Recent Submissions

  • “It’s the attraction of winning that draws you in” – A qualitative investigation of reasons and facilitators for videogame loot box engagement in UK gamers

    Nicklin, Laura; Spicer, Stuart Gordon; Close, James; Parke, Jonathan; Smith, Oliver; Raymen, Thomas; Lloyd, Helen; Lloyd, Joanne (MDPI, 2021-12-31)
    Excessive engagement with (increasingly prevalent) loot boxes within games has consist ently been linked with disordered gambling and/or gaming. The importance of recognising and managing potential risks associated with loot box involvement means understanding contributing factors is a pressing research priority. Given that motivations for gaming and gambling have been informative in understanding risky engagement with those behaviours, this qualitative study investigated motivations for buying loot boxes, through in-depth interviews with 28 gamers from across the UK. A reflexive thematic analysis categorized reasons for buying into seven ‘themes’; opening experience; value of box contents; game-related elements; social influences; emotive/impulsive influences; fear of missing out; and triggers/facilitators. These themes are described in detail and discussed in relation to the existing literature and motivation theories. This study contributes to understanding ways in which digital items within loot boxes can be highly valued by purchasers, informing the debate around parallels with gambling. Findings that certain motivations were disproportionately endorsed by participants with symptoms of problematic gambling has potential implications for policy and warrants further study.
  • Toward improved triadic functioning: Exploring the interactions and adaptations of coaches, parents and athletes in professional academy soccer through the adversity of COVID-19

    Maurice, James; Devonport, Tracey J.; Knight, Camilla J. (Frontiers Media, 2021-12-31)
    On March 23rd, 2020, elite soccer academies in the UK closed in compliance with the government enforced lockdown intended to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. This forced parents, players, and coaches to reconsider how they interacted with, and supported, one another. The aims of the present study were (a) to explore the perceptions of players, parents, and coaches (i.e., the athletic triangle) regarding how they interacted and collaborated with one another during the COVID-19 pandemic to support wellbeing and performance, and; (b) to identify opportunities to enhance workings of those within the athletic triangle resulting from adaptions made following enforced lockdown. Using an interpretive description methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five coaches, six players, and six parents from an English elite academy soccer club. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings highlighted (a) the importance of support and the different means of communication used between members of the athletic triangle to facilitate such support; (b) the increased understanding of each member of the athletic triangle, leading to enhanced relationships, and; (c) how members of the athletic triangle adapted practice to facilitate relationship development during the pandemic and beyond. The identification of these considerations has implications for coach and parent education initiatives to allow for optimal functioning of the athletic triangle as elite academy soccer clubs return from lockdown. These include (a) the importance of continued communication between coach, athlete and parent; (b) increasing understanding of each individual within the athletic triangle; and (c) utilising key interpersonal and technological skills learnt during the lockdown to further facilitate engagement within the athletic triangle.
  • Associations of pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose and body mass index among pregnant women without pre-existing diabetes with offspring being large for gestational age and preterm birth: a cohort study in China

