Recent Submissions

  • Analysis of the physiological response in junior tennis players during short-term recovery: Understanding the magnitude of recovery until and after the 25 seconds rule

    Morais, Jorge E; Bragada, José A; Silva, Rui; Nevill, Alan M.; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Marinho, Daniel A (SAGE, 2022-07-03)
    Literature lacks evidence about the physiological recovery of tennis players between points. This study aimed to: (i) verify the heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) recovery variance in young tennis players from the end of a tennis drill until the 25-s mark and onwards (65-s limit), performed at several intensities, and (ii) test the curve fitting that better characterizes the players’ HR and V̇O2 recovery, from the end of the drill until the 65-s mark. The sample was composed of 13 male tennis players (age: 16.80 ± 1.61 years) recruited from a National Tennis Association. Players were instructed to perform a drill test (“two-line drill wide mode”) based on an intensity increment protocol. Three levels of intensity were used based on the reserve HR and V̇O2. A significance level effect was observed on the HRreserve and V̇O2reserve (P < .001). At all three levels of intensity, the first 25 s were enough to significantly (P < .001) recover the HRreserve and V̇O2reserve. The same significance trend (P < .001) was maintained until the 65 s but with a lower magnitude over time. Overall, the HR and V̇O2 curve fitting indicated a cubic relationship at the three levels of intensity (except the V̇O2 at the first level). Considering the specific test performed, players significantly elicited their physiological profile for every additional 10 s (after the 25-s rule) in the three levels of intensity performed. Despite this being a drill test and not a competitive point, coaches, players, and tennis organizations should be aware of these findings.
  • The impact of treatment with bile acid sequestrants on quality of life in patients with bile acid diarrhoea

    Kumar, Aditi; Galbraith, Niall; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Jain, Manushri; Phipps, Oliver; Butterworth, Jeffrey; Steed, Helen; McLaughlin, John; Brookes, Matthew (BMC, 2022-07-02)
    Background Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) can be severely debilitating and negatively affect patients’ quality of life (QoL). We carried out a multi-centre prospective study exploring QoL outcomes in patients with BAD after treatment with colesevelam. Methods Patients with or without a positive 23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) scan were recruited and categorised into four groups: SeHCAT negative control group (CG), idiopathic BAD, post-cholecystectomy (PC) and post-terminal ileal resection for Crohn’s disease (CD). Patients with a positive SeHCAT were treated with colesevelam and dosing was titrated to symptomatic response. Patients were reviewed at 4- and 8-weekly intervals and QoL was evaluated by EQ-5D-3L, SF-36, IBDQ-32 at each visit (where relevant). Patients with a negative SeHCAT (CG cohort) completed one set of questionnaires before being discharged from the study. Results 47 patients (BAD = 24, PC = 12, CD = 11) completed paired QoL questionnaires before and after treatment and 30 CG patients completed a baseline questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in IBDQ-32 mean scores before and after treatment in CD patients [134.6 (95%CI 112.5–156.6) and 158.4 (136.1–180.6), respectively (p = 0.007). Following treatment, BAD patients had significantly improved mean SF-36 scores in the “Role limitation due to physical health” dimension (p = 0.02) and in the overall mental component summary (p = 0.03). Prior to starting treatment, BAD patients had the lowest scores in the ‘activity’ dimension of the EQ-5D-3L (p = 0.04), which improved significantly after treatment (p = 0.002). Overall, the BAD and CD cohort showed improved mean scores with treatment in all components of the SF-36 and EQ-5D-3L, while the PC cohort showed a general decline in mean scores after treatment. 55% of patients clinically responded to treatment of which 41.7%, 58.3% and 81.8% responded from the BAD, PC and CD groups respectively. Correlations between those deemed as responders with improvements on the SF-36 and EQ-5D dimensions were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our results demonstrate improved QoL in the BAD and CD cohort with treatment. Further larger studies are recommended specifically investigating the PC cohort and whether patients may improve with newer treatments such as FXR agonists.
  • In most supermarkets food does not cost £3 per day...’: The impact of the school food voucher scheme during COVID-19

