• Over 100,000 posters: the unprecedented commercialism of the 1966 World Cup in England

      Williams, Jean (Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2018-10-04)
      The world's most popular sport, soccer, has long been celebrated as “the beautiful game” for its artistry and aesthetic appeal. Picturing the Beautiful Game: A History of Soccer in Visual Culture and Art is the first collection to examine the rich visual culture of soccer, including the fine arts, design, and mass media. Covering a range of topics related to the game's imagery, this volume investigates the ways soccer has been promoted, commemorated, and contested in visual terms. Throughout various mediums and formats-including illustrated newspapers, modern posters, and contemporary artworks-soccer has come to represent issues relating to identity, politics, and globalization. As the contributors to this collection suggest, these representations of the game reflect society and soccer's place in our collective imagination. Perspectives from a range of fields including art history, sociology, sport history, and media studies enrich the volume, affording a multifaceted visual history of the beautiful game.
    • Salivary biomarkers and training load during training and competition in paralympic swimmers

      Sinnott-O’Connor, Ciara; Comyns, Tom; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles (Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc, 2018-07-01)
      CONTEXT: Stress responses in athletes can be attributed to training and competition, where increased physiological and psychological stress may negatively affect performance and recovery. PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between training load (TL) and salivary biomarkers immunoglobulin A (IgA), alpha-amylase (AA), and cortisol across a 16-wk preparation phase and 10-d competition phase in Paralympic swimmers. METHODS: Four Paralympic swimmers provided biweekly saliva samples during 3 training phases-(1) normal training, (2) intensified training, and (3) taper-as well as daily saliva samples in the 10-d Paralympic competition (2016 Paralympic Games). TL was measured using session rating of perceived exertion. RESULTS: Multilevel analysis identified a significant increase in salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA: 94.98 [27.69] μg·mL-1), salivary alpha-amylase (sAA: 45.78 [19.07] μg·mL-1), and salivary cortisol (7.92 [2.17] nM) during intensified training concurrent with a 38.3% increase in TL. During the taper phase, a 49.5% decrease in TL from the intensified training phase resulted in a decrease in sIgA, sAA, and salivary cortisol; however, all 3 remained higher than baseline levels. A further significant increase was observed during competition in sIgA (168.69 [24.19] μg·mL-1), sAA (35.86 [16.67] μg·mL-1), and salivary cortisol (10.49 [1.89] nM) despite a continued decrease (77.8%) in TL from the taper phase. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that performance in major competition such as Paralympic games, despite a noticeable reduction in TL, induces a stress response in athletes. Because of the elevated stress response observed, modifications to individual postrace recovery protocols may be required to enable athletes to maximize performance across all 10 d of competition.
    • Elective orthopaedic surgery

      Lucas, Brian; Drozd, Mary; Flynn, Sandra; Blair, Vanessa (Wiley Blackwell, 2014-08-14)
      This chapter provides an overview of the principles of orthopaedic elective surgery and some of the common surgical procedures. The patient pathway of pre‐, peri‐ and post‐operative care will be described and the implications for nursing care discussed. The evidence base for practice, including enhanced recovery programmes, will be explored so that the practitioner can ensure they are providing the optimum care for patients.
    • What we think about hospital care

      Drozd, Mary; Norris, Kirsty; Chadwick, Darren; Eggison, Peter; Clinch, Christine (2018-09-16)
    • Intimate partner violence, sexual abuse, and the mediating role of loneliness on psychosis

      Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Shevlin, Mark (Elsevier, 2014-05-16)
      Background: Victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience a higher propensity for psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, as a result of such experiences individuals may withdraw socially and experience feelings of loneliness; thus, loneliness may represent an intermediary link between trauma and psychosis symptomology. Objective: To examine whether IPV and CSA are associated with feelings of loneliness and psychotic symptoms. In addition, to examine if loneliness mediates the relationships between IPV and psychotic symptoms and between CSA and psychotic symptoms. Method: The study utilized the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N = 7403). Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire along with devised measures of IPV, CSA and loneliness. Results: Results revealed that both IPV and CSA were associated with loneliness. In addition, IPV but not CSA was found to predict psychotic symptoms. Finally, loneliness mediated the relationship between IPV and psychotic symptoms, but failed to mediate the relationship between CSA and psychosis. Conclusions: The results are consistent with literature linking interpersonal trauma to both social marginalization and psychosis. The study extends prior knowledge by proposing a transitional link whereby social withdrawal resulting from IPV may propagate feelings of loneliness, ultimately precipitating the onset of subsequent psychosis symptoms.
    • Patterns of stressful life events: distinguishing suicide ideators from suicide attempters

