Recent Submissions

  • Exclusion and the strategic leadership role of Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCos) in England: planning for COVID-19 and future crises

    Done, Elizabeth; Knowler, Helen (Wiley-Blackwell, 2022-05-30)
    A small-scale study funded by the British Educational Association (BERA Small Awards 2020) investigated the role of SENCos in England immediately prior to, during and following the first closure of schools nationally in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed methods research strategy comprising semi-structured interviews and a national online survey generated data related to SENCos’ involvement in strategic planning for crisis conditions, focusing specifically on students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) and concerns around exclusionary practices. Findings suggest that pandemic conditions have exacerbated familiar issues related to the SENCo role and SEND provision in English schools, e.g. engagement in reactive firefighting, onerous workloads, uneven SENCo involvement in strategic planning, and schools’ failure to prioritise students with SEND. Minimal evidence of ‘advocacy leadership’ or of SENCos challenging exclusionary practices was found. Disparities between anecdotal and published data around illegal exclusion found in earlier research were also evidenced.
  • How lesson study is used in initial teacher education: an international review of literature

    Bamfield, Vivienne; Boyle, Chris; Bethel, Alison; Knowler, Helen; Katene, Will; Koutsouris, George; Norwich, Brahm (Taylor & Francis, 2022-05-31)
    This paper focuses on the use of lesson study (LS) in initial teacher education (ITE) from a mapping review of international research published in peer reviewed journals. This method enables identification of characteristic features of the research field along with any gaps in the existing evidence base. We map out variations in ITE LS practices by employing a 7-dimensional framework of LS to illustrate the range and draw conclusions about the design and use of LS in ITE. We conclude that LS is an example of teacher enquiry-based practice; identified by researchers as one of the means of building the capacity for a self-improving education system. LS and related practices play a crucial role in preparing teachers to adopt a research orientation to their own practice. However, the paper also discusses the organisational challenges and the balance between acquiring skills and reflection for beginning teachers when introducing LS into ITE.
  • Associations between CT pulmonary opacity score on admission and clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with COVID-19

    Luo, H; Wang, Y; Liu, S; Chen, R; Chen, T; Yang, Y; Wang, D; Ju, S; Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK. (Springer, 2021-06-30)
    This study investigated associations between chest computed tomography (CT) pulmonary opacity score on admission and clinical features and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The retrospective multi-center cohort study included 496 COVID-19 patients in Jiangsu province, China diagnosed as of March 15, 2020. Patients were divided into four groups based on the quartile of pulmonary opacity score: ≤ 5%, 6–20%, 21–40% and 41% +. CT pulmonary opacity score was independently associated with age, single onset, fever, cough, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, lymphocyte count, platelet count, albumin level, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and fibrinogen level on admission. Patients with score ≥ 41% had a dramatic increased risk of severe or critical illness [odds ratio (OR), 15.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.82–63.53), intensive care unit (ICU)] admission (OR, 6.26, 95% CI 2.15–18.23), respiratory failure (OR, 19.49, 95% CI 4.55–83.40), and a prolonged hospital stay (coefficient, 2.59, 95% CI 0.46–4.72) compared to those with score ≤ 5%. CT pulmonary opacity score on admission, especially when ≥ 41%, was closely related to some clinical characteristics and was an independent predictor of disease severity, ICU admission, respiratory failure and long hospital stay in patients with COVID-19.
  • Exploring the professionalisation of further education teachers in England

    Wright, Victoria; Bates, Sandi; Loughlin, Theresa; Clarke, Nicola; Hale, Dayna (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-31)
    The paper captures the professionalisation of teachers in the further education sector by shining a light on their everyday struggle to uphold their ethical goals in support of their students in a climate of performative and regulatory expectations. It reports on a small scale qualitative study in which the six participants were either on the Postgraduate Certificate in Post Compulsory Education course (PGCE in PCE) or on the Masters degree in Professional Practice and Lifelong Education (MA PPLE). They were therefore either student teachers or experienced teachers with different lengths of experience. Students were asked to rank order a set of cards and clarify their decisions. Semi- structured interviews were then undertaken in which the participants were asked to bring artefacts of their choice (potentially from their course of study). Reflection points included the construction of self as teacher and the tensions and impact of a range of expectations nationally and locally. Participants shared responses to continuous change in the sector, their institutions and within their practices. All expressed a common and sustained mission to make a difference, no matter how small, to their students’ lives.
  • Fit for practice: how can we help? Pedagogic reflections