    Lalli, Gurpinder Singh (Wiley, 2022-12-31)
    Households with children eligible for Free School Meals (FSM) are at risk of food insecurity. This paper reports on a rapid-response study that investigated the impact of the school food voucher scheme during the COVID-19 crisis on young people, families and schools. It pays close attention to the reliance of the state on the good will of society and its citizens in feeding those most in need. The capabilities approach is used to highlight factors that inhibited and restricted use of the vouchers to produce the capability of having good nutrition for children in need of free school meals. The approach moves towards creating a society where children and young people are able to lead a life of their own choice and contribute to key policy decisions. This qualitative study funded by the British Education Research Association (BERA) was conducted between September 2020 and March 2021. The study posed two research questions: i) how have schools responded to COVID-19 in relation to food during holiday provision? ii) what have families identified as barriers to accessing the school food voucher scheme? Data collection involved online interviews with young people, schools and organisations (i.e. public health, director from the food industry etc.). The findings highlight the difficulties with accessing and using the school food voucher and implications for future policy directions. Due to this being a small scale study, it is not generalisable to the wider population but does highlight localised issues.
  • Investigating the experience of viewing extreme real-world violence online: naturalistic evidence from an online discussion forum

    Stubbs, Joshua; Nicklin, Laura; Wilsdon, Luke; Lloyd, Joanne (SAGE, 2023-06-30)
    This study investigates the psychological impact of viewing user-generated content depicting extreme real-world violence. Eight threads were harvested from publicly accessible online discussion forums in which people 17 discussed their experiences of witnessing real-world torture, maiming, or death online. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to systematically analyse these threads. The themes capture the contradictory ways in which people react to viewing extreme real-world violence online, with some finding it intensely distressing and others using it as a resource for psychological grounding or (perceived) strengthening. Based on this analysis, we highlight pathways that may lead to the cessation or continuation of viewing such content and argue that greater research on this seemingly common but under-studied experience is warranted.
  • A systematic review of inequalities in the mental health experiences of Black African, Black Caribbean and Black-mixed UK populations: implications for action

    Devonport, Tracey; Ward, Gavin; Morrissey, Hana; Burt, Christine; Patel, Rizwanah; Manning, Rachel; Paredes, Rachel; Nicholls, Wendy (Springer, 2022-12-31)
    Background: Measurable differences in the experience and treatment of mental health conditions have been found to exist between different racial categories of community groups. The objective of this research was to review the reported mental health of Black African-Caribbean communities in the UK, determinants of mental health, and interventions to enhance their experiences of mental health services. Method: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement was applied. To be included, papers must be: published in a peer reviewed journal; report on adult populations (over 18) from any of Black African, Black Caribbean or Black mixed people in the UK; and assess (quantitative), or discuss (qualitative) mental health experiences, determinants of mental health, or interventions intended to enhance experiences of mental health services among the target population. The aims, inclusion criteria, data extraction, and data quality evaluation were specified in advance. Searches were conducted using EBSCO (PsychInfo; MEDLINE; CINAHL Plus; psychology and behavioural sciences collection). The search strategy included search terms relating to the aim (see Appendix 1). Risk of bias was assessed using a standard tool, records were organised using Endnote, and data were extracted and synthesised using Microsoft Excel. Results: Thirty-six studies were included, of which 26 were quantitative and six reported exclusively on Black participants. Black populations were less likely to access mental health support via traditional pathways due to stigma and mistrust of mental health services. Black Africans especially, sought alternative help from community leaders, which increased the likelihood of accessing treatment at the point of crisis or breakdown, which in turn increased risk of being detained under the Mental Health Act and via the criminal justice system. Discussion: Findings suggest a cycle of poor mental health, coercive treatment, stigma, and mistrust of services as experienced by Black communities. Evidence was limited by poorly defined ethnic categories, especially where Black populations were subsumed into one category. It is recommended that mental health services work collaboratively with cultural and faith communities in supporting Black people to cope with mental illness, navigate mental health pathways, and provide culturally appropriate advice.
  • Reflecting on community development research: how peer researchers influence and shape community action projects