    Tang, J; Chen, R; Yu, Y; Bao, W; Tiemeier, H; Rodney, A; Zhu, X; Li, M; Huang, D; Zhao, Q; et al. (BMJ, 2021-02-10)
    Introduction Associations of pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and body mass index (BMI) with large for gestational age (LGA) and preterm birth (PTB) have been poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the associations of maternal BMI, separately and together with pre-pregnancy IFG, with LGA and PTB in Chinese population. We also aimed to quantify these associations by maternal age. Research design and methods This was a retrospective cohort study of women from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project with singleton birth from 121 counties/districts in 21 cities of Guangdong Province, China, from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2017. Women were included if they did not have pre-existing chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, etc). Participants were divided into eight groups according to their BMI (underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m 2), normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m 2), overweight (24.0-27.9 kg/m 2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m 2)) and pre-pregnancy fasting glucose status (normoglycemia (fasting glucose concentration <6.1 mmol/L) and IFG (6.1-7.0 mmol/L)). Adjusted incidence risk ratios (aIRRs) and 95% CIs of LGA, severe LGA, PTB and early PTB were estimated. Results We included 634 030 women. The incidences of LGA, severe LGA, PTB and early PTB for the study population were 7.1%, 2.5%, 5.1% and 1.1%, respectively. Compared with normal weight mothers with normoglycemia, overweight and obese mothers irrespective of IFG had a higher risk of LGA (eg, obesity with IFG aIRR 1.85 (1.60-2.14)) and severe LGA (eg, obesity with IFG 2.19 (1.73-2.79)). The associations of BMI and pre-pregnancy fasting glucose status with LGA were similar found among women of all age groups. Underweight with normoglycemia had 6.0% higher risk of PTB (1.06 (1.03-1.09)) and 8.0% higher risk of early PTB (1.08 (1.02-1.17)), underweight with IFG had 14.0% higher risk of PTB (1.14 (1.02-1.27)), and obese mothers with IFG had 45.0% higher risk of PTB (1.45 (1.18-1.78)). The associations of BMI and pre-pregnancy fasting glucose status with PTB differed by maternal age. Conclusion Overweight and obesity regardless of IFG were associated with an increased risk of LGA, and these associations were similarly observed among mothers of all age groups. Underweight regardless of IFG, and obesity with IFG were associated with an increased risk of PTB, but the associations differed by maternal age. Findings from this study may have implications for risk assessment and counselling before pregnancy.
  • The value of pro-environmental behaviour in mate choice

    Daniel, Farrelly; Bhogal, Manpal (Elsevier, 2021-12-31)
    Previous research shows that prosocial behaviour such as altruism is important in mate choice. A plethora of research shows that people are attracted to prosocial mates, and in turn, display prosocial behaviours towards those they find attractive. However, most of this research has focused on everyday forms of prosociality. Here, we apply this theoretical framework to pro-environmental behaviours, which are important prosocial behaviours, considering there is a time cost involved in engaging in such behaviours. In addition, encouraging people to engage in pro-environmental behaviours has great implications for the protection of our planet. Here, across two experiments, we successfully show that engaging in pro-environmental behaviours can increase one’s desirability in the mating market (experiment 1, n = 157) and that people display a motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviours in the presence of attractive, opposite sex targets (experiment 2, n = 307). We therefore show that it could be possible to increase pro-environmental behaviours via mate choice motivation and also demonstrate their positive role in mate evaluation. These findings have implications for marketing and increasing environmental behaviour through the lens of evolutionary theory. Note: data and materials for both experiments are available on the Open Science Framework (
  • Are early or late maturers likely to be fitter in the general population?

    Nevill, AM; Negra, Y; Myers, TD; Duncan, MJ; Chaabene, H; Granacher, U; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall WS1 3BD, UK. (MDPI, 2021-01-09)
    The present study aims to identify the optimal body-size/shape and maturity characteristics associated with superior fitness test performances having controlled for body-size, sex, and chronological-age differences. The sample consisted of 597 Tunisian children (396 boys and 201 girls) aged 8 to 15 years. Three sprint speeds recorded at 10, 20 and 30 m; two vertical and two horizontal jump tests; a change-of-direction and a handgrip-strength tests, were assessed during physical-education classes. Allometric modelling was used to identify the benefit of being an early or late maturer. Findings showed that being tall and light is the ideal shape to be successful at most physical fitness tests, but the height-to-weight “shape” ratio seems to be test-dependent. Having controlled for body-size/shape, sex, and chronological age, the model identified maturity-offset as an additional predictor. Boys who go earlier/younger through peak-height-velocity (PHV) outperform those who go at a later/older age. However, most of the girls’ physical-fitness tests peaked at the age at PHV and decline thereafter. Girls whose age at PHV was near the middle of the age range would appear to have an advantage compared to early or late maturers. These findings have important implications for talent scouts and coaches wishing to recruit children into their sports/athletic clubs.
  • Choose where you live carefully: built environment differences in children’s cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk

    Nevill, AM; Reuter, CP; Brand, C; Gaya, AR; Mota, J; Renner, JDP; Duncan, MJ; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall WS1 3EZ, UK. (MDPI, 2021-02-21)
    Information regarding urban-rural differences in health indicators are scarce in Brazil. This study sought to identify rural-urban differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and car-diometabolic risk (CMR) in Brazilian children and adolescents whilst controlling for the important confounding variables including social economic status (SES). This is a cross-sectional study developed with children and adolescents (n = 2250, age 11.54 ± 2.76) selected from a city in the south of Brazil. CRF was estimated using a 6-minute run/walk test. CMR scores were calculated by summing different cardiometabolic risk indicators. CRF was analysed assuming a multiplicative model with allometric body-size components. CMR differences in residential locations was assessed using Analysis of caovariance (ANCOVA) adopting SES, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), age and fitness as covariates. Results indicated a main effect of location (p< 0.001) with children living a rural environment having the highest CRF, and children living in the periphery of towns having the lowest. Analysis also revealed significant main effects of location (p< 0.001) with children living a rural environment having the lowest CMR and children living in the centre of towns having the highest. Therefore, Brazilian children living in a rural environment appear to have superior health benefits.
  • The influence of anthropometric variables, body composition, propulsive force and maturation on 50m freestyle swimming performance in junior swimmers: An allometric approach

    dos Santos, Marcos AM; Henrique, Rafael S; Salvina, Marlene; Silva, Artur Henrique Oliveira; Junior, Marco Aurelio de VC; Queiroz, Daniel R; Duncan, Michael J; Maia, Jose AR; Nevill, Alan M; Department of Physical Education, University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. (Taylor & Francis, 2021-03-04)
    The purpose of the current article was to use allometric models to identify the best body size descriptors and other anthropometric variables, body composition, and offset maturity that might be associated with the youngsters' 50m personal-best (PB) swim speeds (m·s<sup>-1</sup>). Eighty-five competitive swimmers (male, n=50; 13.5±1.8 y; female, n=35; 12.6±1.8 y) participated in this study. Height, body mass, sitting height, arm span, skinfolds, arm muscle area (AMA), and maturity offset were assessed. Swimming performance was taken as the PB time recorded in competition, and the propulsive force of their arm (PFA) was assessed by the tied swimming test. The multiplicative allometric model relating 50m PB swim speeds (m·s<sup>-1</sup>) to all the predictor variables found percentage body fat as a negative [(BF%) β= -.121±.036;<i> P</i>=0.001], and PFA (PFA β=.108±.033;<i> P</i>=0.001) and the girl's arm span (β=.850±.301;<i> P</i>=0.006), all log-transformed, as positive significant predictors of log-transformed swim speed. The adjusted coefficient of determination, R<sub>adj</sub><sup>2</sup> was 54.8% with the log-transformed error ratio being 0.094 or 9.8%, having taken antilogs. The study revealed, using an allometric approach, that body fatness and PFA were significant contributors to 50m freestyle swim performance in young swimmers.
  • Effects of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training protocols on regional body composition and fat oxidation in obese men

    Tsirigkakis, S; Mastorakos, G; Koutedakis, Y; Mougios, V; Nevill, AM; Pafili, Z; Bogdanis, GC; School of Physical Education & Sports Science, University of Thessaly, 42100 Trikala, Greece. (MDPI, 2021-03-27)
    The effects of two high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on regional body composition and fat oxidation in men with obesity were compared using a parallel randomized design. Sixteen inactive males (age, 38.9 ± 7.3 years; body fat, 31.8 ± 3.9%; peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak, 30.9 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min; all mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to either HIIT10 (48 × 10 s bouts at 100% of peak power [Wpeak] with 15 s of recovery) or HIIT60 group (8 × 60 s bouts at 100% Wpeak with 90 s of recovery), and subsequently completed eight weeks of training, while maintaining the same diet. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) showed only a main effect of time (p < 0.01) and no group or interaction effects (p > 0.05) in the examined parameters. Total and trunk fat mass decreased by 1.81 kg (90%CI: −2.63 to −0.99 kg; p = 0.002) and 1.45 kg (90%CI: −1.95 to −0.94 kg; p < 0.001), respectively, while leg lean mass increased by 0.86 kg (90%CI: 0.63 to 1.08 kg; p < 0.001), following both HIIT protocols. HIIT increased peak fat oxidation (PFO) (from 0.20 ± 0.05 to 0.33 ± 0.08 g/min, p = 0.001), as well as fat oxidation over a wide range of submaximal exercise intensities, and shifted PFO to higher intensity (from 33.6 ± 4.6 to 37.6 ± 6.7% VO2peak, p = 0.039). HIIT, irrespective of protocol, improved VO2peak by 20.0 ± 7.2% (p < 0.001), while blood lactate at various submaximal intensities decreased by 20.6% (p = 0.001). In conclusion, both HIIT protocols were equally effective in improving regional body composition and fat oxidation during exercise in obese men.
  • The sleep and recovery practices of athletes

