• Biophysical, psychrometric and physiological limits for continuous liquid and air-based personal cooling systems in working men: A case for amending ASTM2300-10(2016)

      Bach, Aaron JE; Borg, David N; Minett, Geoffrey M; Maley, Matthew J; Stewart, Ian B (Elsevier, 2020-09-22)
      The ASTM F2300-10 standard testing protocol was implemented for two continuous personal cooling systems (venturi air vest and cold-water perfused vest) with theoretically similar cooling capacities. Secondly, we used the same systems in step-wise increments of either temperature or relative humidity in order to define the upper limit of the prescriptive zone for each (i.e., critical environmental limits method). ASTM F2300-10 standard protocol saw both vests equally effective in reducing cardiovascular and thermal strain relative to a no cooling control. The critical environmental limits method saw the upper limit for humidity significantly increase in both vests, with no differences between the vests. However, the upper limit for temperature was increased in the cold-water vest, with the venturi air vest being no more beneficial than the control. Overall, this study used an evidence-based approach to demonstrate that a single environment, as per ASTM F2300-10, failed to delineate differences between continuous cooling systems promoting discrete mechanisms of heat loss. Most notably, relative to no cooling, the use of the air vest provided no additional evaporative cooling in a low humidity environment, and therefore no increase in the upper limits of critical temperature. This should highlight to end users not to assume that one size fits all for effective personal cooling systems if applied outside of the environment it was tested. Based on these findings, we suggest a range of environments be recommended by the ASTM F2300-10 standard for the evaluation of cooling systems to ensure systems ineffective in certain environments can be identified.
    • Philosophy of education in a new key: Who remembers Greta Thunberg? Education and environment after the coronavirus

      Jandrić, Petar; Jaldemark, Jimmy; Hurley, Zoe; Bartram, Brendan; Matthews, Adam; Jopling, Michael; Mañero, Julia; MacKenzie, Alison; Irwin, Jones; Rothmüller, Ninette; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-15)
      This paper explores relationships between environment and education after the Covid-19 pandemic through the lens of philosophy of education in a new key developed by Michael Peters and the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA). The paper is collectively written by 15 authors who responded to the question: Who remembers Greta Thunberg? Their answers are classified into four main themes and corresponding sections. The first section, ‘As we bake the earth, let's try and bake it from scratch’, gathers wider philosophical considerations about the intersection between environment, education, and the pandemic. The second section, ‘Bump in the road or a catalyst for structural change?’, looks more closely into issues pertaining to education. The third section, ‘If you choose to fail us, we will never forgive you’, focuses to Greta Thunberg’s messages and their responses. The last section, ‘Towards a new (educational) normal’, explores future scenarios and develops recommendations for critical emancipatory action. The concluding part brings these insights together, showing that resulting synergy between the answers offers much more then the sum of articles’ parts. With its ethos of collectivity, interconnectedness, and solidarity, philosophy of education in a new key is a crucial tool for development of post-pandemic (philosophy of) education.
    • Technological unemployment and its educational discontents

      Jandrić, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Helsinki University Press, 2020-08-11)
      This chapter introduces a post-digital perspective to relationships between technological unemployment and its educational discontents. It examines a possible future where digital technologies will destroy more jobs than they will create in three steps. First, an extensive literature overview identifies why people from various historical periods and working in various fields have perceived technological unemployment as a threat. Second, it distils six main areas of educational discontent in current literature: discontent with neoliberalization, discontent with automation, discontent with dehumanization, discontent with acceleration, discontent with content of work and discontent with educationalization. Concluding that educational discontent with technological unemployment identified in our work seems to have surprisingly little to do with either technology or with employment, it returns to the post-digital perspective to explain this result. Finally, it examines educational discontent of technological unemployment as an agent of change, and concludes that the notion of educational discontent with technological unemployment has the potential to help formulate new post-digital critical rage pedagogy.
    • The effects of whole body vibration training on vertical jump height in dancers: A systematic review with meta-analysis

