• A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses.

      Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Duncan, Michael J; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Abahussain, Nada A; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan M. (MDPI, 2013-12)
      This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14-18 year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3%) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%). The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week). Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among Saudi adolescents (64%) compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%). The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively). The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05) gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001) gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.
    • Anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics of active and inactive Saudi and British adolescents

      Duncan, Michael J; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Abahussain, Nada A; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan M. (2014-06-17)
      OBJECTIVE: To compare the anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics of active and inactive adolescents in Saudi Arabia and Britain. METHODS: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14- to 18-year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling. Measurements included anthropometric [BMI, Waist circumference (WC), Waist to height ratio], screen time, validated physical activity questionnaire and dietary habits. RESULTS: British males were lighter (P = 0.04, 64.4 vs. 68.2 kg), and had lower values for WC (P = 0.003, 77.1 vs. 78.7 cm) than Saudi males. Males (P = 0.0001) were significantly more active than females but the difference between inactive Saudi and British females was greater than that between inactive Saudi and British males. Being female was significantly (P < 0.001) associated with lower activity levels in both the Saudi and British adolescents. Having lower frequency of fruit intake was significantly (P < 0.001) associated with lower activity levels, whereas increased frequency of consumption of French fries/potato chips was significantly (P = 0.008) associated with increased activity levels in Saudi adolescents. Among British adolescents, lower frequency of breakfast was (P = 0.045) associated with lower activity levels, increased frequency of consumption of sweetened beverages was significantly (P = 0.005) associated with higher activity levels. Higher energy drinks intake frequency was significantly (P = 0.007) associated with higher activity levels. CONCLUSION: The present study identifies crosscultural differences and similarities in lifestyle habits in adolescents from Britain and Saudi Arabia. Activity status (active vs. inactive) appears to play an important role in other lifestyle related behaviors, with active adolescent more likely to engage in healthy dietary behavior than their inactive peers, irrespective of country of origin.