    Doherty, Rónán; Madigan, Sharon M; Nevill, Alan; Warrington, Giles; Ellis, Jason G (MDPI, 2021-04-17)
    Background: Athletes maintain a balance between stress and recovery and adopt recovery modalities that manage fatigue and enhance recovery and performance. Optimal TST is subject to individual variance. However, 7–9 h sleep is recommended for adults, while elite athletes may require more quality sleep than non-athletes. Methods: A total of 338 (elite n = 115, 74 males and 41 females, aged 23.44 ± 4.91 years; and sub-elite n = 223, 129 males and 94 females aged 25.71 ± 6.27) athletes were recruited from a variety of team and individual sports to complete a battery of previously validated and reliable widely used questionnaires assessing sleep, recovery and nutritional practices. Results: Poor sleep was reported by both the elite and sub-elite athlete groups (i.e., global PSQI score ≥5—elite 64% [n = 74]; sub-elite 65% [n = 146]) and there was a significant difference in sport-specific recovery practices (3.22 ± 0.90 vs. 2.91 ± 0.90; p &lt; 0.001). Relatively high levels of fatigue (2.52 ± 1.32), stress (1.7 ± 1.31) and pain (50%, n = 169) were reported in both groups. A range of supplements were used regularly by athletes in both groups; indeed, whey (elite n = 22 and sub-elite n = 48) was the most commonly used recovery supplement in both groups. Higher alcohol consumption was observed in the sub-elite athletes (12%, n = 26) and they tended to consume more units of alcohol per drinking bout. Conclusion: There is a need for athletes to receive individualised support and education regarding their sleep and recovery practices.
  • Understanding the impact of ‘wish-granting’ interventions on the health and wellbeing of children with life-threatening health conditions and their families: A systematic review

    Heath, Gemma; Screti, Cassandra; Pattison, Helen; Knibb, Rebecca (SAGE, 2021-12-31)
    This review aimed to explore how wish-granting interventions impact on the health and wellbeing of children with life-threatening health conditions and their families, using any study design. Six electronic databases (Medline; PsycINFO; CINAHL; Embase; AMED; HMIC) were systematically searched to identify eligible research articles. Studies were critically appraised using a Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Findings were synthesised narratively. Ten papers were included, reporting studies conducted across five countries, published from 2007-2019. Study designs were diverse (four quantitative; two qualitative; four mixed method). Results indicated improvements to physical and mental health, quality of life, social wellbeing, resilience and coping for wish children, parents and siblings. In conclusion, wish-granting interventions can positively impact health and therefore, should not be discouraged; however, more research is needed to define and quantify the impact of wish-fulfillment and to understand how it can be maximized.
  • Allometric association between physical fitness test results, body size/shape, biological maturity, and time spent playing sports in adolescents

    Giuriato, Matteo; Kawczynski, Adam; Mroczek, Dariusz; Lovecchio, Nicola; Nevill, Alan; Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2021-04-06)
    Regular participation in strength and conditioning activities positively correlates with health-related benefits in sports (team and individual). Maturity offset (MO) is a recognized parameter in fitness outcome assessment. The aims of the present study are to analyze cross-sectional allometric development of motor performances in a sample of adolescents and relate scaled motor performance to the estimated amount and type of physical activity and biological maturity status in 771 subjects aged 14-19 years. Three physical fitness components were evaluated using field tests (standing broad jump, sit-ups, shuttle run). Extra hours of sport after school (EHS) and MO were the covariates. The model to predict the physical performance variables was: Y = a · Mk1 · Hk2 · WCk3 · exp(b · EHS + c · MO) · ε. Results suggest that having controlled for body size and body shape, performing EHS and being an early developer (identified by a positive MO slope parameter) benefits children in physical fitness and motor performance tasks.
  • Factors influencing a primary school teacher’s delivery of athletics

