• Associations of socioeconomic status and physical activity with obesity measures in rural Chinese adults

      Pan, M; Tu, R; Gu, J; Li, R; Liu, X; Chen, R; Yu, S; Wang, X; Mao, Z; Huo, W; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2021-01-08)
      Background: Although independent association of socioeconomic status (SES) or physical activity (PA) with obesity has been well-documented in urban settings, their independent and joint associations on obesity measures are limited in rural regions. Methods: Almost 38,000 (n = 37,922) individuals were included from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to evaluate PA. Obesity was reflected by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP), and visceral fat index (VFI). The independent and interactive effects of SES and PA on obesity were analyzed by logistic regression models and generalized linear regression models, respectively. Results: Compared with high education level, the OR (95%CI) of obesity defined by BMI with low education level was 1.466 (1.337, 1.608), 1.064 (0.924, 1.225), and 1.853 (1.625, 2.114) in total population, men and women, respectively. Besides, the OR (95%CI) of obesity defined by BMI associated with per capita monthly income were 1.089 (1.015, 1.170), 1.192 (1.055, 1.347), 1.038 (0.951, 1.133) in total population, men and women, respectively. Similar results had been observed in other obesity measures. Negative interactive association of low education level and PA on obesity measures were observed only in women (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggests that women are more susceptible to obesity concerning low SES and that adequate PA may be a potential target for mitigating the negative effect of low SES on obesity in women. Clinical Trial Registration: The Henan Rural Cohort Study has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Register (Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-15006699) http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=11375.
    • Association of maternal pre-pregnancy low or increased body mass index with adverse pregnancy outcomes

      Tang, J; Zhu, X; Chen, Y; Huang, D; Tiemeier, H; Chen, R; Bao, W; Zhao, Q; Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Guangzhou Medical University, Room 507, Block 2, Xinzao, Panyu District, 511436, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. gytanjie@163.com. (Springer, 2021-02-15)
      This study investigated the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse pregnancy outcomes among women participated in the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project in Guangdong Province, China, and explored these associations according to maternal age. Pre-pregnancy BMI was classified into underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), healthy weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2), overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥ 28.0 kg/m2) according to Chinese criteria. Outcomes were preterm birth (PTB, delivery before 37 weeks of gestation), large for gestational age (LGA, birthweight above the 90th percentile for gestational age by infants’ sex), small for gestational age (SGA, birthweight below the 10th percentile for gestational age by infants’ sex), primary caesarean delivery, shoulder dystocia or birth injury, and stillbirth. Adjusted incidence risk ratios (aIRR) were calculated for underweight, overweight and obesity, respectively. Compared with healthy weight, underweight was associated with increased risk of PTB (aIRR 1.06, 95%CI 1.04–1.09) and SGA (1.23, 1.22–1.26) but inversely associated with LGA (0.83, 0.82–0.85), primary caesarean delivery (0.88, 0.87–0.90) and stillbirth (0.73, 0.53–0.99). Overweight was associated with increased risk of LGA (1.17, 1.14–1.19), primary caesarean delivery (1.18, 1.16–1.20) and stillbirth (1.44, 1.03–2.06), but inversely associated with SGA (0.92, 0.90–0.95) and shoulder dystocia or birth injury (0.86, 0.79–0.93). Obesity was associated with increased risk of PTB (1.12, 1.05–1.20), LGA (1.32, 1.27–1.37), primary caesarean delivery (1.45, 1.40–1.50), but inversely associated with SGA (0.92, 0.87–0.97). The aIRRs for underweight, overweight and obesity in relation to these adverse pregnancy outcomes ranged from 0.65 to 1.52 according to maternal age. In Chinese population, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and the risk differs according to maternal age. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether and how counselling and interventions for women with low or increased BMI before pregnancy can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.
    • Temperature and humidity associated with increases in tuberculosis notifications: a time-series study in Hong Kong

      Xu, M; Li, Y; Liu, B; Chen, R; Sheng, L; Yan, S; Chen, H; Hou, J; Yuan, L; Ke, L; et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2020-12-28)
      Previous studies have revealed associations of meteorological factors with tuberculosis (TB) cases. However, few studies have examined their lag effects on TB cases. This study was aimed to analyse nonlinear lag effects of meteorological factors on the number of TB notifications in Hong Kong. Using a 22-year consecutive surveillance data in Hong Kong, we examined the association of monthly average temperature and relative humidity with temporal dynamics of the monthly number of TB notifications using a distributed lag nonlinear models combined with a Poisson regression. The relative risks (RRs) of TB notifications were >1.15 as monthly average temperatures were between 16.3 and 17.3 °C at lagged 13-15 months, reaching the peak risk of 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.35) when it was 16.8 °C at lagged 14 months. The RRs of TB notifications were >1.05 as relative humidities of 60.0-63.6% at lagged 9-11 months expanded to 68.0-71.0% at lagged 12-17 months, reaching the highest risk of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01-1.11) when it was 69.0% at lagged 13 months. The nonlinear and delayed effects of average temperature and relative humidity on TB epidemic were identified, which may provide a practical reference for improving the TB warning system.
    • Postdigital critical pedagogy

