Recent Submissions

  • Undergraduate examination and assessment of knowledge and skills is crucial in capacity planning for the future healthcare workforce in physical activity interventions

    Gates, AB; Swainson, MG; Moffatt, F; Kerry, R; Metsios, GS; Ritchie, I (BMJ, 2020-01-14)
    Background The WHO Global Action Plan on Physical Activity (GAPPA) (#GAPPA)1 highlights the importance of a systems-wide approach to achieving the global goals for reducing physical inactivity at the national, community, individual and patient levels. Within this scope, objective 1.4 of that plan details the vision and strategy for capacity planning for the health workforce and the collaborations required for success. This objective is closely linked to existing global and national efforts to enable the future healthcare professional (HCP) workforce to have the capability and competencies to make every contact count for physical activity support and advice (via brief interventions). A significant part of these goals is to enable the future and current healthcare workforce to meet the challenges of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), sustainable development goals (SDGs) and person-centred healthcare, exemplars of which have been identified in most European countries.2 3 Indeed, a physical activity resource focused approach in undergraduate healthcare courses such as medicine, nursing and allied health is critical in higher education institutes’ (HEIs) strategies2 4 5 to deliver on these directives.
  • Should patients with rheumatic diseases take pain medication in order to engage in exercise?

    Metsios, GS; Kitas, GD; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK. (Taylor & Francis, 2020-01-28)
    Pain is the main symptom in most rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). It has debilitating effects in terms of mobility, physical function, sleep, mood, fatigue, and overall quality of life. This is why pain and its associates are some of the predominant outcomes evaluated regularly in response to pharmaceutical or any other interventions involved in the management of RMDs.
  • Gender differences in the relationship between sleep problems and suicide attempt in adolescents

    Wan, Y; Xu, H; Wang, S; Boyda, D; McFeeters, D; Sun, Y; Zhang, S; Chen, R; Tao, F; Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. (Frontiers Media SA, 2020-02-28)
    © Copyright © 2020 Wan, Xu, Wang, Boyda, Mcfeeters, Sun, Zhang, Chen and Tao. There are few studies examining which types of sleep problems are independently associated with suicide attempt (SA) and gender difference in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine whether specific sleep problems were uniquely associated with suicide attempt in adolescents and explore gender differences in the association. A school-based health survey was conducted in four provinces within China from November 2014 to January 2015. A total of 15,132 students aged 10–21 years completed standard questionnaires assessing past 12 month suicide attempt in addition to measures of sleep quality, quantity and sleep beliefs. 5.4% of participants reported a suicide attempt within the last 12 months. After adjustment for sociodemographic variables and psychological symptoms, almost all sleep problems remained significantly associated with a greater endorsement of suicide attempt. Further adjustment for co-occurring sleep problems revealed that weekday sleep duration (<6, 8–10, and ≥10 h), insomnia (often), and nightmares (sometimes and often) remained independently associated with suicide attempt in boys (p < 0.05). However in girls, weekday sleep duration (<6 and ≥10 h), weekend sleep duration (<6 h), midday nap (0 or 1–2 d/week), insomnia (sometimes and often), nightmare (often) and sleep beliefs (high) were independently associated with suicide attempt (p < 0.05). Multiple sleep problems are associated with suicide attempt in adolescents, however the relationship varies by gender.
  • Effect of force plate coverings on vertical ground reaction forces

    Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Smith, Tina (International Society of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology, 2018-06-30)
  • Effect of walking surface and late-cueing on turn strategy preferences in older adults

    Dixon, Philippe; Smith, Tina; Taylor, Matthew; Jacobs, Jesse; Dennerlein, Jack; Schiffman, Jeffrey (World Congress of Biomechanics 2018, 2018-07-09)
  • The effects of applying a transmissibility correction to data collected by a strap mounted accelerometer

    Smith, Tina; Foster, Richard; Baker, Michael (World Congress of Biomechanics, 2018-07-12)
  • Rising to the challenge: designing, implementing and reporting exercise oncology trials in understudied populations

