• Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes

      Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z (Taylor & Francis, 2016-07-27)
      It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers.
    • A Comparison of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Following Maximal Eccentric Contractions in Men and Boys.

      Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z (Human Kinetics, 2017-08)
      Purpose: Research regarding exercise-induced muscle-damage mainly focuses on adults. The present study examined exercise-induced muscle-damage responses in adults compared with children. Method: Eleven healthy boys (10–12 y) and 15 healthy men (18–45 y) performed 5 sets of 15 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Range of motion (ROM), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during squat and walking, and peak isometric, concentric and eccentric torque were assessed before, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postexercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity was assessed before and 72 hr postexercise. Results: Eccentric exercise resulted in DOMS during squat that persisted for up to 96h in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .05), and DOMS during walking that persisted for up to 72 hr in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .01). The ROM was lower in both age groups 48 hr postexercise (p < .001). Isometric (p < .001), concentric (p < .01) and eccentric (p < .01) force decreased post, and up to 48 hr postexercise in men. Except for a reduction in isometric force immediately after exercise, no other changes occurred in boys’ isokinetic force. CK activity increased in men at 72 hr postexercise compared with pre exercise levels (p = .05). Conclusion: Our data provide further confirmation that children are less susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage compared with adults.
    • Disparate habitual physical activity and dietary intake profiles of elderly men with low and elevated systemic inflammation

      Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Stampoulis, Theodoros; Laschou, Vasiliki C; Deli, Chariklia K; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Papanikolaou, Konstantinos; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Michalopoulou, Maria; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; et al. (2018-05-04)
      The development of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation in the elderly (inflammaging) has been associated with increased incidence of chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and functional impairments. The aim of this study was to examine differences in habitual physical activity (PA), dietary intake patterns, and musculoskeletal performance among community-dwelling elderly men with low and elevated systemic inflammation. Nonsarcopenic older men free of chronic diseases were grouped as ‘low’ (LSI: n = 17; 68.2 ± 2.6 years; hs-CRP: <1 mg/L) or ‘elevated’ (ESI: n = 17; 68.7 ± 3.0 years; hs-CRP: >1 mg/L) systemic inflammation according to their serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). All participants were assessed for body composition via Dual Emission X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), physical performance using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and handgrip strength, daily PA using accelerometry, and daily macro- and micronutrient intake. ESI was characterized by a 2-fold greater hs-CRP value than LSI (p < 0.01). The two groups were comparable in terms of body composition, but LSI displayed higher physical performance (p < 0.05), daily PA (step count/day and time at moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were greater by 30% and 42%, respectively, p < 0.05), and daily intake of the antioxidant vitamins A (6590.7 vs. 4701.8 IU/day, p < 0.05), C (120.0 vs. 77.3 mg/day, p < 0.05), and E (10.0 vs. 7.5 mg/day, p < 0.05) compared to ESI. Moreover, daily intake of vitamin A was inversely correlated with levels of hs-CRP (r = −0.39, p = 0.035). These results provide evidence that elderly men characterized by low levels of systemic inflammation are more physically active, spend more time in MVPA, and receive higher amounts of antioxidant vitamins compared to those with increased systemic inflammation.
    • Exercise training reduces alcohol consumption but does not affect HPA-axis activity in heavy drinkers

      Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Manthou, Eirini; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Ziaka, Anastasia; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Mastorakos, Georgios; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Theodorakis, Yannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z (Elsevier, 2017-10-01)
      It has been suggested that physical exercise could have potential beneficial effects in substance abusers, which are based on both physiological and psychological theories. Although a few studies have examined the effect of exercise on alcohol intake and fitness in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), there is a gap in the literature concerning the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that could be affected by physical exercise in this population.
    • Iron Supplementation Effects on Redox Status following Aseptic Skeletal Muscle Trauma in Adults and Children.

      Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Tsiokanos, Athanasios; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2017)
      Exercise-induced skeletal muscle microtrauma is characterized by loss of muscle cell integrity, marked aseptic inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. We examined if iron supplementation would alter redox status after eccentric exercise. In a randomized, double blind crossover study, that was conducted in two cycles, healthy adults (n = 14) and children (n = 11) received daily either 37 mg of elemental iron or placebo for 3 weeks prior to and up to 72 h after an acute eccentric exercise bout. Blood was drawn at baseline, before exercise, and 72 h after exercise for the assessment of iron status, creatine kinase activity (CK), and redox status. Iron supplementation at rest increased iron concentration and transferrin saturation (p < 0.01). In adults, CK activity increased at 72 h after exercise, while no changes occurred in children. Iron supplementation increased TBARS at 72 h after exercise in both adults and children; no changes occurred under placebo condition. Eccentric exercise decreased bilirubin concentration at 72 h in all groups. Iron supplementation can alter redox responses after muscle-damaging exercise in both adults and children. This could be of great importance not only for healthy exercising individuals, but also in clinical conditions which are characterized by skeletal muscle injury and inflammation, yet iron supplementation is crucial for maintaining iron homeostasis. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02374619.