Recent Submissions

  • Spotlight on Bereavement Care in the ICU

    Walker, Wendy; Trapani, Dr Josef (Wiley, 2018-07-23)
    Intensive care units (ICUs) are dedicated to supporting and saving lives; yet, despite medical advances, a significant number of critically ill patients die in this setting. International mortality rates in adult ICUs in North America (Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2016; Society of Critical Care Medicine, 2018), the UK (Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre, 2018) and Australasia (Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society, 2017) have been reported to range between 7.9% and 29%, and are generally lower for paediatric ICU (PICU) patients (Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society, 2017; Paediatric Intensive Care Audit Network, 2017; Society of Critical Care Medicine, 2018). Between April 2016 and March 2017, 255 National Health Service adult critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland participated in an audit of patient outcomes. The reported 13.7% mortality rate was equivalent to 23 142 non-survivors (Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre, 2018). Hence, bereavement; ‘the situation of having recently lost a significant other’ (Buckley et al., 2015, p.64) is an inherent feature of ICU practice and nursing in critical care.
  • Invited Commentary: Secondhand Smoke-an Underrecognized Risk Factor for Cognitive Decline.

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Chen, Ruoling (Oxford Adacemic, 2018-01-12)
    Pan et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2018;187(5):911-918) reported findings that exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) was associated with cognitive decline over the course of 2 years among middle-aged and older Chinese women who never smoked, and they also reported a dose-response relationship. SHS exposure affects vulnerable people disproportionately because they have less control or choice over their living and working environment. Smoking is an established risk factor for dementia, but recent evidence reports on dementia-risk increase have not included SHS. Many epidemiologic studies collect data on smoking but not SHS exposure. SHS may be one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and therefore represents a major potential target for reduction of dementia risk. Given the high prevalence of smoking in China and other parts of the world, there is an urgent need to raise awareness of SHS reduction as part of global and national strategies to reduce cognitive decline and dementia and to introduce legislation that protects nonsmokers and vulnerable children and adults from SHS.
  • Digital literacy: a Palestinian refugee perspective

    Traxler, John (Association for Learning Technology, 2018-03-07)
    This paper is the first attempt to explore digital literacy in the specific context of the Palestinian refugee community in the Middle East by looking at the cultural specificity of digital literacy theorising and practice, by analysing current digital education policy in the countries hosting the Palestinian refugee community and by documenting the digital environment of the Palestinian refugee. It identifies the distance or deficit between the community’s current access to digital literacy education, appropriately defined, and its digital environment, needs and opportunities. Finally, the paper provides a brief agenda for further empirical research.
  • Learning with mobiles: The Global South

    Traxler, John (Sage, 2018-04-10)
    This article addresses the need to build sustainable, appropriate and authentic foundations for learning with mobiles in the Global South. It does this in two ways: first, by reviewing aspects of the current environment, namely the nature of learning with mobiles in the Global North, the relationships between research and policy in relation to learning with mobiles, the impact of mobile technology on language, and the meanings of international development; and second, by consolidating these within a broader and critical historical framework that sees education and technology as the instruments of the hegemony of the Global North, reinforcing its values and worldview. This is, however, methodologically challenging and problematic, and the article briefly considers how such arguments should be constructed. The article concludes by offering ways forward as the basis for practical progress.
  • The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in Elite Adolescent Dancers on Muscle Function and Injury Incidence: A Randomised Double-Blind Study.