      McFeeters, Danielle; Boyda, David; O`Neill, Siobhan (Elsevier, 2014-12-12)
      Background Suicidal ideation is an important indicator for subsequent suicidal behaviour, yet only a proportion of ideators transit from thought to action. This has led to interest surrounding the factors that distinguish ideators who attempt from non-attempters. The study aimed to identify distinct classes of life event categories amongst a sample of ideators and assess the ability of the classes to predict the risk of a suicide attempt. Methods A subsample of ideators was extracted based on responses to the suicidality section of the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N=7403). Fifteen stressful life events (SLEs) were grouped into six broad categories. Results Using Latent Class Analysis (LCA), three distinct classes emerged; class 1 had a high probability of encountering interpersonal conflict, class 2 reported a low probability of experiencing any of the SLE categories with the exception of minor life stressors, whereas class 3 had a high probability of endorsing multiple SLE categories. The Odds Ratio for attempted suicide were highest among members of Class 3. Limitations The use of broad event categories as opposed to discrete life events may have led to an underestimation of the true exposure to SLEs. Conclusions The findings suggest the experience of multiple types of SLEs may predict the risk of transitioning towards suicidal behaviour for those individuals who have contemplated suicide. In application, this re-emphasises the need for a routine appraisal of risk amongst this vulnerable group and an assessment of the variety of events which may signal the individuals who may be at immediate risk.
    • Coping styles in adults with cystic fibrosis: implications for emotional and social quality of life

      Mc Hugh, Rachel; Mc Feeters, Danielle; Boyda, David; O’Neill, Siobhan (Taylor & Francis Online, 2015-02-13)
      As life expectancy increases, interest has grown surrounding the factors that may influence quality of life (QOL) for people with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of the current study was to examine which specific coping styles were positively or negatively associated with social and emotional QOL in a CF sample. One hundred and twenty-two respondents aged 18 and over were recruited through an online support group. Respondents completed the ‘CF Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R)’ and the ‘Brief COPE’. The CFQ-R is a disease-specific instrument designed to measure the impact of CF on nine QOL domains and the Brief COPE is a 28 item questionnaire which assesses 14 coping scales. A multivariate regression model revealed that higher substance abuse and disengagement was associated with lower emotional QOL whereas greater use of religion, instrumental coping and acceptance was positively associated with emotional QOL. Active coping was linked to better social QOL and a negative association was reported between distraction coping with both emotional and social domains. Given the burden of CF, ascertaining which factors enhance or diminish emotion and social well-being is now an integral component of QOL research. The current findings may therefore have value in informing clinical interventions which aim to cater for the psychological needs of individuals with CF.
    • Gendered and classed performances of motherhood and good academic in Greece

      Tsouroufli, Maria (Sage, 2018)
      The enduring significance of gender and how it intersects with class in the organisation of parenting, domestic, and professional work has been obscured in contemporary neo-liberal contexts. This paper examines how Greek academic women conceptualize and enact motherhood and the classed and gendered strategies they adopt to reconcile ‘good’ motherhood with notions of the ‘good’ academic professional. It draws on semi-structured interviews about the career narratives of 15 women in Greek Medical Schools at the aftermath of the Greek recession. The analysis presented in this paper is informed by a feminist post-structuralist paradigm and an emic approach to intersectionality. Motherhood emerged in the data as a dynamic concept, and a network of practices both constrained and enabled by gendered and classed family and work cultures. Drawing on neo-liberal ‘DIY’ and ‘having it all’ discourse Greek mothers claimed that they could achieve almost anything professionally, if they organised their private lives sensibly. They drew on idealised discourses of motherhood, but they also contradicted these notions by doing non- traditional forms of motherhood, such as remote or transnational motherhood, afforded by their privileged social positioning and academic careers. Further research is required to investigate configurations of classed motherhood in less prestigious professions.
    • Correlates of sedentary behaviour and light physical activity in people living with rheumatoid arthritis: protocol for a longitudinal study

