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Chronic eccentric exercise and antioxidant supplementation: effects on lipid profile and insulin sensitivityYfanti, C.; Tsiokanos, A.; Fatouros, I.G.; Theodorou, A.A.; Deli, C.K.; Koutedakis, Y.; Jamurtas, A.Z. (Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2017-08-08)Eccentric exercise has been shown to exert beneficial effects in both lipid profile and insulin sensitivity. Antioxidant supplementation during chronic exercise is controversial as it may prevent the physiological training-induced adaptations. The aim of this study was to investigate: 1) the minimum duration of the eccentric exercise training required before changes on metabolic parameters are observed and 2) whether antioxidant supplementation during training would interfere with these adaptations. Sixteen young healthy men were randomized into the Vit group (1 g of vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E daily) and the placebo (PL) group. Subjects received the supplementation for 9 weeks. During weeks 5-9 all participants went through an eccentric exercise training protocol consisting of two exercise sessions (5 sets of 15 eccentric maximal voluntary contractions) per week. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoproteins (Apo A1, Apo B and Lpa) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA) were assessed before the supplementation (week 0), at weeks 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. TG, TC and LDL were significantly lower compared to pre supplementation at both weeks 8 and 9 (P<0.05) in both groups. HDL was significantly elevated after 4 weeks of training (p < 0.005) in both groups. There was no effect of the antioxidant supplementation in any of the variables. There was no effect of either the training or the supplementation protocol in apolipoproteins levels and insulin sensitivity. A minimum duration of 3 weeks of eccentric exercise training is required before beneficial effects in lipid profile can be observed in healthy young men. Concomitant antioxidant supplementation does not interfere with the training-induced adaptations.
The effects of acute exercise on serum adiponectin and resistin levels and their relation to insulin sensitivity in overweight males.Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Theocharis, V.; Koukoulis, G.; Stakias, N.; Fatouros, I.G.; Kouretas, Dimitris; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2006)The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a submaximal aerobic exercise bout on adiponectin and resistin levels as well as insulin sensitivity, until 48 h post-exercise in healthy overweight males. Nine subjects performed an exercise bout at an intensity corresponding to approximately 65% of their maximal oxygen consumption for 45 min. Adiponectin, resistin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and insulin sensitivity were measured prior to exercise, immediately after exercise as well as 24 and 48 h after exercise. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA while Pearson's correlations were performed to identify possible relationship among the assessed variables. There were no significant differences for adiponectin (microg ml(-1)) [pre, 3.61(0.73); post, 3.15(0.43); 24 h, 3.15(0.81); 48 h, 3.37(0.76)] or resistin (ng ml(-1)) [pre, 0.19(0.03); post, 0.13(0.03); 24 h, 0.23(0.04); 48 h, 0.23(0.03)] across time. Insulin sensitivity increased and insulin concentration decreased significantly only immediately after exercise. Furthermore, no significant correlations were observed among the variables assessed except for the expected between insulin level and insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that a submaximal aerobic workout does not result in significant changes in adiponectin and resistin up to 48 h post-exercise. Furthermore, it appears that adiponectin or resistin is not associated with insulin sensitivity.