    Arnull, Elaine; Kanjilal, Mahuya (Oxford University Press, 2022-06-21)
    This paper explores how the selection of peer researchers influences and shapes peer research projects. It draws on two empirical studies formed from two community action projects in England. Peer research is a method for involving young people as coresearchers within their community or in specific settings such as educational environments and the two projects recruited school children of different ages and ethnic backgrounds; in both cases they were representative of the potential participant population. One project (Community House) was based in a junior school setting and concentrated on evaluating a community centre project. The second project (Knife Angel: Hear My Voice) was a youth work setting and brought together a group of young people to explore an intervention aimed at impacting crime and violence in the local community. This paper discusses how the demographic characteristics of the peer researchers shaped, influenced and impacted the success of both community action projects. We discuss how children and young people bring their unique skills to preparing the questionnaire and dissemination. Using researcher reflexivity, we consider the methodological implications of the findings and contribute to theory building about community action and the impact of participatory research.
  • Gross motor coordination and their relationship with body mass and physical activity level during growth in children aged 8-11 years old: a longitudinal and allometric approach

    Giuriato, Matteo; Lovecchio, Nicola; Carnevale Pellino, Vittoria; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kawczyński, Adam; Nevill, Alan M.; Biino, Valentina (PeerJ, 2022-06-08)
    Background: Gross motor coordination (GMC) is fundamental to the harmonious development of physical skills during the growth of children. This research aimed to explore the developmental changes in GMC during childhood, having controlled for the differences in children's body size and shape using a longitudinal, allometric scaling methodology. Methods: A total of 104 children from North-East Italy of third-fourth- and fifth-grade students and each participant were tested for three consequently years. Subjects performed the short version of korperkoordinationstest fur kinder (KTK3) and the anthropometric characteristics were simultaneously collected. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ-C) was used to evaluate the weekly physical engagement. Results: Ontogenetic multiplicative models suggested nonlinear associations with GMC across the children's developmental years. Linear physique was a significant predictor associated with the development of GMC across time. PAQ-C was significantly associated with GMC from 8 to 13 years old. Conclusion: Growth does not respect linear trends. A greater lean body mass could be assessed as a reliable predictor of GMC in children. The crucial period of life to improve the GMC is 8-10 years, while stabilization becomes evident from 10 to 13 years.
  • Brief remote intervention to manage food cravings and emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic: a pilot study

    Devonport, Tracey (Frontiers Media, 2022-12-31)
    As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic people have endured potentially stressful challenges which have influenced behaviours such as eating. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of two brief interventions aimed to help individuals deal with food cravings and associated emotional experiences. Participants were 165 individuals residing in United Kingdom, Finland, Philippines, Spain, Italy, Brazil, North America, South Korea, and China. The study was implemented remotely, thus without any contact with researchers, and involved two groups. Group one participants were requested to use daily diaries for seven consecutive days to assess the frequency of experience of their food cravings, frequency of giving in to cravings, and difficulty resisting cravings, as well as emotional states associated with their cravings. In addition to completing daily food diaries, participants in group two were asked to engage in mindful eating practice and forming implementation intentions. Participants assessed their perceived changes in eating, wellbeing, and health at the beginning and end of the intervention. Repeated measures MANOVAs indicated that participants experienced significantly less food cravings (i.e., craving experience, acting on cravings, difficulty resisting), as well as lower intensities of unpleasant states associated with cravings across time (T1 vs. T7). In contrast to our hypothesis, the main effects of the group (food craving diary vs. food craving diary and mindful eating practice) were not significant. Participants reported less eating and enhanced wellbeing at the end of the study (T7 vs. T1). Our findings can be used to inform future remote interventions to manage food cravings and associated emotions and highlight the need for alternative solutions to increase participant engagement.
  • Nobody needs a label’: Responses on Facebook to a Team GB equity, diversity and inclusion initiative

    Devonport, Tracey; Biscomb, Kay; Leflay, Kath; Richardson-Walsh, Helen; Richardson-Walsh, Kate; Thelwall, Mike (Taylor & Francis, 2022-12-31)
    In support of the UK Stonewall Rainbow Laces Campaign, which focuses on supporting LGBTQ+ people, the British Olympic Association “Team GB” changed their Facebook logo to ‘Team LGBT+’ for a Day. Using reflexive thematic analysis, we assessed public reactions to an official Facebook post explaining the temporary logo change. During polarised debate, opposition was rarely expressed using directly homophobic sentiments but instead argued that the initiative was divisive by highlighting difference and would be ineffective, reflecting defensive conservative strategies to avoid supporting marginalised groups. Others, engaging in substantial online discussions, claimed to be upset about LGBTQ+ issues being forced on them. Proponents explained the purpose of the Day and the positive impact it could have. Findings suggested the importance of explaining that supporting one marginalised group does not undermine the rights of others, the ongoing difficulties that many face, and that the current situation is not a level playing field.
  • Teacher socialization in physical education: new perspectives