    Arnull, Elaine; Aldridge-Bent, Sharon (Coventry University, 2015-12-21)
    This paper is an active reflection on a pedagogic process of facilitating students’ ability to link theory to practice in two academic programmes, namely social work and health care. In both areas of study and practice it is essential that students are enabled to link theory to practice and learn how to reflect on their practice because they must demonstrate this aptitude as part of their training and registration process and subsequently as part of their continuing professional development. We reflect within the paper on our attempts to develop and facilitate a theory/practice process with students, with the broader aim that the students’ reflections would in time become a reflexive process. We argue that this would enable them to develop into students and practitioners able to challenge established practices and preconceived ideas. Our attempts to develop students’ ability to link theory to practice and their reflexive abilities were based on the use of two learning tools. We had each, independently, developed learning tools that took students through a number of ‘steps’ and required consideration of ‘theory-to-practice’ and ‘reflection’. We focus on a discussion of that process and of the tools utilized in the context of teaching and learning, drawing on theories of reflective practice. Our findings add to the small, but growing body of literature which has examined reflection and the use of tools to aid reflection and reported a positive impact on learning.
  • Law and order conservatism and youth justice: Outcomes and effects in Canada and England and Wales

    Fox, D; Arnull, E (Manchester Metropolitan University, 2015-06-15)
    This paper explores how underlying law and order conservatism has shaped and defined youth justice policy in England and Wales and Canada. We argue that cultural and political influences affected implementation in ways which were initially unforeseen and therefore unconsidered. Our focus is twofold, on the intentions that drove the policy and practice changes and subsequently, on the negative consequences that emerged during implementation. We explore these with regard to the application of discretion and the paper considers the complexity of discretion and how neither, reducing or increasing it has led to simple or obviously predictable patterns. In addition, we apply Thompson's (2006) model of Anti- Oppressive Practice to consider how policies that were not intended to be oppressive and which were evidence based and informed by research and the policy community moved towards a law and order agenda.
  • Developing a theoretical framework to discuss mothers experiencing domestic violence and being subject to interventions: A cross-national perspective

    Arnull, Elaine; Stewart, Stacey (Queensland University of Technology, 2021-06-01)
    The discourse about domestic violence has developed in patriarchal societies, and so we position our understanding of ‘mother’ within a patriarchal framework. We explore the ways in which ‘mothering’ and ‘mother blame’ have been constructed within that framework and how this becomes relevant in the context of domestic violence and child welfare social work. We review literature from Australia, Canada, England and Wales, and the United States of America that has focused on child welfare responses to mothers experiencing domestic violence and abuse. On the basis of that review, we argue that mothers are responsibilised for violence and abuse they do not perpetrate. We show that the way legislation operates in some jurisdictions facilitates hegemonic, patriarchal constructions. We call for a review of current child welfare social work policy and practice in which domestic violence is present.
  • Girls In the juvenile Justice system in England and Wales, 2002-17

    Arnull, Elaine; Park, Jihye; Heimer, Karen (Taylor & Francis, 2021-09-02)
    This paper addresses a gap in the literature on youth justice in England and Wales by examining disaggregated patterns of juvenile court processing (i.e., proven offences) and custody. It provides new evidence to show that gendered effects are best observed over time. Looking at juvenile justice data over time allows us to see the effects of policy that are obscured in the short-term. This is especially important when considering small and specific populations, such as girls. It is often assumed that policy impacts smaller groups in the justice system (in this case, girls) in the same way as the larger group (in this case, boys), with boys’ experiences representing the norm (Estrada et al. 2016). In this paper, we call into question that assumption by considering female and male proven offences and juvenile custody over time in England and Wales and show why gendered impacts should be given proper consideration (Sherman & Black 2015). We also examine changes in the gender gap in proven offences and juvenile custody over time.
  • Balanced forced-diuresis compared to control as a reno-protective approach in cardiac surgery: secondary outcome of a randomized controlled trial, assessment of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels

    Luckraz, Heyman; Giri, Ramesh; Wrigley, Benjamin; Nagarajan, Kumaresan; Senanayake, Eshan; Sharman, Emma; Beare, Lawrence; Nevill, Alan; Heart-Centre, American Hospital, PO Box 5566, Dubai, UAE. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-08-24)
    Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a recognised biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI).This study investigated the impact of balanced forced-diuresis using RenalGuard® system (RG), in reducing acute kidney injury (AKI) rates and the associated NGAL levels (6-h post-CPB plasma level) post adult cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods: Patients included in the study were at high-risk for AKI post cardiac surgery, namely history of diabetes and/or anaemia, e-GFR 20–60 ml/min/1.73 m2, Logistic EuroScore > 5, anticipated CPB time > 120 min. Patients were randomized to either RG (n = 110) or managed as per current practice (control = 110). RIFLE-defined AKI rate (based on serum creatinine level increase) within first 3 days of surgery and 6-h post CPB NGAL levels were the primary and secondary end-points. Results: Pre and intra-operative characteristics between the two groups were similar (p > 0.05) including the pre-op NGAL levels, the oxygen delivery (ecDO2i) and the carbon dioxide production (ecVCO2i) during CPB. Patients in the RG group had a significantly lower post-operative RIFLE-defined AKI rate compared to control (10% (11/110) v/s 20.9% (23/110), p = 0.03). Overall, median 6-h post CPB NGAL levels in patients with AKI were significantly higher than those who did not develop AKI (211 vs 150 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Patients managed by balanced forced-diuresis had lower post-operative NGAL levels (146 vs 178 ng/ml, p = 0.09). Using previously reported NGAL cut-off level for AKI (142 ng/ml), binary logistic regression analysis confirmed a beneficial effect of the RG system, with an increased risk of AKI of 2.2 times in the control group (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.14–4.27, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Overall, the 6-h post-CPB plasma NGAL levels were significantly higher in patients who developed AKI. Patients managed with the novel approach of balanced forced-diuresis, provided by the RenalGuard® system, had a lower AKI rate and lower NGAL levels indicating a lesser degree of renal tissue injury. Trial registration website, NCT02974946,
  • BMI fails to reflect the developmental changes in body fatness between boys and girls during adolescence

    Nevill, Alan M.; Reuter, Cézane Priscila; Brand, Caroline; Gaya, Anelise Reis; Mota, Jorge; Renner, Jane Dagmar Pollo; Duncan, Michael J; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall WS1 3BD, UK. (MDPI AG, 2021-07-23)
    Body mass index (BMI) is thought to reflect excess adiposity in both youth and adults alike. However, the association between BMI and fatness varies, especially as children grow into adults. Thus, the present study sought to address this issue by characterizing how BMI reflects age and sex differences in body fatness in 7–16-year-old children. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2150 children and adolescents, aged 7 to 16 years from the city of Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil. BMI (kg/m2), and percentage body fat, using tricipital and subscapular folds, were assessed. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and ANCOVA were used. Results: When considered in isolation, there was no significant interaction in the age-by-sex differences in BMI (p = 0.69). However, when we controlled for percent body fatness, the analysis revealed considerable age-by-sex differences in BMI (p < 0.001). Conclusion: For the same body fat (%), there are no differences in BMI in children < 10 years.
  • The maximal metabolic steady state: redefining the ‘gold standard’