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Palgrave, 2021-12-31)
    • Online postgraduate teaching: re-discovering human agency

      Aitken, Gill; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2021-08-22)
    • The blockchain university: disrupting ‘disruption'

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah; Jandric (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      This paper explores the promise of disruption of higher education offered by latest platform technologies - a combination of mobile applications for connecting teachers and students and blockchain technology for secure transactions of information and money. We start with a brief examination of several generations of technological disruptions arriving from the Silicon Valley with a special focus to educational technology. Showing that these disruptions are primarily focused to furthering capitalist mode of production, we question whether the latest disruption could provide different results. Advertised as 'Uber for students, Airbnb for teachers', the Woolf University offers the seductive promise of radical transformation of higher education based on cooperative principles. Our analysis, which is based on early ideas about the development of the Woolf University, indicates that it has the potentials to offer cooperative learning to students, cooperative employment to academic workers, all the while retaining highest quality of teaching and learning modelled after ancient scholastic principles. On that basis, we conclude that the Woolf University, together with other adaptations of blockchain technology for educational purposes, does offer a lot of potential for fundamental disruption of higher education and should be closely watched in the times to come.
    • Recruitment, retention and compliance of overweight inactive adults with intermediate hyperglycaemia to a novel walking intervention

      Faulkner, Maria; McNeilly, Andrea; Davison, Gareth; Rowe, David; Hewitt, Allan; Nevill, Alan; Duly, Ellie; Trinick, Tom; Murphy, Marie (MDPI, 2021-07-05)
      This study evaluated the effectiveness of strategies used to recruit and retain overweight, inactive adults with intermediate hyperglycaemia (IHG) to a novel walking programme. Participant compliance to the nine-month randomised controlled trial (RCT) is also presented. Inactive overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) adults (N = 42; n = 19 male, n = 23 female) aged between 18–65 years, with IHG were identified via three recruitment strategies (NHS database reviews, diabetic clinics, and a University population). Participants were randomly assigned to either Intervention Group (IG n = 22; n = 11 male, n = 11 female) or Usual Care (UC n = 20; n = 8 male, n = 12 female). IG followed a nine-month novel behaviour change intervention where they walked in accordance with physical activity guidelines using the beat of music to maintain appropriate cadence. UC received standard physical activity advice. Recruitment, retention, and intervention compliance were calculated using descriptive statistics (means or frequencies). Recruiting from a University population was the most successful strategy (64.2% response rate) followed by NHS database reviews (35.8%) and then diabetic clinics (0%). Study retention was ≥80% in both groups throughout the RCT. Intervention compliance was highest from baseline to four months (70.1 ± 39.2%) and decreased as the study progressed (43.4 ± 56.1% at four to six months and 37.5 ± 43.5% at follow-up). In total, 71.4% of IG walking completed throughout the study was at least moderate intensity. A novel walking intervention incorporating the use of music along with behaviour change techniques appears to positively influence the recruitment, retention, and walking compliance of this population.
    • Maximising the potential of people in sport and life: lessons from Benson Community Project

      Leflay, Kath; Smith, Russel; University of Wolverhampton (UK Coaching, 2021-04-25)
      This paper explores how one particular community sport project in the West Midlands uses a coaching for development approach to maximise the potential of people in sport and in life. It has frequently been suggested that it shouldn’t be a taken for granted assumption that positive development will simply occur, rather, key decisions need to be made about the best way to shape sports projects to maximise the chance that they will result in successful outcomes . This paper examines how one club ‘coaches for development’, and in doing so, supports individual development-one of the outcomes identified by Sport England in their 2016 strategy- Towards an Active Nation. An independent evaluation of Benson Community Project was carried out by the University of Wolverhampton in 2019. Observations of sessions were carried out over a 5 week period. Observations were followed up by semi structured interviews with 6 volunteer coaching staff to capture in depth accounts about the project. Four emergent themes were identified from the observations and interviews. These were safe space, freestyling, relationship strategy and alternative pathways.
    • DFE Memorandum of Understanding for Faith Schools A gateway to inequality?