    O'Leary, Nick (Informa UK Limited, 2019-07-24)
    The socialization of physical education teachers has a significant impact on teaching and learning practices. Despite the plethora of previous research examining physical education teachers’ lives and careers, new research and perspectives are always required since educational, social and political cultures change. For this reason, this first edited collection of scholarship on physical education socialization for nearly three decades is long overdue. Teaching Socialization in Physical Education: New Perspectives adopts an innovative, cross-cultural approach, examining how physical education teachers develop and considering the factors that impact on their development and pedagogical practices, in addition to detailing future socialization research possibilities in the subject.
  • Radiotherapy to the prostate for men with metastatic prostate cancer in the UK and Switzerland: Long-term results from the STAMPEDE randomised controlled trial

    Parker, Chris C; James, Nicholas D; Brawley, Christopher D; Clarke, Noel W; Ali, Adnan; Amos, Claire L; Attard, Gerhardt; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Adrian; Cross, William; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2022-06-07)
    Background STAMPEDE has previously reported that radiotherapy (RT) to the prostate improved overall survival (OS) for patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer with low metastatic burden, but not those with high-burden disease. In this final analysis, we report long-term findings on the primary outcome measure of OS and on the secondary outcome measures of symptomatic local events, RT toxicity events, and quality of life (QoL). Methods and findings Patients were randomised at secondary care sites in the United Kingdom and Switzerland between January 2013 and September 2016, with 1:1 stratified allocation: 1,029 to standard of care (SOC) and 1,032 to SOC+RT. No masking of the treatment allocation was employed. A total of 1,939 had metastatic burden classifiable, with 42% low burden and 58% high burden, balanced by treatment allocation. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses used Cox regression and flexible parametric models (FPMs), adjusted for stratification factors age, nodal involvement, the World Health Organization (WHO) performance status, regular aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, and planned docetaxel use. QoL in the first 2 years on trial was assessed using prospectively collected patient responses to QLQ-30 questionnaire. Patients were followed for a median of 61.3 months. Prostate RT improved OS in patients with low, but not high, metastatic burden (respectively: 202 deaths in SOC versus 156 in SOC+RT, hazard ratio (HR) = 0·64, 95% CI 0.52, 0.79, p < 0.001; 375 SOC versus 386 SOC+RT, HR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.96, 1.28, p = 0·164; interaction p < 0.001). No evidence of difference in time to symptomatic local events was found. There was no evidence of difference in Global QoL or QLQ-30 Summary Score. Long-term urinary toxicity of grade 3 or worse was reported for 10 SOC and 10 SOC+RT; long-term bowel toxicity of grade 3 or worse was reported for 15 and 11, respectively. Conclusions Prostate RT improves OS, without detriment in QoL, in men with low-burden, newly diagnosed, metastatic prostate cancer, indicating that it should be recommended as a SOC.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease patient‐reported quality assessment should drive service improvement: A national survey of UK IBD units and patients