    Jones, Andrew M; Burnley, Mark; Black, Matthew I; Poole, David C; Vanhatalo, Anni (Wiley, 2019-05-23)
    The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) and the critical power (CP) are two widely used indices of the highest oxidative metabolic rate that can be sustained during continuous exercise and are often considered to be synonymous. However, while perhaps having similarities in principle, methodological differences in the assessment of these parameters typically result in MLSS occurring at a somewhat lower power output or running speed and exercise at CP being sustainable for no more than approximately 20–30 min. This has led to the view that CP overestimates the ‘actual’ maximal metabolic steady state and that MLSS should be considered the ‘gold standard’ metric for the evaluation of endurance exercise capacity. In this article we will present evidence consistent with the contrary conclusion: i.e., that (1) as presently defined, MLSS naturally underestimates the actual maximal metabolic steady state; and (2) CP alone represents the boundary between discrete exercise intensity domains within which the dynamic cardiorespiratory and muscle metabolic responses to exercise differ profoundly. While both MLSS and CP may have relevance for athletic training and performance, we urge that the distinction between the two concepts/metrics be better appreciated and that comparisons between MLSS and CP, undertaken in the mistaken belief that they are theoretically synonymous, is discontinued. CP represents the genuine boundary separating exercise in which physiological homeostasis can be maintained from exercise in which it cannot, and should be considered the gold standard when the goal is to determine the maximal metabolic steady state.
  • Physiological evidence that the critical torque is a phase transition, not a threshold

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2020-11-30)
    Introduction Distinct physiological responses to exercise occur in the heavy- and severe-intensity domains, which are separated by the critical power or critical torque (CT). However, how the transition between these intensity domains actually occurs is not known. We tested the hypothesis that CT is a sudden threshold, with no gradual transition from heavy- to severe-intensity behavior within the confidence limits associated with the CT. Methods Twelve healthy participants performed four exhaustive severe-intensity trials for the determination of CT, and four 30-min trials in close proximity to CT (one or two SE above or below each participant’s CT estimate; CT − 2, CT − 1, CT + 1, CT + 2). Muscle O2 uptake, rectified electromyogram, and torque variability and complexity were monitored throughout each trial, and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) with femoral nerve stimulation were performed before and after each trial to determine central and peripheral fatigue responses. Results The rates of change in fatigue-related variables, muscle O2 uptake, electromyogram amplitude, and torque complexity were significantly faster in the severe trials compared with CT − 2. For example, the fall in MVC torque was −1.5 ± 0.8 N·m·min−1 in CT − 2 versus –7.9 ± 2.5 N·m·min−1 in the lowest severe-intensity trial (P < 0.05). Individual analyses showed a low frequency of severe responses even in the circa-CT trials ostensibly above the CT, but also the rare appearance of severe-intensity responses in all circa-CT trials. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the transition between heavy- and severe-intensity exercise occurs gradually rather than suddenly.
  • Prolonged depression of knee-extensor torque complexity following eccentric exercise

    Pethick, Jamie; Whiteaway, Katherine; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark; Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Kent, UK. (Wiley, 2018-11-28)
    Neuromuscular fatigue reduces the temporal structure, or complexity, of muscle torque output. Exercise-induced muscle damage reduces muscle torque output for considerably longer than high-intensity fatiguing contractions. We hypothesized that muscle-damaging eccentric exercise would lead to a persistent decrease in torque complexity, whereas fatiguing exercise would not. Ten healthy participants performed five isometric contractions (6 s contraction, 4 s rest) at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) before, immediately after and 10, 30 and 60 min and 24 h after eccentric (muscle-damaging) and isometric (fatiguing) exercise. These contractions were also repeated 48 h and 1 week after eccentric exercise. Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled throughout each test. Complexity and fractal scaling were quantified using approximate entropy (ApEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis α exponent (DFA α). Global, central and peripheral perturbations were quantified using MVCs with femoral nerve stimulation. Complexity decreased after both eccentric [ApEn, mean (SD), from 0.39 (0.10) to 0.20 (0.12), P < 0.001] and isometric exercise [from 0.41 (0.13) to 0.09 (0.04); P < 0.001]. After eccentric exercise, ApEn and DFA α required 24 h to recover to baseline levels, but after isometric exercise they required only 10 min. The MVC torque remained reduced [from 233.6 (74.2) to 187.5 (64.7) N m] 48 h after eccentric exercise, with such changes evident only up to 60 min after isometric exercise [MVC torque, from 246.1 (77.2) to 217.9 (71.8) N m]. The prolonged depression in maximal muscle torque output is therefore accompanied by a prolonged reduction in torque complexity.
  • Conceptualising the surveillance of teachers