      O'Brien, Ciara M.; Duda, Joan L.; Kitas, George D.; Veldhuijzen Van Zanten, Jet J.C.S.; Metsios, George S.; Fenton, Sally A.M. (Mediterranean Journal of Rheumatology, 2018)
      Background: Sedentary behaviour (SB) is associated with adverse health outcomes in the general population. Replacing sedentary time with light intensity physical activity (LPA) has been linked with improvements in all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in adults. People with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) typically spend long periods of time sedentary, but the health consequences of ‘too much sitting’, and possible benefits of LPA, have not been fully explored in this population. Moreover, little is known regarding the determinants of these behaviours among people living with RA, and such knowledge is required for the development of effective behavioural interventions. Aims: To examine longitudinal relationships between:1) objectively-assessed SB/LPA with health outcomes in RA, 2) hypothesised determinants of SB/LPA with objectively-assessed SB/LPA in RA. Methods: This longitudinal study will secure assessments at baseline (Time 1) and 6-month follow-up (Time 2) from RA patients. At both time points, physical assessments will be undertaken, and questionnaires administered to measure physical (e.g., percentage body fat, disease activity, physical function, pain) and psychological (e.g., depression, anxiety, vitality) health outcomes. Additional questionnaires will be administered to establish hypothesised determinants (i.e., psychosocial, individual differences, and physical environmental). Participants will wear the ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer and activPAL3 for 7 days to objectively measure SB and LPA. Discussion: Findings will elucidate the health correlates of SB in RA, as well as the relevance of interventions targeting reductions in SB by promoting LPA. Results will also assist in identifying intervention targets (i.e., determinants), with the potential to encourage SB change in RA.
    • Online qualitative methods – challenges and opportunities

      Lloyd, Joanne (British Psychological Society, 2018)
      This is a prepublication version of the following article; Online qualitative methods – challenges and opportunities 2018, 26 Qualitative Methods in Psychology Bulletin A growing proportion of the population are spending an increasing amount of time online (Poushter, 2016) and engaging in a wide variety of online activities (Blank & Groselj, 2014). Communication is one of the most common, with email, for example, being used by over 90% of UK adults (Blank & Groselj, 2014), and other forms of ‘computer mediated discourse’ (Herring & Androutsopoulos, 2015) including private, ‘direct messages’ sent between individuals through applications such as Whatsapp or Facebook messenger, also being widely used (Oghuma, Libaque-Saenz, Wong & Chang, 2016). Thus, there are many efficient and convenient avenues of online communication via which primary qualitative data can be collected; such as online interviews through text-based or video-based chat, or online qualitative surveys.
    • ‘We have to wait in a queue for our turn quite a bit’ Examining children’s physical activity during primary physical education lessons

      Powell, Emma; Woodfield, Lorayne; Nevill, Alan; Powell, Alexander J; Myers, Tony D (Sage, 2018-07-16)
      The overall purpose of this study was to examine children’s physical activity (PA) during primary physical education (PE). This was achieved through the following two research objectives: (1) to measure children’s PA, lesson context and teacher promotion of PA during PE lessons; and (2) to explore teachers’ and children’s perspectives on PA levels during PE lessons. Evidence suggests that children’s PA during PE is below recommended levels and further research is required to understand the reasons why. Through a mixed method design, 138 children were observed using the System for Observing Fitness and Instruction Time, 80 children participated in group interviews, and 13 teachers were interviewed, across three primary schools in England. Findings indicated that the mean percentage of lesson time allocated to moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was 42.4% and the average lesson length was 35.3 minutes. Qualitative themes identified were: ‘knowledge and beliefs’; ‘teacher pedagogy’; and ‘teacher development’. The findings indicate that a change in perspective is needed, which includes a focus on PA during primary PE lessons. Intervention work is required that targets teachers’ knowledge and beliefs towards PE along with the development of effective teaching strategies. However, this needs to be grounded in an ecological approach which will allow researchers and schools to target the various levels of influence. It is strongly recommended that interventions are grounded in behaviour change theory, as this study indicates that sharing knowledge about pedagogical strategies to increase children’s MVPA does not necessarily produce changes in teachers’ behaviours.
    • Rights management to enable a true Internet of Things