    Hawthorne, A Barney; Glatter, Jackie; Blackwell, Jonathan; Ainley, Rachel; Arnott, Ian; Barrett, Kevin J; Bell, Graham; Brookes, Matthew; Fletcher, Melissa; Muhammed, Rafeeq; et al. (Wiley, 2022-06-01)
    Background & Aims Healthcare service provision in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is often designed to meet targets set by healthcare providers rather than those of patients. It is unclear whether this meets the needs of patients, as assessed by patients themselves. This nationwide study assessed patients' experience of IBD and the healthcare they received, aiming to identify factors in IBD healthcare provision associated with perceived high-quality care. Methods Using the 2019 IBD Standards as a framework, a national benchmarking tool for quality assessment in IBD was developed by IBD UK, comprising a Patient Survey and Service Self-Assessment. Results In all, 134 IBD services and 9757 patients responded. Perceived quality of care was lowest in young adults then increased with age, was higher in males and those >2 years since diagnosis. No hospital services met all the National IBD Standards for recommended workforce numbers. Key metrics associated with patient-reported high-quality care were as follows: identification as a tertiary centre, patient information availability, shared decision-making, rapid response to contact for advice, access to urgent review, joint medical/surgical clinics and access to research (all p < 0.001). Higher numbers of IBD nurse specialists in a service was strongly associated with patients receiving regular reviews and having confidence in self-management and reporting high-quality care. Conclusions This extensive patient and healthcare provider survey emphasises the importance of aspects of care less often measured by clinicians, such as communication, shared decision-making and provision of information, and demonstrates that IBD nurse specialists are crucial to meeting the needs of people living with IBD.
  • Cost-utility analysis of adding abiraterone acetate plus prednisone/prednisolone to long-term hormone therapy in newly diagnosed advanced prostate cancer in England: Lifetime decision model based on STAMPEDE trial data

    Clarke, Caroline S; Hunter, Rachael M; Gabrio, Andrea; Brawley, Christopher D; Ingleby, Fiona C; Dearnaley, David P; Matheson, David; Attard, Gerhardt; Rush, Hannah L; Jones, Rob J; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2022-06-02)
    Adding abiraterone acetate (AA) plus prednisolone (P) to standard of care (SOC) improves survival in newly diagnosed advanced prostate cancer (PC) patients starting hormone therapy. Our objective was to determine the value for money to the English National Health Service (NHS) of adding AAP to SOC. We used a decision analytic model to evaluate cost-effectiveness of providing AAP in the English NHS. Between 2011–2014, the STAMPEDE trial recruited 1917 men with high-risk localised, locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic PC starting first-line androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), and they were randomised to receive SOC plus AAP, or SOC alone. Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated using STAMPEDE trial data supplemented with literature data where necessary, adjusting for baseline patient and disease characteristics. British National Formulary (BNF) prices (£98/day) were applied for AAP. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 3.5%/year. AAP was not cost-effective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was £149,748/QALY gained in the non-metastatic (M0) subgroup, with 2.4% probability of being cost-effective at NICE’s £30,000/QALY threshold; and the metastatic (M1) subgroup had an ICER of £47,503/QALY gained, with 12.0% probability of being cost-effective. Scenario analysis suggested AAP could be cost-effective in M1 patients if priced below £62/day, or below £28/day in the M0 subgroup. AAP could dominate SOC in the M0 subgroup with price below £11/day. AAP is effective for non-metastatic and metastatic disease but is not cost-effective when using the BNF price. AAP currently only has UK approval for use in a subset of M1 patients. The actual price currently paid by the English NHS for abiraterone acetate is unknown. Broadening AAP’s indication and having a daily cost below the thresholds described above is recommended, given AAP improves survival in both subgroups and its cost-saving potential in M0 subgroup.
  • Collective writing: the continuous struggle for meaning-making

    Jandrić, Petar; Luke, Timothy; Sturm, Sean; McLaren, Peter; Jackson, Liz; MacKenzie, Alison; Tesar, Marek; Georgina, Stewart; Peter, Roberts; Abegglen, Sandra; et al. (Springer, 2022-12-31)
    This paper is a summary of philosophy, theory, and practice arising from collective writing experiments conducted between 2016 and 2022 in the community associated with the Editors’ Collective and more than 20 scholarly journals. The main body of the paper summarises the community’s insights into the many faces of collective writing. Appendix 1 presents the workflow of the article’s development. Appendix 2 lists approximately 100 collectively written scholarly articles published between 2016 and 2022. Collective writing is a continuous struggle for meaning-making, and our research insights merely represent one milestone in this struggle. Collective writing can be designed in many different ways, and our workflow merely shows one possible design that we found useful. There are many more collectively written scholarly articles than we could gather, and our reading list merely offers sources that the co-authors could think of. While our research insights and our attempts at synthesis are inevitably incomplete, ‘Collective Writing: The Continuous Struggle for Meaning-Making’ is a tiny theoretical steppingstone and a useful overview of sources for those interested in theory and practice of collective writing.
  • Associations between static and dynamic field balance tests in assessing postural stability of female undergraduate dancers

