• Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes

      Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z (Taylor & Francis, 2016-07-27)
      It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers.
    • Evidence of functional deficits at the single muscle fiber level in experimentally-induced renal insufficiency

      Mitrou, Georgia I.; Sakkas, Georgos K.; Poulianiti, Konstantina P.; Karioti, Aggeliki; Tepetes, Konstantinos; Christodoulidis, Grigorios; Giakas, Giannis; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Geeves, Michael A.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-11-03)
      Chronic kidney disease patients present with metabolic and functional muscle abnormalities, called uremic myopathy, whose mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. We investigated whether chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) affects skeletal muscle contractile properties at the cellular level. CRI was induced surgically in New Zealand rabbits (UREM), with sham-operation for controls (CON), and samples were collected at 3 months post-surgery, following euthanasia. All protocols had University Ethics approval following national and European guidelines. Sample treatments and evaluations were blinded. Maximal isometric force was assessed in 382 permeabilized psoas fibers (CON, n = 142, UREM, n = 240) initially at pH7, 10 °C (‘standard’ conditions), in subsets of fibers in acidic conditions (pH6.2, 10 °C) but also at near physiological temperature (pH7, 30 °C and pH6.2, 30 °C). CRI resulted in significant smaller average cross sectional areas (CSAs) by ∼11% for UREM muscle fibers (vs CON, P < 0.01). At standard conditions, UREM fibers produced lower absolute and specific forces (i.e. normalized force per fiber CSA) (vs CON, P < 0.01); force increased in 30 °C for both groups (P < 0.01), but the disparity between UREM and CON remained significant. Acidosis significantly reduced force (vs pH7, 10 °C P < 0.01), similarly in both groups (in UREM by −48% and in CON by −43%, P > 0.05). For the first time, we give evidence that CRI can induce significant impairments in single psoas muscle fibers force generation, only partly explained by fiber atrophy, thus affecting muscle mechanics at the cellular level.
    • Isokinetic eccentric exercise of quadriceps femoris does not affect running economy.

      Paschalis, Vassilis; Baltzopoulos,; Mougios, Vassilis; Athanasios, Jamurtas Z..; Theoharis, Vassilis; Karatzaferi, Christina; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Institute of Human Performance and Rehabilitation, Center for Research and Technology of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece. vpasxal@pe.uth.gr (Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., 2008)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate whether running economy is affected by isokinetic eccentric exercise designed to cause muscle damage. Twenty-four young healthy men performed 120 maximal voluntary eccentric actions at each thigh's quadriceps muscle at an angular velocity of 60 degrees .s. The participants were then randomly divided into 2 equal groups, 1 of which exercised 24 hours later, while the other group rested. Muscle damage indicators (i.e., serum creatine kinase, delayed onset muscle soreness, and eccentric, concentric, and isometric peak torque) and running economy indicators (i.e., oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, respiratory rate, and heart rate during treadmill running at 2.2 and 3.3 m.s) were assessed prior to and 48 hours following the eccentric exercise. All muscle damage indicators changed significantly in both groups (p < 0.05) in a way suggestive of considerable muscle damage. Running economy indicators of the exercise group demonstrated only an elevation of respiratory rate at 48 hours (p < 0.05) and a tendency to lower economy compared to the resting group. It can be concluded that isokinetic eccentric exercise applied to the quadriceps femoris muscles did not affect running economy 48 hours later and that resting during this period tended to result in more economical running compared to exercising at 24 hours.
    • Liver fat, visceral adiposity, and sleep disturbances contribute to the development of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in nondiabetic dialysis patients.

      Sakkas, Giorgos K; Karatzaferi, Christina; Zintzaras, Elias; Giannaki, Christoforos D; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Lavdas, Eleftherios; Damani, Eleni; Liakos, Nikos; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis; et al. (American Physiological Society, 2008-12)
      Hemodialysis patients exhibit insulin resistance (IR) in target organs such as liver, muscles, and adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to identify contributors to IR and to develop a model for predicting glucose intolerance in nondiabetic hemodialysis patients. After a 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 34 hemodialysis patients were divided into groups with normal (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Indices of insulin sensitivity were derived from OGTT data. Measurements included liver and muscle fat infiltration and central adiposity by computed tomography scans, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometer, sleep quality by full polysomnography, and functional capacity and quality of life (QoL) by a battery of exercise tests and questionnaires. Cut-off points, as well as sensitivity and specificity calculations were based on IR (insulin sensitivity index by Matsuda) using a receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. Fifteen patients were assigned to the IGT, and 19 subjects to the NGT group. Intrahepatic fat content and visceral adiposity were significantly higher in the IGT group. IR indices strongly correlated with sleep disturbances, visceral adiposity, functional capacity, and QoL. Visceral adiposity, O2 desaturation during sleep, intrahepatic fat content, and QoL score fitted into the model for predicting glucose intolerance. A ROC curve analysis identified an intrahepatic fat content of > 3.97% (sensitivity, 100; specificity, 35.7) as the best cutoff point for predicting IR. Visceral and intrahepatic fat content, as well as QoL and sleep seemed to be involved at some point in the development of glucose intolerance in hemodialysis patients. Means of reducing fat depots in the liver and splachnic area might prove promising in combating IR and cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients.
    • Monitoring exercise-induced muscle fatigue and adaptations: Making sense of popular or emerging indices and biomarkers

