse practitioners using personable, everyday lifeworld styles of communication for optimising interactions, sharing clinical reasoning and conveying a sense of having time for patients and carers in consultations are also identified.
    • Enhancing public mental health and wellbeing through creative arts participation

      Gillam, Tony (Emerald, 2018-10-31)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how participation in creative arts activity can enhance public mental health and wellbeing. It is informed by both the author’s clinical practice with service users and carers and by research. Design/methodology/approach The approach taken is to draw selectively on research in the field of creativity, creative arts and wellbeing, focusing in particular on the use of music and creative writing, and to incorporate learning from clinical experience to explore what is understood about the health and wellbeing benefits of creative arts activity. Findings There is evidence that creative arts activity is beneficial to mental health and wellbeing. Arts activities that involve active participation appear to offer the greatest benefits. Creative arts participation can help people with diagnosed mental health difficulties to recover from mental illness. Moreover, creative arts activities can also promote wellbeing in the general population. Research limitations/implications The paper does not provide a comprehensive review of the literature in this field. Practical implications The paper suggests that if nurses and other mental health professionals are to play a full role in facilitating flourishing then they will need to learn more about using creative arts in practice and will need to become involved and encourage others to do so. Social implications The paper suggests it is important that creative arts activities should be participatory, so they become a vehicle not only for self-expression but also for participation in groups and communities, increasing connectedness and social inclusion. Originality/value This paper fulfils a need for a wider understanding of the health and wellbeing benefits of creative arts activity.