    Page, Damien (Taylor & Francis, 2016-09-06)
    Schools are risky places: the risk of a poor Ofsted report, the risk of sliding down league tables, the risk of teachers abusing children, the risk of teachers being falsely accused of abuse. As a result of risk anxiety and the ever-increasing sophistication of technology, the surveillance of teachers has proliferated, becoming a future-oriented pursuit to manage this risk. Drawing on the surveillance studies literature, this article attempts to theorise the surveillance of teachers. Firstly the article argues that there are three types of teacher surveillance: the vertical perpetuated by Ofsted and senior school leaders such as teaching observations and learning walks, but also students recording their teachers on mobile phones; horizontal surveillance enacted by peers in terms of concertive control, but also parental surveillance via online and offline networks; and, finally, intrapersonal surveillance embracing reflective practice, data reporting and self-policing proximity from children. The article then concludes by arguing that while surveillance in schools embraces the themes of modern surveillance in general, by doggedly retaining the proximal and the interpersonal, it should be considered a hybrid form between traditional and modern forms of surveillance.
  • The surveillance of teachers and the simulation of teaching

    Page, Damien (Taylor & Francis, 2016-07-15)
    Just as surveillance in general has become more sophisticated, penetrative and ubiquitous, so has the surveillance of teachers. Enacted through an assemblage of strategies such as learning walks, parental networks, student voice and management information systems, the surveillance of teachers has proliferated as a means of managing the risks of school life, driven forward by neoliberal notions of quality and competition. However, where once the surveillance of teachers was panoptic, a means of detecting the truth of teaching behind fabrications, this article argues that surveillance within schools has become a simulation in Baudrillard’s terms, using models and codes such as the Teachers’ Standards and the Schools Inspection Handbook as predictors of future outcomes, simulating practice as a means of managing risk. And if surveillance in schools has become a simulation, then so perhaps has teaching itself, moving beyond a preoccupation with an essentialist truth of teaching to the hyperreality of normalised visibility and the simulation of teaching. This article argues that surveillance – including external agencies such as Ofsted – no longer exists to find the truth of teaching, the surveillance of teachers exists only to test the accuracy of the models and codes upon which the simulation is based.
  • Conspicuous practice: self-surveillance and commodification in English education

    Page, Damien (2017-10-23)
    Teachers in England have always been watched; only more recently have they been surveilled, with senior leaders, peers, students and stakeholders all collecting performance data. Yet surveillance in schools and colleges increasingly relies on watching the self, with teachers voluntarily participating in their own surveillance, making their practice visible for easy consumption by interested parties. This article builds on previous work on the surveillance of teachers to argue that this ‘conspicuous practice’ represents a convergence of surveillance and consumerism, with teachers being recreated as commodities and their own marketing agent, embodying the entrepreneurial self to maximise employability. Through social media such as Twitter and LinkedIn to exploiting open plan learning spaces, teachers engage in conspicuous practice for three main reasons: from fear, to avoid sanction; as a result of acculturation into commodified environments; as a means of routine resistance, employing the dramaturgical self for personal gain, to avoid work or re-appropriate professionalism.
  • Whiteliness and institutional racism: hiding behind (un)conscious bias

    Tate, Shirley Anne; Page, Damien (Routledge, 2018-02-01)
    ‘Unconscious bias happens by our brains making incredibly quick judgements and assessments without us realising. Biases are influenced by background, cultural environment and experiences and we may not be aware of these views and opinions, or of their full impact and implications. This article opposes this point of view by arguing that bias is not unconscious but is (un)conscious and linked to Charles Mills’ ‘Racial Contract’ and its ‘epistemologies of ignorance’. These epistemologies emerge from what the Equality Challenge Unit (ECU) calls ‘our background, cultural environment and personal experience’. Asserting that racism stems from ‘unconscious bias’ diminishes white supremacy and maintains white innocence as a ‘will to forget’ institutional racism. In equality and diversity training ‘unconscious bias’ has become a performative act to move beyond racism through training to participate in a constructed ‘post-racial’ reality. The article argues that through decolonizing ‘unconscious bias’, ‘white fragility’ and ‘self-forgiveness’ we can begin to see hidden institutional whiteliness at the base of (un)conscious bias.
  • The academic as consumed and consumer