      Newman, Robert; Doody, Pat; Trebar, Mira; Okoke, Uchenna (IEEE, 2016)
      In this paper, we differentiate between a true ‘Internet of things’ and its component parts. We argue that the determining aspect of the ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT) is the accessibility of ‘things’ on the global Internet, as opposed to a simple interconnection of networked ‘things’. We observe that most reported applications of the ‘Internet of Things’ would be more accurately described as ‘Intranets of Things’. In large part, this is because the owners and operators of AIDC (Automatic identification and data capture) systems and sensor networks that in the main make up the IoT have understandable concerns about the security of their assets and therefore will limit access to that which serves their own purposes. In the wider field of the Internet ‘in the large’, the open mining of the Web for information has become the mainstay of many genres of research, allowing the assembly of huge corpora, enabling analytical techniques that can reveal far more information than previous limited studies. It is argued that part of the expected dividend for the IoT is to enable use on a similar scale of sensor and AIDC data, and that the results will be availability of information fusion on a huge scale, which will allow significant new knowledge to be generated. We give an example of how in one project, the RFID from Farm to Fork traceability project, this prospect has been validated to an extent on the basis that data owners voluntarily made their data available on the Web for specific purposes. Extrapolating to a more general case, we suggest that there are two services that need to be provided in order for the generalized information mining that occurs on the Internet-at-large to occur in the Internet of Things. The first is a means of cataloguing available data, which is already being addressed by services such as HyperCAT. The second is an automatic rights management service (IoT-RM), which would manage the rights and permissions and allow data owners to determine in advance to whom their data should be released, for what purposes, subject to which restrictions (such as, for instance, anonymisation) and whether any remuneration should be involved. We make some concrete proposals about the form that such an IoT-RM should take.
    • Gendered performances and identity construction among UK female soccer players and netballers: a comparative study

      Devonport, Tracey J.; Russell, Kate; Leflay, Kath; Conway, Jennifer (Taylor and Francis, 2018)
      This paper examines the gendered performances and identity construction of UK female University soccer players and netballers (n = 31). Focus group interviews explored their sporting experiences with reference to body perceptions, and perceptions of their sporting bodies outside sporting contexts. Three themes resulted from data analysis, these being; (1) UK culture, body performances and femininity, (2) sporting culture, body performances and femininity and (3) transiency of body satisfaction across sport and nonsport contexts. Findings suggest that sport may not always provide an opportunity to challenge and resist dominant discourses. In both netball and soccer, a range of surveillance and management practices were used that served to perpetuate the value of a ‘feminine’ and assumed heterosexual body, and legitimize their sport participation through an emphasis on a hyper-femininity. The influence of sport subcultures on gendered performances and identity construction, along with implications for marketing sports participation to women are discussed.
    • What have the changes made to primary and secondary assessment frameworks since 2014 done to the ‘London effect’ in school performance?

      Hayes, Sean; Jopling, Michael; Gul, Ruki (UCL IOE Press, 2018)
      This paper examines whether the so-called ‘London effect’, in which London’s schools improved rapidly and outperformed the rest of England on key performance measures between 2003 and 2013, has persisted through the high levels of change that have continued to characterise the school system in England since 2013. Using detailed analysis of educational attainment data, its primary focus is on determining whether the introduction in 2014 of significant changes to the primary curriculum and the national assessment frameworks in both primary and secondary phases affected the performance of London’s schools in 2016, when the first examinations were taken under the new assessment systems.
    • Active Students Are Healthier and Happier Than Their Inactive Peers: The Results of a Large Representative Cross-Sectional Study of University Students in Ireland.