      Donida, Rebeca Gimenes; Delabary, Marcela dos Santos; Bittar, Adriano; Wyon, Matthew; Haas, Aline Nogueira (National Dance Society, 2020-09-16)
      Dancers must be strong and flexible for a balanced body and great performances. However, dance training and fitness methods are quite divergent between dance styles, dance coaches and teachers. It was verified in the scientific literature that whole-body vibration (WBV) training can improve the vertical jump height (VJH) for dancers from different styles when compared to other interventions or no intervention. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of WBV training on VJH in dancers, compared to other interventions or no intervention, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), through a systematic review with meta-analysis. The search used the databases MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, PEDro, Psycinfo and Google Scholar (between 1985 and September, 2019). RCTs that analyzed the effects of WBV training on vertical jump height in dancers, compared to other models of training or no intervention, were included. Four studies met the eligibility criteria; 56 were excluded. The data from the selected studies were extracted by two independent and blind reviewers. Four RCTs that assessed 84 participants in total were included. WBV training promoted significant improvements in VJH, compared to other interventions such as intense stretching, or extra dance classes. WBV training proved to be beneficial even with a short time intervention.
    • A systematic review exploring the impact of social media on breastfeeding practices

      Orchard, Lisa; Nicholls, Wendy (Springer Nature, 2020-12-31)
      Social media has potential to promote and support positive health behaviours. This systematic review explores the influence of social media on breastfeeding decision-making, promotion and support. For the purpose of the review, social media was defined as social networking sites and blogs; M-technology and apps were only considered if they included an interactive element, such as a ‘share’ function, or one-to-many communication. Searches were conducted on EBSCO across seven databases (limited to 2007-2019). Of the 1261 papers initially identified, 22 met the inclusion criteria for the current review. Results are mixed, but there is evidence that social media can be used to improve breastfeeding awareness and attitudes. Breastfeeding mothers value pro-breastfeeding online communities. However, the success of such social media groups may be dependent on specific content shared, individual contributors, and group dynamics. Key considerations for practitioners are offered regarding how social media can augment services offered to support breastfeeding. Research in this field is still very much in its infancy. Further investigation of specific social media content is needed, alongside the viewpoints of those who have ceased breastfeeding against their wishes.
    • Evaluating the impact of ICT on teaching and learning: A study of Palestinian students’ and teachers’ perceptions

      Qaddumi, Husam; Bartram, Brendan; Qashmar, Ali (Springer Nature, 2020-09-19)
      This study aimed to investigate the impact of ICT on teaching and learning from the point-of-view of Palestinian students and teachers. A total of 207 school teachers and 276 students from 53 schools taking part in an ICT project in Palestine responded to a questionnaire survey. Results indicated that students in Palestinian public schools perceived ICT to have a moderate influence on their learning. Students indicated that they face frequent challenges such as: lesson duration, access to modern devices and issues with information research skills. These results contrasted with school teachers’ views, which reflected a much stronger impression of the influence of ICT on teaching.
    • The relationship between passion, basic psychological needs satisfaction and athlete burnout: examining direct and indirect effects

      Kent, Sofie; Kingston, Kieran; Paradis, Kyle F (Human Kinetics, 2018-03-01)
      Athlete burnout symptoms are detrimental to athlete well-being. Obsessive passion has been identified as an antecedent of athlete burnout, with basic psychological need satisfaction potentially mediating this process. The aim of the current research was to extend on previous work and examine whether the relationship between passion and athlete burnout was mediated by psychological need satisfaction in a heterogeneous sample. Participants were 120 competitive athletes (Mage = 22.04, SD = 5.83) from 21 different sports. Each participant completed the Passion Scale, Basic Psychological Needs in Sport Scale, and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. Multiple regression and bootstrapping procedures were used to analyze the data. Passion (harmonious and obsessive) was found to share a significant relationship with sport devaluation but shared no significant relationship with emotional and physical exhaustion and reduced sense of accomplishment. Bootstrapping results suggested that the basic psychological need of autonomy was the only significant mediating variable in the relationship between passion (harmonious and obsessive) and burnout (sport devaluation). Potential antecedents and consequences of athlete burnout, alongside applied and conceptual implications are discussed.
    • Accuracy of ECG chest electrode placements by paramedics; an observational study