    Clarke, Frances; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wilson, Margaret; Wyon, Matthew; Faculty of Dance, Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance, London, and National Institute of Dance Medicine and Science, United Kingdom;, Email: f.clarke@trinitylaban.ac.uk. (J. Michael Ryan Publishing, 2021-06-03)
    Balance testing on dancers has used a wide variety of assessment tools. However, as most field balance tests have been developed for either sport or elderly populations, the evidence of associations between tests and their functional relevance to dance is inconclusive. We assessed possible associations between five such field balance tests . A total of 83 female undergraduate dance students (20 ± 1.5 years; 163 ± 6.6 cm; 61 ± 10.8 kg) volunteered for the tests. They executed the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), the modified Romberg test, the Airplane test, the BioSway Balance System (Biodex, Shirley, New York, USA), and a dance-specific pirouette test. Spearman's correlation coefficients examined relationships between the measures of the balance tests. Results showed strongest relationships between some SEBT reach directions (p < 0.01) and very weak to moderate relationships between some balance tests, including some SEBT directions, Romberg, Airplane, Biosway, and pirouette (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that current tests used to assess dancers' postural stability need further investigation to ensure functionality and relevance.
  • The global pandemic did not take place: cancellation, denial and the normal new

    Bennett, Peter; Jopling, Michael (Springer, 2022-04-22)
    Asserting that the global pandemic did not place is not to deny its human cost but, influenced by Baudrillard, Barthes, Berardi and others, to focus on its function as paradox and myth. The depiction of the pandemic as catastrophe or endpoint has obscured its use as cover for extending exploitation and inequality in the service of returning to normality, new or otherwise. This chapter draws on a range of theories, philosophies and other forms of writing to consider the existential and epistemological threats, and opportunities for change, created by the pandemic. Our exploration of its implications is applied primarily to education because it is a key area in and through which the pandemic’s effects can be examined and mediated. To do this, our analysis explores issues of cancellation, denial, depersonalization, vulnerability and remembering/forgetting. We conclude by asserting that so much of our understanding of the pandemic is out of its depth that we need to use theoretical insights like those we have drawn on to examine and resist the myths and pretences that have been used to disguise that failure of understanding and to create new knowledge ecologies and forms of education.
  • Tracking proactive interference in visual memory

    Mercer, Tom; Jarvis, Ruby; Lawton, Rebekah; Walters, Frankie (Frontiers Media, 2022-05-18)
    The current contents of visual working memory can be disrupted by previously formed memories. This phenomenon is known as proactive interference, and it can be used to index the availability of old memories. However, there is uncertainty about the robustness and lifetime of proactive interference, which raises important questions about the role of temporal factors in forgetting. The present study assessed different factors that were expected to influence the persistence of proactive interference over an inter-trial interval in the visual recent probes task. In three experiments, participants encoded arrays of targets and then determined whether a single probe matched one of those targets. On some trials, the probe matched an item from the previous trial (a “recent negative”), whereas on other trials the probe matched a more distant item (a “non-recent negative”). Prior studies have found that recent negative probes can increase errors and slow response times in comparison to non-recent negative probes, and this offered a behavioral measure of proactive interference. In Experiment 1, factors of array size (the number of targets to be encoded) and inter-trial interval (300 ms vs. 8 s) were manipulated in the recent probes task. There was a reduction in proactive interference when a longer delay separated trials on one measure, but only when participants encoded two targets. When working memory capacity was strained by increasing the array size to four targets, proactive interference became stronger after the long delay. In Experiment 2, the inter-trial interval length was again manipulated, along with stimulus novelty (the number of stimuli used in the experiment). Proactive interference was modestly stronger when a smaller number of stimuli were used throughout the experiment, but proactive interference was minimally affected by the inter-trial interval. These findings are problematic for temporal models of forgetting, but Experiment 3 showed that proactive interference also resisted disruption produced by a secondary task presented within the inter-trial interval. Proactive interference was constantly present and generally resilient to the different manipulations. The combined data suggest a relatively durable, passive representation that can disrupt current working memory under a variety of different circumstances.
  • When classrooms aren't an option: Researching mobile language learning through disruption