      Theofilidis, George; Bogdanis, Gregory C.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Karatzaferi, Christina (MDPI, 2018-11-26)
      Regular exercise with the appropriate intensity and duration may improve an athlete’s physical capacities by targeting different performance determinants across the endurance–strength spectrum aiming to delay fatigue. The mechanisms of muscle fatigue depend on exercise intensity and duration and may range from substrate depletion to acidosis and product inhibition of adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) and glycolysis. Fatigue mechanisms have been studied in isolated muscles; single muscle fibers (intact or skinned) or at the level of filamentous or isolated motor proteins; with each approach contributing to our understanding of the fatigue phenomenon. In vivo methods for monitoring fatigue include the assessment of various functional indices supported by the use of biochemical markers including blood lactate levels and more recently redox markers. Blood lactate measurements; as an accompaniment of functional assessment; are extensively used for estimating the contribution of the anaerobic metabolism to energy expenditure and to help interpret an athlete’s resistance to fatigue during high intensity exercise. Monitoring of redox indices is gaining popularity in the applied sports performance setting; as oxidative stress is not only a fatigue agent which may play a role in the pathophysiology of overtraining syndrome; but also constitutes an important signaling pathway for training adaptations; thus reflecting training status. Careful planning of sampling and interpretation of blood biomarkers should be applied; especially given that their levels can fluctuate according to an athlete’s lifestyle and training histories.
    • Non-pharmacological management of periodic limb movements during hemodialysis session in patients with uremic restless legs syndrome

      Giannaki, Christoforos D.; Sakkas, Giorgos K.; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Karatzaferi, Christina; Patramani, Gianna; Lavdas, Eleftherios; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Stefanidis, Ioannis (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010)
      Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is very common in hemodialysis patients. RLS induces motor excitability and discomfort during rest periods, and those symptoms have also been observed during hemodialysis sessions. The aim of the study was to assess whether a single bout of exercise could reduce periodic limb movements (PLM) occurring during hemodialysis. Eighteen hemodialysis patients were eligible and participated in the study. Using the RLS criteria and further verified by the presence of PLM during sleep, patients were divided to non- RLS and RLS groups. Three scenarios were studied during three different sessions: 1) light exercise, including cycling for 45 minutes with no added resistance, 2) heavy exercise, including cycling for 45 minutes with a resistance set at 60% of their exercise capacity, and 3) no exercise, including rest for the same period of time. In all sessions, PLM per hour of hemodialysis (PLM/hHD) was recorded. A single bout of either light or heavy exercise was equally effective in significantly reducing PLM/hHD in patients with RLS compared with the no-exercise scenario, whereas in non-RLS patients, no effect was observed. Independent of intensity, a single bout of intradialytic exercise reduces PLM/hHD in hemodialysis patients with RLS. Further research is needed to establish the acute role of exercise in ameliorating the RLS symptoms.
    • Systemic Redox Imbalance in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review.

      Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Kaltsatou, Antonia; Mitrou, Georgia I; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Maridaki, Maria; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Sakkas, Giorgos K; Karatzaferi, Christina (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2016-06-07)
      Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience imbalance between oxygen reactive species (ROS) production and antioxidant defenses leading to cell and tissue damage. However, it remains unclear at which stage of renal insufficiency the redox imbalance becomes more profound. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update on recent advances in our understanding of how the redox status changes in the progression of renal disease from predialysis stages 1 to 4 to end stage 5 and whether the various treatments and dialysis modalities influence the redox balance. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and Scopus by using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. In total, thirty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Even from an early stage, imbalance in redox status is evident and as the kidney function worsens it becomes more profound. Hemodialysis therapy per se seems to negatively influence the redox status by the elevation of lipid peroxidation markers, protein carbonylation, and impairing erythrocyte antioxidant defense. However, other dialysis modalities do not so far appear to confer advantages. Supplementation with antioxidants might assist and should be considered as an early intervention to halt premature atherogenesis development at an early stage of CKD.
    • Uniform and prolonged changes in blood oxidative stress after muscle-damaging exercise

      Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Fatouros, Ioannis; Giakas, Giannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Karatzaferi, Christina; Kouretas, Dimitris; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z. (International Institute of Anticancer Research, 2007)
      Background: The effect of eccentic exercise on the time-course changes in several indices of muscle damage and blood oxidative stress as examined. Materials and methods: Isometric rorque, delayed-onset muscle soreness, creatine kinase, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, catalase, uric acid, bilirubin and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in blood were measured pre-, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post-exercise of knee extensors in ten females. Results: The concentration of all oxidative stress indices changed significantly in a way indicating increased oxidative stress in the blood (GSH and GSH/GSSG, decreased, whereas GSSG, TBARS, protein carbonyls, catalase, uric acid, bilirubin and TAC increased) peaking, in all but TBARS, at 48 h and returning towards baseline afterwards. Conclusion: We believe that muscle-damaging exercise should be viewedd as a different challenge compared to non-muscle-damaging exercise with regard to its effects on blood oxidative stress.