    Page, Damien (Taylor & Francis, 2019-03-29)
    In an increasingly competitive environment that positions students as consumers, universities have become ever more marketised, responding to policy contexts that foreground value for money, consumer choice and competition. The intensity of marketisation is argued to have profoundly affected the nature of academic work and scholars themselves, recreating academics as commodities to be weighed and measured, becoming corporatised, alienated and inauthentic in their practice. Yet with the majority of accounts of the commodification of higher education focusing on students, the actual process of how academics become consumed is under-theorised. This article therefore begins with a discussion of the historical context, providing evidence of the familiar indices of marketisation such as rampant self-promotion, the scramble for external funding and intense competition. It argues that this commodified DNA of the university provides the context for the seduction of the modern academic within the consumer society, a movement from the gratification of needs to the perpetual frustration of desires through the ‘Diderot Effect’ of policy shifts. It concludes with an examination of how contemporary academic work can be viewed through the lens of consumerism and how academics themselves have become consumers.
  • Family engagement in alternative provision

    Page, Damien (Wiley, 2020-11-06)
    This article presents findings from research focusing on family engagement within alternative provision. With the existing literature on alternative provision scant, this article analyses the extensive assemblage of family engagement within settings as practitioners navigate complex family environments often characterised by poverty, crime and substance abuse. While settings create formalised structures of family engagement that prioritise a collaborative approach to children’s development—such as family learning days and daily positive phone calls—equally they work to attenuate the isolation and loneliness of families who feel as excluded as their child. Yet as important as structured engagement is, practitioners within alternative provision also engage in the improvised pragmatism of micro-work—the work that other agencies won’t or can’t do, such as escorting parents to medical appointments, sourcing furniture to fill empty houses or talking a child out from under their bed. The article argues that family engagement in alternative provision is cyclical, with families informing staff of behavioural incidents or learning opportunities, information that rapidly personalises communicative and pedagogical strategies within schools. In return, teachers update parents at the end of the day, offering ideas for home learning or approaches to managing challenging behaviours. The article concludes by identifying six domains of family engagement—behavioural, emotional, safeguarding, functional, pedagogic and capacity building—that can be used within alternative provision settings to ensure a holistic approach that provides deep support to families to maximise the successful re-engagement of children.
  • Relationship between muscle metabolic rate and muscle torque complexity during fatiguing intermittent isometric contractions in humans

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark; Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom. (Wiley, 2019-09-25)
    To test the hypothesis that a system's metabolic rate and the complexity of fluctuations in the output of that system are related, thirteen healthy participants performed intermittent isometric knee extensor contractions at intensities where a rise in metabolic rate would (40% maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) and would not (20% MVC) be expected. The contractions had a 60% duty factor (6 sec contraction, 4 sec rest) and were performed until task failure or for 30 min, whichever occurred sooner. Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled continuously. Complexity and fractal scaling of torque were quantified using approximate entropy (ApEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) α scaling exponent. Muscle metabolic rate was determined using near-infrared spectroscopy. At 40% MVC, task failure occurred after (mean ± SD) 11.5 ± 5.2 min, whereas all participants completed 30 min of contractions at 20% MVC. Muscle metabolic rate increased significantly after 2 min at 40% MVC (2.70 ± 1.48 to 4.04 ± 1.23 %·s-1 , P < 0.001), but not at 20% MVC. Similarly, complexity decreased significantly at 40% MVC (ApEn, 0.53 ± 0.19 to 0.15 ± 0.09; DFA α, 1.37 ± 0.08 to 1.60 ± 0.09; both P < 0.001), but not at 20% MVC. The rates of change of torque complexity and muscle metabolic rate at 40% MVC were significantly correlated (ApEn, ρ = -0.63, P = 0.022; DFA, ρ = 0.58, P = 0.037). This study demonstrated that an inverse relationship exists between muscle torque complexity and metabolic rate during high-intensity contractions.

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