      Murphy, Marie H; Carlin, Angela; Woods, Catherine; Nevill, Alan; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Ferguson, Kyle; Murphy, Niamh (Human Kinetics, 2018-08-17)
      Time spent in university represents a period of transition and may be an appropriate time to promote physical activity among young adults. The aim of this study was to assess participation of university students in sport and physical activity in Ireland and to explore the association between physical activity and perceptions of overall health, mental health, and happiness. The Student Activity and Sport Study Ireland was a cross-sectional online survey among a representative sample (n = 8122) of university students in Ireland. Binary logistic regressions were performed to examine associations between self-reported physical activity and gender (predictor variables) and individual perceptions of overall health, mental health, and happiness (binary outcomes). Only 64.3% of respondents met the recommended level of 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week with males significantly more active than females (72.1% vs 57.8% meeting guidelines). Those meeting physical activity guidelines were more likely to report greater overall health and higher mental health and happiness scores compared with their inactive peers. Active students enjoy better health (overall and mental) and are happier than their inactive peers. This provides a clear rationale for providing students with opportunities to be active at university. The data provide a baseline to monitor changes in physical activity patterns.
    • Seamlessly Transcending the Academic Bump to support the novice lecturer in higher education

      Bywater, Amy; Mander, Sarah (Taylor and Francis, 2018-05-08)
      This self-reflective article considers the support mechanisms from which new lecturers from a teaching background may benefit upon their entry to academia. The concept of academic identity is explored and the suggestion of a continually evolving professional identity is discussed. Emergent themes of reciprocity and critical friendship, team teaching and personal skills and qualities are examined. The framework for this article is the introduction of the Teaching Excellence Framework and recommendations for higher education practice are made in support of this.
    • Association of fat mass profile with natriuretic peptide receptor alpha in subcutaneous adipose tissue of medication-free healthy men: A cross-sectional study.

      Dinas, Petros C; Nintou, Eleni; Psychou, Dimitra; Granzotto, Marnie; Rossato, Marco; Vettor, Roberto; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Metsios, George S; Flouris, Andreas D (F1000 Research, 2018-01-01)
      Atrial natriuretic peptide increases lipolysis in human adipocytes by binding to natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA). The aim of the current study was to examine the associations of NPRA mRNA of subcutaneous adipose tissue with fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index (BMI) and arterial blood pressure in medication-free healthy men.
    • Effects of situational variables on the physical activity profiles of elite soccer players in different score line states.

      Redwood-Brown, Athalie J; O'Donoghue, Peter G; Nevill, Alan M; Saward, Chris; Dyer, Nicholas; Sunderland, Caroline (Wiley, 2018-07-28)
      The aim of this study were to investigate the effects of playing position, pitch location, team ability and opposition ability on the physical activity profiles of English premier league soccer players in difference score line states. A validated automatic tracking system (Venatrack Ltd.) was used to track players in real time (at 25 Hz) for total distance covered, high speed running distance and sprint distance. This is the first study to include every team from an entire season in the English premier league, resulting in 376 games, 570 players and 35 000 rows of data from the 2011-12 season being analyzed using multi-level modelling. Multi-level regression revealed an inverted "u" shaped association between total distance covered and goal difference (GD), with greater distances covered when GD was zero and reduced distances when GD was either positive or negative. A similar "u" shaped association was found with high speed distance covered at home. In addition distance covered (both at home and away) were predicted by playing position. All activity profiles (with the exception of sprint distance at home) were predicted by pitch location and time scored. Lastly, distance away from home and high speed running at home were predicted by opposition ability. Score line appears to effect player activity profiles across a number of situational factors and thus should be considered by managers when preparing and selecting teams to maximize performance. The current study also highlighted the need for more sensitive score line definitions in which to consider score line effects.
    • Adult education for a change: Advocacy, learning festivals, migration, and the pursuit of equity and social justice

      Tuckett, Alan (Sage Publications, 2018-08-30)
      This paper explores the characteristics of learning festivals and Adult Learners’ Weeks and their use as tools of advocacy in seeking policy change on behalf of under-represented groups, and it considers their impact on public policy affecting adult learners. In addition, it reflects on the role of the week in celebrating a culture of adult learning. The paper includes analysis of the relationship between the development of festivals and policy change affecting adult learners through Adult Learners’ Weeks in the United Kingdom after 1992, exploring, in particular, the role of the Week in affecting policy, participation, and inter-communal understanding arising from increased migration. The paper explores the spread of learning festivals and the sequence of Presidency conferences in the European Union in the years leading up to the Lisbon Memorandum in 2000; the role of festivals in the aftermath of war in the Balkans; and the role of the World Social Forum as an antidote to neo-liberal orthodoxies in international policy discussions. It also considers the success and failure of learning weeks as a tool of advocacy and policy change.