    Lahart, IM; Weller, SK; Kirkham, AA; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, Institute of Human Sciences, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-05-21)
    © 2020, Cancer Research UK. Exercise can improve cancer-related fatigue, quality of life and physical fitness, but is understudied in less common cancers such as multiple myeloma. Studying less common cancers and the adoption of novel study designs and open-science practices would improve the generalisability, transparency, rigour, credibility and reproducibility of exercise oncology research.
  • Survival at 10 years following lower extremity amputations in patients with diabetic foot disease

    Soo, BP; Rajbhandari, S; Egun, A; Ranasinghe, U; Lahart, IM; Pappachan, JM; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Lancashire, UK. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-04-12)
    © 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Background: Amputations are associated with markedly reduced long-term survival in patients with diabetic foot disease. However, there is paucity of long-term survival data in published literature. Methods: We searched the electronic case records and laboratory details of patients who underwent amputations between 1997 and 2006 to obtain at least 10 years of follow up data after the surgery to assess the survival rates and possible risk factors reducing survival in the year 2016. Amputation level below ankle was considered as minor and above ankle as major amputations. Results: Of the 233 cases (159 males; median age 68 years), 161 had major amputations. Of the 72 cases who had minor amputations initially, 63 needed a further amputation or contralateral amputation on follow up. One hundred seventy-seven patients (76%) were not alive after 10 years of follow up. The survival rates at 1, 3, 5, 7, and ≥10 years were 64%, 50%, 40%, 34%, and 24%, respectively. Maximum number of deaths occurred within 4 months of amputations. There was no difference between survival rates following major or minor amputations and among males or females. The only statistically significant parameter affecting lower survival rate was age ≥70 years, with each additional year of age increasing the hazard by a factor of 1.039 (95% CI: 1.024–1.054) or 3.9% (2.4–5.4%). Conclusions: Five-year and 10-year survival rates were 40% and 24%, respectively, following diabetic foot amputations. Higher age ≥70 years was associated with lower survival rate compared with younger age groups after lower extremity amputations.
  • The AIR model (Activities, Internal world, Relationships): a pragmatic framework for evaluating co-design

    Gosling, Julie; Craven, Michael; Dening, Tom; Coleston-Shields, Dons; Aberturas, Adriana; Martin, Sandra; Munoz, Marcos; Ruiz, Guillermo; Bueno, Yolanda; Almedia, Rosa; et al. (TUD press, 2019-11-13)
    A pragmatic model, AIR (Activities; Internal world; Relationships), is presented for co-design of technologies and products to support well-being of people living with dementia. This model, co-developed with people with lived experience, is aimed at including psychosocial aspects in the prototype development process. The model is then related to a form of mindful evaluation framework that can be employed during the prototype testing of co-designed solutions. The components of this evaluation framework and associated instruments are described.
  • What is needed to obtain informed consent and monitor capacity for a successful study involving people with mild dementia? Our experience in a multi-centre study

    Lim, Jennifer; Almedia, Rosa; Holthoff-Detto, Vjera; Ludden, Geke; Smith, Tina; Niedderer, Kristina; the MinD consortium (TU, Dresden, 2019-11-13)
    Strategies on informed consent process and capacity monitoring for mild dementia research are at developing state. We reflected on our experience and found that the successful collection of informed consent and full participation of PwD required the involvement of familiar healthcare professionals/care workers/staff at the recruitment and data collection stages and this needs to occur in an active support environment. Time is another important factor affecting the success of the study.
  • Book review: Austerity and the remaking of European education

    Tuckett, Alan (Taylor and Francis, 2020-06-28)
    Whilst the primary focus of this impressive edited volume is on the ‘long moment of crisis’ arising from the 2008 financial crash and the consequences arising from the decision of national and European Union leaders to respond to it with measures of austerity, Anna Traianou, Ken Jones and their collaborators trace the evolution of education policy making in Europe from the post-war period in which education was a long way from the labour market to its current role across Europe as handmaiden to the market.
  • Back to school Post Covid-19: Rebuilding a better future for all children