    Wyon, Matthew A; Wolman, Roger; Kolokythas, Nicolas; Sheriff, Karen; Galloway, Shaun; Mattiussi, Adam (International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2018-06-12)
    A number of studies have noted low levels of Vitamin D in dancers and this has been associated with increased risk of injuries and decreased muscular strength indices. The aim of the present study was to examine whether vitamin D supplementation over a 4-month period can improve muscle function and injury incidence. Eighty-four participants volunteered, exclusion criteria and drop out (19%) reduced cohort to 67 (f=29, m=38; 17-19yrs). Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention or placebo group (2:1 ratio). All provided a venous blood sample pre and post the 4-month study period. The intervention group received 120,000IU vitamin D to be taken over a 1-week period and the placebo group received the same number of inert pills. Participants completed a series of muscle function tests pre and post the monitoring period. Injury incidence was recorded by the independent health team at the school. Pre-intervention 6% of the cohort were vitamin D deficient, 81% were insufficient and 13% had sufficient levels; post-intervention 53% were insufficient and 47% were sufficient. The intervention group reported a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D3 (57%; p<0.00) and isometric strength (7.8%; p=0.022) but not muscular power. There was a significant association between traumatic injury occurrence for the intervention and control groups (10.9% vs. 31.8%; p < .02). Vitamin D supplementation decreased the numbers of deficient and insufficient participants within this cohort. The intervention group reported a small significant increase in muscle strength that was negatively associated with traumatic injury occurrence.
  • Psychosocial determinants of depression in the community of the elderly with cardiovascular disease.

    Xu, Man; Chen, Ruoling; Liu, Bing; Chai, Yun; Boer, Dorothy D; Hu, Ping; Hu, Zhi (Elsevier, 2018-03-17)
    The co-morbidity of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depression is quite frequent in old people, and some potential biological and behavioural mechanisms linking them have been reported. Yet the impact of psychosocial factors on depression in the elderly with CVD remains unclear. This study aimed to analyze the psychosocial determinants of depression in the elderly with CVD. Using the Geriatric Mental Status-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy, a community-based household survey was performed in 2,199 elderly people from the Anhui cohort third-wave survey from 2007 to 2009 and an extended study in Hubei from 2010 to 2011. Multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to assess the influence of psychosocial factors on depression. Among them, the prevalence of depression was 4.77%. Three factors were associated with depression in elderly in the community: self-assessed physical health status, anything else severely upsetting and unpleasantness with relatives, friends, or neighbors. In particular, associations of psychosocial factors with depression were more evident in individuals with CVD. This study confirms several psychosocial determinants of depression and the impact of CVD on the associations among the elderly, which provides some clues for interventional strategies of late-life depression.
  • Childhood maltreatment and psychotic experiences: exploring the specificity of early maladaptive schemas

    Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Dhingra, Katie; Rhoden, Laura (Wiley, 2018-07-13)
    Objective: One potential mechanism that has received limited attention within psychosis research, is early maladaptive schemas (EMS). Our aim was to examine if EMS acts as a potential mediating pathway between early trauma and psychotic symptomology. Methods: A quantitative survey was hosted online. N= 302 participants took part. The analysis employed a multiple mediation framework. Results: Analysis demonstrated significant specificity effects. Different forms of child maltreatment were significantly associated with psychosis experiences through specific dimensions of maladaptive schemas. Conclusions: Results indicated specificity effects in that specific types of maltreatment are associated with specific maladaptive schemas. From a practitioner’s perspective, these findings offer credence to cognitive theories of psychopathology, and support the validity of EMS identification and modification among clients with psychotic symptomology; both as a fundamental component of traditional CBT and within specialised schema focused therapy.
  • Chronic venous leg ulcer care: Putting the patient at the heart of leg ulcer care Part 2: Development and evaluation of the consultation template.

    Green, Julie; Jester, Rebecca; McKinley, Robert; Pooler, Alison (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2018-06-01)
    Part 2 in this article series summarises the final two phases of a study which explored the experiences of patients with leg ulcers and the impact of this condition on their quality of life. Early phases of the study revealed a mismatch between issues that affected a patient's quality of life and what they discussed during subsequent health care consultations. In light of this, a nominal group technique was employed to facilitate the development of a new leg ulcer consultation template with patient partners. The aim of this was to include many of the issues raised in phases 1. The new template was evaluated in terms of its utility, significance and clinical potential. The application of this template during routine consultations appears to encourage the patient to disclose issues that are important to them and may have otherwise been overlooked.
  • ‘Playing it right?’ Gendered performances of professional respectability and ‘authenticity’ in Greek academia