      Gregory, Pete; Kilner, Tim; Lodge, Stephen; Paget, Suzy (The College of Paramedics, 2020-12-31)
      Background The use of the 12-lead ECG is common in sophisticated prehospital Emergency Medical Services but its value depends upon accurate placement of the ECG-electrodes. Several studies have shown widespread variation in the placement of chest electrodes by other health professionals but no studies have addressed the accuracy of paramedics. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the accuracy of the chest lead placements by registered paramedics. Methods Registered paramedics who attended the Emergency Services Show in Birmingham in September 2018 were invited to participate in this observational study. Participants were asked to place the chest electrodes on a male model in accordance with their current practice. Correct positioning was determined against the Society for Cardiological Science & Technology’s Clinical Guidelines for recording a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (2017) with a tolerance of 19mm being deemed acceptable based upon previous studies. Results 52 eligible participants completed the study. Measurement of electrode placement in the vertical and horizontal planes showed a high level of inaccuracy with 3/52 (5.8%) participants able to accurately place all chest electrodes. In leads V1 - V3, the majority of incorrect placements were related to vertical displacement with most participants able to identify the correct horizontal position. In V4, the tendency was to place the electrode too low and to the left of the pre-determined position whilst V5 tended to be below the expected positioning but in the correct horizontal alignment. There was a less defined pattern of error in V6 although vertical displacement was more likely than horizontal displacement. Conclusions Our study identified a high level of variation in the placement of chest ECG electrodes which could alter the morphology of the ECG. Correct placement of V1 improved placement of other electrodes. Improved initial and refresher training should focus on identification of landmarks and correct placement of V1.
    • Postdigital artistic positionality and its potentials for cultural education

      Hayes, Sarah; Jandrić, Petar (Springer, 2020-12-31)
      In 2002, in Culture in Bits, Gary Hall described challenges to the ‘identity’ of cultural studies, pointing to the debate between political economy and cultural studies. Rapid technological change has distracted us since, but these challenges remain. Furthermore, recent developments surrounding the Covid-19 pandemic have also revealed complex interconnections across viral biology and information science, with the global lockdown giving rise to related postdigital artistic activities. In Algorithmic Culture Ted Striphas discussed a delegation of the work of culture to computational processes, which significantly alters the practice, experience, and understanding of culture. This article examines to what extent postdigital art practices offer a form of resistance to political economic ‘illusions’ of democratic forms of public culture found across the Internet, and at which price. If humans and technology are acknowledged as part of a collaborative artistic process, can this address issues pertaining to power, exploitation, and emancipation, in our postdigital age? We conclude that when artists engage with their personal postdigital positionality, this brings such possibilities a little closer in these uncertain times.
    • Patient, carer and health service outcomes of nurse-led early discharge after breast cancer surgery: A randomised controlled trial

      Wells, M; Harrow, A; Donnan, P; Davey, P; Devereux, S; Little, G; McKenna, E; Wood, R; Chen, R; Thompson, A; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2004-08-16)
      Patients with breast cancer who require axillary clearance traditionally remain in hospital until their wound drains are removed. Early discharge has been shown to improve clinical outcomes, but there has been little assessment of the psychosocial and financial impact of early discharge on patients, carers and the health service. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse-led model of early discharge from hospital. Main outcome measures were quality of life and carer burden. Secondary outcomes included patient satisfaction, arm morbidity, impact on community nurses, health service costs, surgical cancellations and in-patient nursing dependency. A total of 108 patients undergoing axillary clearance with mastectomy or wide local excision for breast cancer were randomised to nurse-led early discharge or conventional stay. Nurse-led early discharge had no adverse effects on quality of life or patient satisfaction, had little effect on carer burden, improved communication between primary and secondary care, reduced cancellations and was safely implemented in a mixed rural/urban setting. In total, 40% of eligible patients agreed to take part. Nonparticipants were significantly older, more likely to live alone and had lower emotional well being before surgery. This study provides further evidence of the benefits of early discharge from hospital following axillary clearance for breast cancer. However, if given the choice, most patients prefer to stay in hospital until their wound drains are removed. © 2004 Cancer Research UK.
    • Association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and dementia syndromes