    Lalli, Gurpinder; Defeyter, Greta; Shinwell, Jackie; von Hippel, Paul; Henderson, Emily; Brownlee, Iain; Pepper, Gillian; Stretesky, Paul; Long, Michael; McKenna, Jim; et al. (Education Committee, UK Parliament, 2020-06-10)
    This paper provides a summary of the key academic papers for the following areas: learning loss and academic attainment; EdTech interventions and home schooling; physical activity, food insecurity and obesity; and mental health and wellbeing. For each area, the findings from peer-reviewed academic papers are summarised and discussed in terms of relevance to the current Covid-19 pandemic. The latter half of the paper provides, for each area, a range of research informed short-, mid- and long-term school based strategies, policies and interventions to advise the UK government for pupils returning to school. The early adoption of these proposals will support teachers, parents and children and provide positive messaging to pupils and hence, increase public confidence. Finally, the authors appeal to the concept of human capital, and discuss how schools provide an excellent platform to narrow mid-to-long term health and educational inequalities. The suggestions in this paper converge with action at the international level; with many key agencies (UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank and World Food Programme) making the case for the key role of school food in supporting the back to school movement.
  • Body size and shape characteristics for Cooper's 12 minutes run test in 11-13 years old Caucasian children: An allometric approach

    Giuriato, M; Nevill, A; Kawczynski, A; Lovecchio, N; University School of Physical Education, Faculty of Sport Science, Wroklaw, Poland - (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2020-03-20)
    © 2019 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA. BACKGROUND: The Cooper Test, is a field test, simple and useful in the school context. The aim of this research was the definition of the trend in Cooper endurance test along with the growth. In particular, through the scaling method (allometric). METHODS: Atotal of 556 of European sedentary children aged 11-13 years (282 boys; 274 girls) were involved. All subjects were evaluated through the Endurance Cooper test (12 min run test). To identify the most appropriate body size and shape characteristics as well as any categorical differences (sex, age) associated with the measure of the Cooper test, a multiplicative model with allometric body-size components was applied. RESULTS: The multiplicative model relating to the Cooper test and the body-size components was: Cooper test = a mass-0.325 · height0.878 with the mass and height exponents being k1=-0.325 (SEE=0.40) and k2= 0.878 (SEE=0.141), respectively. The adjusted coefficient of determination (adj R2) was 32.3%, with a log-transformed error ratio of 0.136 or 14.5% having taken antilogs. Significant differences in the constant 'a' parameter were identified by sex (P<0.001) and age (P<0.001) while the interaction of sex per age was not significant (P=0.761). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that the scaling method identified the optimal height-to-body mass ratios associated with Cooper endurance test corresponding to ectomorph body shape. Furthermore, growth fluctuations become important to avoid alarming judgment in case children will be poorly evaluated.
  • The dose–response association between V̇O<inf>2peak</inf> and self-reported physical activity in children

    Nevill, AM; Duncan, MJ; Sandercock, G; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton , Walsall, UK. (Informa UK Limited, 2020-05-13)
    © 2020, © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Background: Previous research into the association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children is equivocal. However, previous research has always assumed that such an association was linear. This study sought to characterize the dose–response association between physical activity and aerobic fitness and to assess whether this association is linear or curvilinear and varies by sex, age and weight status. Methods: Physical activity (assess using the Physical Activity Questionnaire), aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle-run), BMI, screen-time and socio-demographic data were collected at ages 12, 14 and 16 years in (n = 1422) volunteers from 9 English schools. Multilevel-regression modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal data. Results: The analysis identified a significant inverted “u-shaped” association between VO2max and PAQ. This relationship remained having controlling for the influences of sex, age and weight status. Daily screen time >4 hours and deprivation were also associated with being less fit (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This longitudinal study suggests that the dose–response relationship between PA and aerobic fitness in children is curvilinear. The health benefits of PA are greater in less active children and that sedentary and less active children should be encouraged to engage in PA rather than more active children to increase existing levels of PA.
  • Teaching in the age of Covid-19

    Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2020-12-31)
  • Exercise and inflammation

    Metsios, GS; Moe, RH; Kitas, GD (Elsevier, 2020-04-02)
    © 2020 Based on current knowledge deriving from studies in animals and humans (the general population and patients with non-communicable diseases), there is biological plausibility that exercise may have anti-inflammatory effects. This may be particularly important for patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). The present review discusses the current state-of-the-art on exercise and inflammation, explores how exercise can moderate inflammation-dependent RMD outcomes and the most prevalent systemic manifestations and addresses the relationship between the dosage (particularly the intensity) of exercise and inflammation. We conclude that present data support potential beneficial effects of exercise on inflammation, however, the evidence specifically in RMDs is limited and inconclusive. More targeted research is required to elucidate the effects of exercise on inflammation in the context of RMDs.
  • Applying data correction to strap mounted accelerometers