    Tsouroufli, Maria (2018-08-01)
    This paper draws on the career narrative interviews with 15 female academics to unravel the performative politics of gender in Greek Medical Schools. I explore the gender positioning and embodied performances of Greek women as they relate to the contingencies of participation, recognition, and esteem in academic medicine and framed within the wider gendered discourses and structures of the increasingly neo-liberal Greek academia and society. Drawing on Butler’s notion of performativity, I illustrate the possibilities of making the successful Greek female academic subject through subjection to normative, gendered discourses of respectability, encompassing integrity, respectable aesthetics, and affective work and scripted along intersecting privileges of class and heteronormativity. I argue that although Greek women’s gendered professional authenticity and respectability projects demonstrate intentionality and agency, they leave little, if any, room for displacement of gender norms. Gender transformation and promotion of gender equality in Greek academia requires institutional support and political action.
  • “I’m not a child, I’m an adult!” This is Kelly’s Story

    Drozd, Mary (Royal College of Nursing, 2017-09-01)
    Royal College of Nursing Society of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nurses International Conference November 2017 Chester UK
  • Family work, creativity and wellbeing

    Gillam, Tony (The Meriden Family Programme, 2018-02-01)
    This article discusses the connections between family work, creativity and wellbeing. It explores, firstly, how family life is central to the wellbeing of service users and carers and how working with families enhances the wellbeing of mental health practitioners. Secondly, it highlights what can be learnt about creative practice from family therapy research, how this can help us identify the characteristics of creative mental health care in practice and how more creative mental health practice – including family interventions – might benefit services users and carers.
  • Nurse practitioner consultations in primary health care: a case study-based survey of patients' pre-consultation expectations, and post-consultation satisfaction and enablement.

    Barratt, Julian; Thomas, Nicola (Cambridge journals, 2018-07-17)
    Research has not yet fully investigated links to consultation duration, patient expectations, satisfaction, and enablement in nurse practitioner consultations. This study was developed to address some of these research gaps in nurse practitioner consultations, particularly with a focus on expectations, satisfaction, and enablement.AimTo explore the influence of pre-consultation expectations, and consultation time length durations on patient satisfaction and enablement in nurse practitioner consultations in primary health care. Survey component of a larger convergent parallel mixed methods case study designed to conjointly investigate the communication processes, social interactions, and measured outcomes of nurse practitioner consultations. The survey element of the case study focusses on investigating patients' pre-consultation expectations and post-consultation patient satisfaction and enablement. A questionnaire measuring pre-consultation expectations, and post-consultation satisfaction and enablement, completed by a convenience sample of 71 adults consulting with nurse practitioners at a general practice clinic. Initial fieldwork took place in September 2011 to November 2012, with subsequent follow-up fieldwork in October 2016. Respondents were highly satisfied with their consultations and expressed significantly higher levels of enablement than have been seen in previous studies of enablement with other types of clinicians (P=0.003). A significant, small to moderate, positive correlation of 0.427 (P=0.005) between general satisfaction and enablement was noted. No significant correlation was seen between consultation time lengths and satisfaction or enablement.
  • The association between emotions and eating behaviour in an obese population with binge eating disorder

    Nicholls, W.; Devonport, T. J.; Blake, M. (2015)
    There is utility in understanding the antecedents of binge eating (BE), with a view to explaining poorer weight loss treatment responses in this subgroup. A systematic review was completed according to PRISMA guidelines with the aim of exploring Q3 associations between emotions and eating behaviour in a population affected by obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search of four electronic databases (2004–2014) yielded 15 studies for inclusion. Included studies performed poorly on data quality analysis with respect to controlling for confounding variables, and sample size. Included papers largely focused on negative emotions as antecedents of BE; depression was consistently associated with a BEDobese classification and BE. Negative mood, sadness, tension and instability of emotions were found to be antecedents of BE in an adult BED-obese sample. However, findings were mixed regarding the role of stress, anger and positive emotions within the BED-obese population. Recommendations are presented for the identification of BED, and ecologically valid experimental designs that further understanding of the complex and varied emotions that associate with BE. The implications of these and other limitations for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research alongside suggestions for practitioners.
  • Is there a north-south divide between schools in England?