      Smith, Matthew; Mcconnell, Simi (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05-31)
    • Futures studies, mobilities, and the postdigital condition: Contention or complement

      Traxler, John; Connor, Stuart; Hayes, Sarah; Jandrić, Petar (Springer, 2021-07-12)
      This paper explores relationships between recent developments in the fields of mobilities, futures, and postdigital studies. The article covers six main themes: questions and their histories; definitions; research methods and ethics; the nature and ownership of knowing and learning; understandings of time, space, identity, community and relationships; political processes and political legitimacy. The article was written in three steps. In the first step, the leading author (John Traxler) has identified the relevant themes. In the second step, proponents of each position have freely responded to the themes (futures studies, Stuart Connor; postdigital theory, Sarah Hayes and Petar Jandrić; mobilities, John Traxler). In the third step, the responses have been collectively (re)mixed and edited, identifying complementary and conflicting concepts and ideas. The article was initiated a month before the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, and it was completed just over a year later. Thusly, responses and analyses have included the pandemic experience without explicitly focusing to the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper concludes with drawing together contributions, seeking underlying commonalities and differences, and looking for trends, convergence, and change. Epistemically, the three positions discussed in this paper are far from commensurable. Yet they are compatible and complementary, in a postdigital dialogue, in a sense that they all need each others’ inputs on the road to a better understanding of our current condition, and the road to a better future.
    • The association between training load indices and upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in elite soccer players

      Tiernan, Caoimhe; Comyns, Thomas; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles (SAGE, 2021-06-17)
      This study aimed to investigate the association between training load indices and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) across different lag periods in elite soccer players. Internal training load was collected from 15 elite soccer players over one full season (40 weeks). Acute, chronic, Acute:Chronic Workload Ratio (ACWR), Exponentially Weighted Moving Averages (EWMA) ACWR, 2, 3 and 4-week cumulative load, training strain and training monotony were calculated on a rolling weekly basis. Players completed a daily illness log, documenting any signs and symptoms, to help determine an URTI. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between training load indices and URTIs across different lag periods (1 to 7-days). The results found a significant association between 2-week cumulative load and an increased likelihood of a player contracting an URTI 3 days later (Odds Ratio, 95% Confidence Interval: OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 0.026-1.431). Additionally, a significant association was found between 3-week cumulative load and a players’ increased risk of contracting an URTI 4 days later (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 0.013–1.006). These results indicate that accumulated periods of high training load (2- and 3-week) associated with an increased risk of a player contracting an URTI, which may lead to performance decrements, missed training sessions or even competitions.
    • The roles of motivational interviewing and self-efficacy on outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a community-based exercise intervention for inactive mid-older aged adults

      Rose, Catherine; Galbraith, Niall; Rose, Peter (Wiley, 2021-07-14)
      Increasing physical activity (PA) among inactive middle-older aged adults in rural communities is challenging. This study investigates the efficacy of a PA intervention supporting inactive adults in rural/ semi-rural communities. Inactive participants enrolled on either a single signposting session (n=427), or multi-session pathway combining signposting with motivational interviewing (MI) (n=478). Pre-post outcomes data assessed activity levels (IPAQ-S; SISEM), self-efficacy (NGSE) and well-being (WHO-5). Measures were repeated at longitudinal time points (26, 52 weeks) for the MI pathway. Outcomes were contrasted with results from an unmatched comparison group receiving treatment as usual (TAU). Cost-utility (QALY-ICER) and return on investment (NHS-ROI; QALY-ROI) were estimated for short (5 years), medium (10 years) and long (25 years) time horizons. Both pathways significantly increased participants’ PA. The MI pathway resulted in significantly greater increases in PA than signposting-only and TAU. Improvements in psychological outcomes (NGSE; WHO-5) were significantly greater in the MI pathway than TAU. Longitudinal results indicated MI pathway participants sustained increases in light-intensity PA at 52 weeks (p<.001; ηp2=.16). Regression analyses found baseline self-efficacy predicted increased PA at 52 weeks, while baseline wellbeing did not. The relationship between self-efficacy and PA increased successively across time points. However, the magnitude of participants’ increased self-efficacy did not predict PA at any time point. Both pathways were cost-effective and costsaving for participants aged ≥ 61 years from the short time horizon, with the MI pathway having greater return on investment estimates. Overall, MI increased efficacy of a signposting PA intervention, and was cost-saving for older adults.
    • Loot boxes, problem gambling, and problem video gaming: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

      Spicer, Stuart G; Nicklin, Laura L; Uther, Maria; Lloyd, Joanne; Lloyd, Helen; Close, James (SAGE, 2021-07-17)
      Loot boxes are video game-related purchases with a chance-based outcome. Due to similarities with gambling, they have come under increasing scrutiny from media, academics and policymakers alike. Initial evidence suggested that loot box (LB) engagement might be associated with both problem gambling (PG) and problem video gaming (PVG). We therefore conducted a systematic review of the evidence for associations between LB purchasing, PG and PVG. For LB/PG, 12 of 13 publications reported a positive relationship, with a moderately sized mean effect of r = 0.27. For LB/PVG, the mean effect was r = 0.40, although this finding was drawn from only six surveys in total. For PG/PVG, the mean effect was r = 0.21, with only 11 of 20 studies reporting significant effects. Whilst further evidence is required to determine direction of causality, the strength of relationships suggests that policy action on loot boxes may have benefits for harm minimisation.
    • It is like ‘judging a book by its cover’: An exploration of the lived experiences of Black African mental health nurses in England

