• Comparison between G6PD-Deficient and Normal Individuals after Eccentric Exercise

      Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Paschalis, Vassilis; Sakellariou, Georgios K.; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z. (American College of Sports Medicine, 2010)
      Purpose: Theoretically, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient compared with nondeficient individuals may be less capable of performing physical activities and/or may be more vulnerable to muscle damage and oxidative stress. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a resistance muscle-damaging exercise bout on muscle function and damage, redox status in plasma, and erythrocytes and hemolysis. Methods: Nine males with established G6PD deficiency and nine males with normal G6PD activity performed an eccentric muscledamaging exercise protocol. Isometric torque, range of motion, delayed onset muscle soreness, and creatine kinase were measured as indices of muscle function and damage. Reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances, protein carbonyls, catalase, uric acid, and total antioxidant capacity were measured as indices of blood redox status. Plasma hemoglobin and bilirubin were measured as indices of hemolysis. All measurements conducted before, immediately after, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 d after exercise. Results: All indices measured confirmed that eccentric exercise induced severe muscle damage, oxidative stress, and hemolysis, peaking at 2 and 3 d postexercise. Lower resting levels of reduced glutathione were detected in the G6PD-deficient group compared with the control group. Nevertheless, both the time course and the magnitude of the changes of the selected muscle performance, redox status (both in plasma and in erythrocytes), and hemolysis indices measured were similar between the two groups. Conclusions: The present study indicates that G6PD-deficient individuals may participate in high-intensity muscle-damaging activities, without a negative impact on muscle function, blood redox status, and hemolysis
    • The effects of acute low-volume HIIT and aerobic exercise on leukocyte count and redox status

      Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Deli, Chariklia K.; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Poulios, Athanasios; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Papanikolaou, Konstantinos; Tsimeas, Panagiotis; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; et al. (JSSM, 2018-08-14)
      A single bout of exercise can result in inflammatory responses, increased oxidative stress and upregulation of enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms. Although low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become popular, its acute responses on the above mechanisms have not been adequately studied. The present study evaluated the effects of HIIT on hematological profile and redox status compared with those following traditional continuous aerobic exercise (CET). Twelve healthy young men participated in a randomized crossover design under HIIT and CET. In HIIT session, participants performed four 30-sec sprints on a cycle-ergometer with 4 min of recovery against a resistance of 0.375 kg/kg of body mass. CET consisted of 30-min cycling on a cycle-ergometer at 70% of their VO2max. Blood was drawn at baseline, immediately post, 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise and was analyzed for complete blood count and redox status (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, [TBARS]; protein carbonyls, [PC]; total antioxidant capacity, [TAC]; catalase and uric acid). White blood cells (WBC) increased after both exercise protocols immediately post-exercise (HIIT: 50% and CET: 31%, respectively). HIIT increased (+22%) PC post-exercise compared to baseline and CET (p < 0.05). HIIT increased TAC immediately post-exercise (16%) and at 24h post-exercise (11%, p < 0.05), while CET increased TAC only post-exercise (12%, p < 0.05) compared to baseline, and TAC was higher following HIIT compared to CET (p < 0.05). Both HIIT and CET increased uric acid immediately post- (21% and 5%, respectively, p < 0.05) and 24h (27% and 5%, respectively, p < 0.05) post-exercise and the rise was greater following HIIT (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes (p > 0.05) for TBARS and catalase following either exercise protocol. Low-volume HIIT is associated with a greater acute phase leukocyte count and redox response than low-volume CET, and this should be considered when an exercise training program is developed and complete blood count is performed for health purposes.
    • Exercise and redox status responses following alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in G6PD deficient individuals

      Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Fragkos, Apostolos; Tzatzakis, Theofanis; Deli, Chariklia K.; Papanikolaou, Konstantinos; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z. (MDPI, 2018-11-12)
      G6PD deficiency renders cells more susceptible to oxidative insults, while antioxidant dietary supplementation could restore redox balance and ameliorate exercise-induced oxidative stress. To examine the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on redox status indices in G6PD deficient individuals, eight male adults with G6PD deficiency (D) participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive ALA (600 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks separated by a 4-week washout period. Before and at the end of each treatment period, participants exercised following an exhaustive treadmill exercise protocol. Blood samples were obtained before (at rest), immediately after and 1h after exercise for later analysis of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), uric acid, bilirubin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PC). ALA resulted in significantly increased resting TAC and bilirubin concentrations. Moreover, TAC increased immediately and 1h after exercise following both treatment periods, whereas bilirubin increased immediately after and 1h after exercise following only ALA. No significant change in uric acid, TBARS or PC was observed at any time point. ALA supplementation for 4 weeks may enhance antioxidant status in G6PD individuals; however, it does not affect redox responses to acute exercise until exhaustion or exercise performance.