    Jopling, Michael (Sage, 2018)
    The article is an opinion piece which examines the extent to which rhetoric about a north-south divide in performance between schools in England is justified. Starting with the catalyst, Sir Michael Wilshaw’s final annual Ofsted reports in 2015 and 2016, it traces how the divide rhetoric has been assimilated into popular discourse by the media and subsequent policy reports, notably in connection with the Northern Powerhouse agenda. The article uses regional school performance data to examine whether claims about the divide are convincing, focusing on the North East which has been recognised as an outlier in both primary and secondary performance. It concludes that the case for a north-south divide is not proven and with an appeal for more contextually sensitive and flexible approaches to assessing local, regional and national school performance to counter the negative effects of this divisive rhetoric.
  • Current and Ideal Team Roles: Relationships to Job Satisfaction and Calling

    Gander, Fabian; Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer; Elmer, Timon (American Psychological Association, 2018)
    Successful teamwork is an important factor for positive outcomes at the organizational and the individual level. Best results should be expected when every team member can contribute his or her specific set of strengths and skills, with all of the necessary skills being present in a team. Recently a new model of team roles developed from a positive psychological perspective has been suggested comprising of seven informal team roles. The present study examines the relevance of role-fit between roles displayed in the current team and roles displayed in an ideal team on a person’s job satisfaction and calling. For this purpose, a sample of N = 342 employed participants who took part in an online survey were analyzed. Results show that most current team roles contribute to job satisfaction and calling, whereas only few relationships are found with ideal roles. Further, the interplay between current and ideal role behavior is relevant for job satisfaction in most team roles, but only for few roles with regard to calling. Thus, both current and ideal team roles are relevant for work-related outcomes; this information could potentially be used as a starting point for positive interventions at the workplace.
  • Nurse practitioner consultations in primary health care: an observational interaction analysis of social interactions and consultation outcomes.

    Barratt, Julian; Thomas, Nicola (Cambridge University Press, 2018-07-06)
    To determine the discrete nature of social interactions occurring in nurse practitioner consultations and investigate the relationship between consultation social interaction styles (biomedical and patient-centred) and the outcomes of patient satisfaction, patient enablement, and consultation time lengths. A case study-based observational interaction analysis of verbal social interactions, arising from 30 primary health care nurse practitioner consultations, linked with questionnaire measures of patient satisfaction and enablement. A significant majority of observed social interactions used patient-centred communication styles (P=0.005), with neither nurse practitioners nor patients or carers being significantly more verbally dominant. Nurse practitioners guided the sequence of consultation interaction sequences, but patients actively participated through interactions such as asking questions. Usage of either patient-centred or biomedical interaction styles were not significantly associated with increased levels of patient satisfaction or patient enablement. The median consultation time length of 10.1 min (quartiles 8.2, 13.7) was not significantly extended by high levels of patient-centred interactions being used in the observed consultations. High usage levels of patient-centred interaction styles are not necessarily contingent upon having longer consultation times available, and clinicians can encourage patients to use participatory interactions, whilst still then retaining overall guidance of the phased sequences of consultations, and not concurrently extending consultation time lengths. This study adds to the body of nurse practitioner consultation communication research by providing a more detailed understanding of the nature of social interactions occurring in nurse practitioner consultations, linked to the outcomes of patient satisfaction and enablement.
  • Influence of Movement Quality on Heart Rate While Performing the Dance-Specific Aerobic Fitness Test (DAFT) in Preprofessional Contemporary Dancers.