      Chen, Ruoling; Wilson, Kenneth; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Dongmei; Qin, Xia; He, M; Hu, Zhi; Ma, Ying; Copeland, John R; School of Health Administration, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. ruoling.chen@kcl.ac.uk (BMJ, 2013-01-01)
      Objectives: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has a range of adverse health effects, but its association with dementia remains unclear and with dementia syndromes unknown. We examined the dose-response relationship between ETS exposure and dementia syndromes. Methods: Using a standard method of GMS, we interviewed 5921 people aged ≥60 years in five provinces in China in 2007-2009 and characterised their ETS exposure. Five levels of dementia syndrome were diagnosed using the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy instrument. The relative risk (RR) of moderate (levels 1-2) and severe (levels 3-5) dementia syndromes among participants exposed to ETS was calculated in multivariate adjusted regression models. Results: 626 participants (10.6%) had severe dementia syndromes and 869 (14.7%) moderate syndromes. Participants exposed to ETS had a significantly increased risk of severe syndromes (adjusted RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.59). This was dose-dependently related to exposure level and duration. The cumulative exposure dose data showed an adjusted RR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.28) for >0-24 level years of exposure, 1.15 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.42) for 25-49 level years, 1.18 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.59) for 59-74 level years, 1.39 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.84) for 75-99 level years and 1.95 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.83) for ≥100 level years. Significant associations with severe syndromes were found in never smokers and in former/current smokers. There were no positive associations between ETS and moderate dementia syndromes. Conclusions: ETS should be considered an important risk factor for severe dementia syndromes. Avoidance of ETS may reduce the rates of severe dementia syndromes worldwide.
    • Data for development: shifting research methodologies for Covid-19

      Traxler, John; Smith, Matthew (Commonwealth of Learning, 2021-03-31)
      Successful and appropriate informal digital learning can help individuals and communities build sustainable and meaningful livelihoods, strengthen social cohesion and resilience, preserve and enhance cultural traditions and engage constructively and robustly with the wider world. Building digital learning that embodies participative and collaborative development and community ownership and control rests on the work of educators who understand these individuals and communities and their cultures, which may be very distant and different from global norms and the mainstream of their countries. These educators may however be reliant on research tools and techniques that are inappropriate or inadequate in these different settings and situations. This paper sets out a brief critique of these established tools and techniques as the prelude to reviewing a range of more innovative and eclectic ones drawn from a variety of disciplines. This is timely because COVID-19 has increased the barriers that separate educators from would-be learners whilst also increasing the education that these people and communities need.
    • A tribute to Professor Edward Winter

      Nevill, AM; Williams, C; Copeland, RJ; Flint, SW (Taylor & Francis, 2020-09-03)
      This tribute honours Professor Edward Winter who, during a distinguished career, made a substantial contribution to the discipline of Sport and Exercise Science. Edward authored more than 200 publications, was involved in the review of more than 2000 manuscripts and abstracts and had extensive experience of supervising and examining research candidates. Specifically here, Professor Winter made a major contribution to the Journal of Sport Sciences as section editor for Sport Performance for over a decade. The editorial Board wishes to formally acknowledge the contribution made by Edward to; the work of the Journal, the development of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences and the science of sport and exercise. This editorial comprises contributions from colleagues across the sport and exercise community that are published elsewhere (Copeland et al., 2020).
    • Developing a new curvilinear allometric model to improve the fit and validity of the 20-m shuttle run test as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults and youth

      Nevill, Alan; Ramsbottom, Roger; Sandercock, Gavin; Bocachica-González, Carlos Eduardo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Tomkinson, Grant (Springer Nature, 2020-12-31)
      Background and Objectives: Doubts have been raised concerning the validity of the 20m shuttle run test (20mSRT) as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth based on Léger’s equation/model. An alternative allometric model has been published recently that is thought to provide, not only a superior fit (criterion validity) but also a more biologically and physiologically interpretable model (construct validity). The purposes of this study were to explore whether allometry can provide a more valid predictor of CRF using 20mSRT compared with Léger’s equation/model. Methods: We fitted and compared Léger’s original model and an alternative allometric model using two cross-sectional datasets (youth, n=306; adult n=105) that contained measurements of CRF (V ̇O2peak /V ̇O2max) and 20mSRT performance. Quality-of-fit was assessed using explained variance (R2) and Bland and Altman’s limits of agreement. Results: The allometric models provided superior fits for the youth (explained variance R2=71.9%) and adult (R2=77.7%) datasets compared with Léger’s equation using their original fixed (R2=35.2%) or re-estimated parameter models (R2=65.9%), confirming that the allometric models demonstrate acceptable criterion validity. However, the allometric models also identified a non-linear “J-shaped” increase in energy cost (V ̇O2peak/V ̇O2max) with faster final shuttle-run speeds, (fitted speed exponent =1.52; 95% CI 1.38 to 1.65). Conclusion: Not only do allometric models provide more accurate predictions of CRF (V ̇O2peak/V ̇O2max; ml.kg-1.min-1) for both youth and adults (evidence of criterion validity), the “J-shaped” rise in energy demand with increasing final shuttle-run speed also provides evidence of construct validity, resulting in a more plausible, physiologically sound and interpretable model.
    • Inclusion, measurement and relevance… and Covid-19