      Tuffour, Isaac (Wiley, 2021-06-14)
      The aim of this paper was to explore the experiences of perceived prejudices faced in England by Black African mental health nurses. Purposive sampling was used to identify five nurses from sub-Saharan Africa. They were interviewed using face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings were reported under two superordinate themes: Judging a book by its cover and opportunities. The findings showed that Black African nurses experience deep-rooted discrimination and marginalisation. Aside from that, because of their ethnicity and the fact that they speak English as a second language, they face discrimination and have difficulty achieving leadership roles. These findings provide key stakeholders, such as nursing trade unions and professional associations, as well as NHS employers, with the opportunity to act to counter hegemony in the NHS and recognise that discriminatory and racially related barriers hinder Black African nurses from reaching their full professional potential.
    • A person-centered evaluation of subjective well-being using a latent profile analysis: Associations with negative life events, distress, and emotion regulation strategies

      Lazić, Milica; Jovanović, Veljko; Gavrilov-Jerković, Vesna; Boyda, David; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia. (Wiley, 2021-04-25)
      The present study examined the structure of subjective well-being (SWB) using a person-centered approach, and tested whether SWB profiles differed in a number of self-reported negative life events, emotional distress, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. The sample included a total of 945 undergraduate students from Serbia (78% female, M<sub>age</sub>  = 20.14 years). A 3-step latent profile analysis with partial conditional independence revealed four profiles, which have been tentatively labeled: low SWB (a combination of low life satisfaction, low positive affect, and high negative affect), mixed SWB (moderate to high life satisfaction, moderate to low positive affect, high negative affect), moderately low SWB (low life satisfaction, moderate to low positive affect, moderate negative affect), high SWB (high life satisfaction, high positive affect, low negative affect). A comparison of SWB profiles applied to symptoms of emotional distress, along with the number of self-reported negative life events and emotion regulation strategies, offered support to the validity of four SWB profiles. Our findings suggest that a person-centered perspective might be a valuable tool for understanding the structure of SWB.
    • EHCP implementation in the early years: constrictions and possibilities

      Richards, Hazel (Wiley/NASEN, 2021-04-13)
      In England, Education and Health Care Plans (EHCPs) created changes for SENCOs, including those working in private, voluntary and independent (PVI) early years settings. Such SENCOs hold, as a minimum, a relevant Level-3 qualification, with subsequent training and support being optional, varied and sometimes difficult to access. This situation has implications for EHCP implementation and for the roles and responsibilities of SENCOs because effective realisation of the joint working, early identification and intervention prioritised in EHCPS require power, knowledge and skills. SENCOs from one Local Authority in England participated in this mixed-methods research. Identity theory and Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological theory were applied to analyse the macro through to micro level influences. This revealed seven key influences: information and resources; ethos and support; quality of evidence; relationships; knowledge and skills; purpose and outcomes. This paper presents the manifestation of these in the experience of eight Early Years SENCOs working PVI settings.
    • Comparing individual and population differences in VE/VCO2 slopes using centile growth curves and log-linear allometry

      Nevill, Alan M; Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Arena, Ross; Myers, Tony D (European Respiratory Society, 2021-05-27)
      Identifying vulnerable groups and/or individuals’ cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important challenge for clinicians/researchers alike. To quantify CRF accurately, the assessment of several variables is now standard practice including maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) and ventilatory efficiency, the latter assessed using the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope. Recently, reference values (centiles) for VE/VCO2 slopes for men and women aged 20 to 80 have been published, using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) data (treadmill protocol) from the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND Registry). In the current observational study we provide centile curves for the FRIEND Registry VE/VCO2 slopes, fitted using the generalised additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), to provide individuals with a more precise estimate of where their VE/VCO2 slopes fall within the population. We also confirm that by adopting allometric models (incorporating a log-transformation), the resulting ANCOVAs provided more normal and homoscedastic residuals, with superior goodness-of-fit using the Akaike information criterion AIC=14 671 (compared with traditional ANCOVA's AIC=15 008) that confirms allometric models are vastly superior to traditional ANCOVA models. In conclusion, providing sex-by-age centile curves rather than referring to reference tables for ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slopes) will provide more accurate estimates of where an individual's particular VE/VCO2 slope falls within the population. Also, by adopting allometric models researchers are more likely to identify real and valid inferences when analysing population/group differences in VE/VCO2 slopes.