    Tiemens, Annemiek; van Rijn, Rogier M; Wyon, Matthew A; Redding, Emma; Stubbe, Janine H (Science & Medicine, 2018-06-01)
    To explore whether movement quality has influence on heart rate (HR) frequency during the dance-specific aerobic fitness test (DAFT). Thirteen contemporary university dance students (age 19 ± 1.46 yrs) underwent two trials performing the DAFT while wearing a Polar HR monitor (Kempele, Finland). During the first trial, dancers were asked to perform the movements as if they were performing on stage, whereas during the second trial, standardized verbal instructions were given to reduce the quality of movement (e.g., no need to perform technically correct pliés). The variables measured at each trial were HR for all five stages of the DAFT and HR recovery (1 and 2 min after finishing the DAFT), movement quality (MQ) score, and rate of perceived exertion score (RPE). There were significant differences in HR between Trial 1 and Trial 2. For all stages and the resting period, HR was lower during Trial 2 (p<0.001). Also, the RPE score was significantly lower and the MQ score was significantly higher, indicating a poorer performance, during Trial 2 (both p<0.001). The results suggest that DAFT performance with lower movement quality elicits lower HR frequency and RPE during the DAFT. We recommend that specific instructions be given to participants about executing the movement sequence during the DAFT before testing commences. Also, movement quality must be taken into account when interpreting HR results from the DAFT in order to distinguish if a dancer's low HR results from good aerobic fitness or from poor performance of the movement sequence.
  • The impact of birthweight on adult minor illness: a study on a subclinical population

    Bellingham-Young, Denise; Adamson-Macedo, EN (Journal of Human Growth and Development, 2013-12)
    Official classification for low birth weight is 2500 gram or below. Whilst there is no consensus of what constitutes normal birth weight, it has been suggested that the optimal birthweight for long term health is 3500 - 4500 gram; hence those with birth weight between 2500 and 3490 gram could be deemed to be a sub clinical population. The objective was to investigate the relationship between disease and birthweight and to compare vulnerability of those with suboptimal and optimal birthweight in adulthood. This is a cohort study; with cross sectional retrospective design involving 258 adults aged 18-62 who knew their birth weight. Participants completed a minor illness checklist, using a median split, participants were categorised as high or low minor illness group. Results indicate a negative correlation between birthweight and minor illness score (r = -.155, p = .013). Those born with sub optimal birthweight are more likely to report minor illness symptoms above the media score of 16 (OR 1.70 CI 95% 1.04-2.79).It is concluded that there is a relationship between birthweight and level of minor illness in adulthood. Those born with birthweight 2500 - 3490 gram appear to be more vulnerable to minor illness. Thus, working with Foetal Origins theory, it may be possible that this group experienced a degree of foetal compensation, the consequence being that the immune system is compromised. Application of a three dimensional equilibrium model is suggested in designing interventions that improve foetal environment and subsequent health chances.
  • Promoting positive postpartum mental health through exercise in ethnically diverse priority groups

    Row, M-A; Nevill, AM; Bellingham-Young, Denise; Adamson-Macedo, EN (Routledge, 2013-06-15)
    Postpartum mental health is a significant concern in ethnically diverse priority groups, where challenges that negatively affect mental health can be complex and multi-layered. In 2007, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommended exercise as a non-pharmacological strategy to ameliorate postpartum mental health problems. Evidence on exercise for postpartum populations is too sparse to inform service development, particularly in deprived, ethnically diverse communities in the UK. This study explored factors relating to exercise to promote postpartum mental health in priority groups. The study design was influenced by the principles of grounded theory. Data were collected through focus groups and interviews from 25 women in an ethnically diverse area of multiple deprivation. Participants were end users, health and community professionals, service providers andcommissioners. Four core categories emerged, namely postpartum exercise (which included the content, culture and setting of exercise), beliefs and values (which reflected howpostpartumwomenmadedecisions about health), support and influence (which explored the independence, dependence and interdependence that shaped relationships and choice), and planning and resources (which related to the practicalities involved in designing, developing and sustaining effective interventions). The findings indicate that wide-ranging factors influence exercise for postpartum women in ethnically diverse priority groups. They integrate practical considerations, social-cognitive factors such as exercise competency and socio-cultural influences. These influences include familial, religious and cultural factors relevant to exercise, mental health, the postpartum stage and health promotion in general.

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