    Smith, Matt; Scott, Howard; Traxler, John; Reinders, Hayo; Lai, Chun; Sundqvist, Pia (Routledge, 2022-05-31)
    This chapter seeks to, first, survey the research field of language learning during disruptions and crises, such as occupation, the COVID-19 pandemic and other areas of education-in-emergency situations, when working and researching outside the classroom is the only option. Second, it discusses the methodological challenges faced by researchers in these areas, and offers practical suggestions for helping researchers develop effective tools and techniques that are specifically designed to investigate language learning in mobile contexts and environments, and to do research with individuals, communities and cultures – social and educational – that can be categorised as different and divergent from established mainstream Global Northern contexts. We draw upon a current research project in Palestine, based on Erasmus+ work on language learning, to highlight some of these issues and demonstrate some of the methods we discuss being used in an authentic research situation to support out-of-class language learning.
  • Postdigital ecopedagogies of attainment and progress

    Hayes, Sarah L; Jandrić, Petar; Ford, Derek R. (Springer, 2022-06-09)
    Human attainment is based on a particular model of chronological achievements. People and society are assessed in terms of making progress towards ‘something better’. This approach through modernity sees technology treated as a resource to harness for gain regardless of environmental costs. In education, this linear progress model is mirrored: accessing learning, completing study in a timeframe, attaining an award and progress beyond education. Though Covid-19 has interrupted these components of ‘success’, a consensus that children, students, workers and the economy all need to ‘catch up’ after the pandemic exists, even when people are not catching up from an equal positionality. In this competitive, neoliberal progress model attempts to widen participation in education have only had limited success. Additionally, new convergences between digitalisation and biological sciences now provide a broader world view on relations between technologies, progress and humans (Peters, et. al. 2021). This chapter examines the possible ‘demise of a model of progress based on the old system of arranging living forms into a linear hierarchy’ (Bowler 2021: vii). It reviews related assumptions, and considers implications for ecopedagogies of attainment, when unpredictable developments in technology now begin to alter how we might understand progress itself.
  • Abiraterone acetate plus prednisolone for metastatic patients starting hormone therapy: 5‐year follow‐up results from the STAMPEDE randomised trial (NCT00268476)

    James, Nicholas D; Clarke, Noel W; Cook, Adrian; Ali, Adnan; Hoyle, Alex P; Attard, Gert; Brawley, Chris D; Chowdhury, Simon; Cross, William R; Dearnaley, David P; et al. (Wiley, 2022-04-12)
    Abiraterone acetate plus prednisolone (AAP) previously demonstrated improved survival in STAMPEDE, a multi-arm, multi-stage platform trial in men starting long-term hormone therapy for prostate cancer. This long-term analysis in metastatic patients was planned for 3 yrs after the first results. Standard-of-care (SOC) was androgen deprivation therapy. The comparison randomized patients 1:1 to SOC-alone with or without daily abiraterone acetate 1000 mg + prednisolone 5 mg (SOC + AAP), continued until disease progression. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Metastatic disease risk group was classified retrospectively using baseline CT and bone scans by central radiological review and pathology reports. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards & flexible parametric models, adjusted for baseline stratification factors. 1003 patients were contemporaneously randomized (Nov-2011--Jan-2014): median age 67 yr; 94% newly-diagnosed; metastatic disease risk group: 48% high, 44% low, 8% un-assessable; median PSA 97 ng/mL. At 6.1 yr median follow-up, 329 SOC-alone deaths (118 low-risk, 178 high-risk) and 244 SOC + AAP deaths (75 low-risk, 145 high-risk) were reported. Adjusted HR = 0·60 (95%CI:0·50—0·71; P = 0.31x10−9) favoured SOC + AAP, with 5-yr survival improved from 41% SOC-alone to 60% SOC + AAP. This was similar in low-risk (HR = 0·55; 95%CI:0·41—0·76) and high-risk (HR = 0·54; 95%CI:0·43—0·69) patients. Median and current maximum time on SOC + AAP was 2.4 yr and 8.1 yr. Toxicity at 4 yr post-randomisation was similar, with 16% patients in each group reporting grade 3 or higher toxicity. A sustained and substantial improvement in overall survival of all metastatic prostate cancer patients was achieved with SOC + abiraterone acetate + prednisolone, irrespective of metastatic disease risk group.

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