      Traxler, John (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-17)
      This paper addresses the theme of ‘widening student access, participation and lifelong learning’ within the wider issue of ‘measuring excellence’ in the UK higher education and finds them both to be problematic. An earlier paper entitled ‘Inclusion in an age of mobility’ (Traxler 2016) written over 4 years ago made the case that the inclusion agenda of the UK higher education of 1990s was largely a failure in its own terms but had in any case been made irrelevant by the subsequent onset of pervasive and ubiquitous connectivity and mobility, profoundly transforming the production, ownership, distribution and nature of learning and knowing and problematising the role and status of universities and lecturers.
    • From elitist to inclusive higher education

      Brewster, Stephanie; Brown, Zeta (Routledge, 2016-04-28)
    • Putting children forward for epilepsy surgery: A qualitative study of UK parents' and health professionals' decision-making experiences

      Heath, G; Abdin, S; Begum, R; Kearney, S; Department of Psychology, Aston University, Birmingham, UK; Department of Psychology, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, UK. Electronic address: g.heath1@aston.ac.uk. (Elsevier, 2016-06-29)
      © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Background Against a backdrop of recommendations for increasing access to and uptake of early surgical intervention for children with medically intractable epilepsy, it is important to understand how parents and professionals decide to put children forward for epilepsy surgery and what their decisional support needs are. Aim The aim of this study was to explore how parents and health professionals make decisions regarding putting children forward for pediatric epilepsy surgery. Methods Individual interviews were conducted with nine parents of children who had undergone pediatric epilepsy surgery at a specialist children's hospital and ten healthcare professionals who made up the children's epilepsy surgery service multidisciplinary healthcare team (MDT). Three MDT meetings were also observed. Data were analyzed thematically. Findings Four themes were generated from analysis of interviews with parents: presentation of surgery as a treatment option, decision-making, looking back, and interventions. Three themes were generated from analysis of interviews/observations with health professionals: triangulating information, team working, and patient and family perspectives. Discussion Parents wanted more information and support in deciding to put their child forward for epilepsy surgery. They attempted to balance the potential benefits of surgery against any risks of harm. For health professionals, a multidisciplinary approach was seen as crucial to the decision-making process. Advocating for the family was perceived to be the responsibility of nonmedical professionals. Conclusion Decision-making can be supported by incorporating families into discussions regarding epilepsy surgery as a potential treatment option earlier in the process and by providing families with additional information and access to other parents with similar experiences.
    • Disability, diversity and inclusive placement learning

      Brewster, Stephanie; Thompson, David; Bartram, Brendan (Routledge, 2020-10-30)
    • Les facteurs qui influencent le choix de traitement ou l’éducation des patients et de leurs proches pour choix de traitement en pleine connaissance de cause

      Matheson, David; Matheson-Monnet, Catherine; Djeumeni Tchamabe, M; Voulgre, E; Groux, D; Nyebe Atangana, S (l'Harmattan, 2019-06-28)
    • Making the case for lifelong learning: PIAAC and policy change

      Tuckett, Alan (2018-11-28)
      My paper looks first at why learning through the adult lifespan is important and valuable for individuals, communities, companies and for governments. Secondly, it looks at the relationship between the range of challenges facing countries in the light of economic, technological and demographic change, and the available evidence of adults’ competence to address those challenges. For this it draws heavily on the very rich evidence in the OECD Programme of International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) (OECD 2013). The paper notes PIAAC’s primary focus on skills related to the labour market and productivity, and its useful survey of aspects of social capital. It complements this by considering other forms of quantifiable data, and qualitative studies relevant to policy making that affect a wider range of lifelong and life-wide learning. These include looking at evidence from longitudinal studies, more targeted surveys, and the rich range of narratives drawn on in advocacy work.