    Smith, Tina; Baker, Michael; Foster, Richard (International Society of Biomechanics, 2017-07-23)
    The tissue underlying skin mounted accelerometers introduces errors to the data they collect [1]. As a consequence various data correction attempts have been made to minimise the effect of local tissue-accelerometer vibration [1,2]. However, accelerometers are not always mounted directly onto the skin. It is often impractical to do so for studies that measure activities during day-to-day living where strap mounting may be a more common attachment method. Therefore an understanding of the response of strap mounted accelerometers is also necessary. As the straps surround irregular shaped body segments strap mounted accelerometers may suffer from poor coupling when compared to skin mounted accelerometers, as well as additional vibration of the strap and pre-loading effects of tissue due to strap tension. This can be especially prevalent for straps around the waist, mounting accelerometers to measure motion at the spine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the damped frequency (fd) and the logarithmic decrement (δ) of the local system (accelerometer, strap and local tissue) can be estimated so that the Smeathers’ method of data correction [2] can be applied to strap mounted accelerometers at the lumbar spine.
  • Osteogenic potential of external mechanical loading during walking in sedentary and non-sedentary adults

    Smith, Tina; Luo, Jin; Metsios, George (International Society of Biomechanics, 2017-07-23)
    Sedentary behaviour is generally regarded as having deleterious effects on cardiometabolic health, although little is known about its specific association with bone health. Impact forces generated as the foot contacts the ground during activity have the potential to act as a stimulus for bone maintenance and development. Therefore, increased sedentary behaviour may reduce the time available to gain osteogenic benefits from impact-based activity. Peak ground reaction force is commonly used as an estimate of loading intensity when determining the osteogenic potential of activity [1]. Dynamic, high impact, high frequency activities have been shown to be most effective at applying an osteogenic stimulus [1], although low level impacts have been shown to beneficially modify bone geometry [2]. Therefore, differences in the characteristics of low impact activity have potential to influence bone health. As impact forces are attenuated as they travel up the body, exploration of mechanical loading at regions such as the spine, require further investigation. External force due to impact is related to acceleration; therefore an accelerometer attached to the spine can provide an estimation of the mechanical loading. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate associations between sedentary and nonsedentary behavior on the osteogenic potential of walking, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine.
  • Attitudes to suicide among the West Midlands Police Service: Feedback report

    Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Dhingra, Katie; Fernandes Aguilera, Milea (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-07)
    There is a significant degree and a moderate-high regularity of work-related exposure to suicide among the West Midlands police staff. • Exposure to suicide in a professional capacity is often accompanied by some degree of distress. • Many police staff who have had professional encounters of suicide have also had personal experiences with suicide. • There is a large perceived need for suicide specific training across all police ranks. • Perceived competence to intervene following a suicide attempt is lower among Police constables and Sergeants than higher ranking officers. • Attitudes towards suicide are largely tolerant, compassionate and informed although there are some enduring misconceptions surrounding suicide which may be addressed through tailored training programmes.
  • The mental health of doctors during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Galbraith, Niall; Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Hassan, Tariq; Department of Psychology, University of Wolverhampton, UK. (Royal College of Psychiatrists/Cambridge University Press, 2020-04-28)
    Doctors experience high levels of work stress even under normal circumstances, but many would be reluctant to disclose mental health difficulties or seek help for them, with stigma an often-cited reason. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis places additional pressure on doctors and on the healthcare system in general and research shows that such pressure brings a greater risk of psychological distress for doctors. For this reason, we argue that the authorities and healthcare executives must show strong leadership and support for doctors and their families during the COVID-19 outbreak and call for efforts to reduce mental health stigma in clinical workplaces. This can be facilitated by deliberately adding ‘healthcare staff mental health support process’ as an ongoing agenda item to high-level management planning meetings.

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