    Powers, Daniel; O’Leary, Nick; Parkes, Craig (Routledge/ASPE, 2021-04-08)
    Addressing the future recommendations of the first United Kingdom primary school-based Physical Education occupational socialisation study, this case study examined how a female primary school teacher delivered athletics and those factors influencing such pedagogical practices. Data were collected from interviews and lesson observations, analysed using a thematic inductive approach and constant comparison. An ‘educative’ sporting perspective focusing on improving practical performance with a limited attempt to improve non-practical learning was evident alongside an emphasis on ensuring appropriate pupil behaviour. Factors influencing these practices were an influential work colleague, challenging class behaviour and enforcement of school behaviour policy. Recognising the powerful influence of the workplace on the participant’s practice, school policies could encourage primary school teachers to consider attending external courses, read relevant resources, attend behavioural management courses and informally learn amongst colleagues. Future research could explore primary teachers’ delivery of other activities like dance and gymnastics.
  • Networked learning in 2021: a community definition

    Gourlay, Lesley; Rodríguez-Illera, José Luis; Barberà, Elena; Bali, Maha; Gachago, Daniela; Pallitt, Nicola; Jones, Chris; Bayne, Siân; Hansen, Stig Børsen; Hrastinski, Stefan; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-03-25)
  • Parental feeding, child eating and physical activity: differences in children living with and without asthma

    Heath, Gemma; Clarke, Rebecca; Nagakumar, Prasad; Pattison, Helen; Farrow, Claire (MDPI, 2021-03-26)
    This study aimed to establish the differences in parental attitudes toward feeding and activity, as well as child eating and activity levels, between families of children living with and without asthma. Parents of children and young people aged between 10 and 16 years living both with asthma (n = 310) and without asthma (n = 311) completed measures for parental feeding, parental attitudes toward child exercise, child eating, child activity level and asthma control. Children living with asthma had a significantly higher BMIz (BMI standardised for weight and age) score, were significantly more likely to emotionally overeat and desired to drink more than their peers without asthma. Parents of children with asthma reported greater use of food to regulate emotions, restriction of food for weight control, monitoring of child activity, pressure to exercise and control over child activity. When asthma symptoms were controlled, parental restriction of food for weight management predicted greater child BMIz scores, and higher child activity predicted lower child BMIz scores. These relationships were not found to be significant for children with inadequately controlled asthma. Differences in parental attitudes toward feeding and exercise, and child eating and exercise behaviors, between families may help to explain the increased obesity risk for children with asthma.
  • Successful strategies for including adults with an intellectual disability into a research study using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)

    Drozd, Mary; Chadwick, Darren; Jester, Rebecca (RCN Publishing, 2021-12-31)
    Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities are not regularly recruited as participants in health research which may be due to perceptions regarding their inability to participate meaningfully with or without significant support and anticipated difficulty in gaining ethical approval because of issues around consent and mental capacity. This means that the voices of people with an intellectual disability are often missing within health research and their experiences and views are unexplored. Aim: To share successful strategies for accessing, recruiting and collecting data from a purposive sample of adults with an intellectual disability using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Discussion: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was a person-centred, flexible and creative approach to adopt. Meaningful collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities, their families, carers, advocacy group managers, specialists within intellectual disability services and research supervisors was vital to the success of conducting this study. Practical strategies for including people with an intellectual disability in a study from the perspective of a novice researcher, an outsider to the field of intellectual disability, have been shared. A limitation is that participants were not included in all stages of the research process. Conclusion: Inclusion of participants with an intellectual disability in research studies is important and achievable for healthcare researchers. A framework to support researchers outside of the specialist field of intellectual disabilities has been presented. Implications for practice: Adults with intellectual disabilities often receive poor healthcare and have poorer outcomes which is perpetuated if their input into research is not facilitated. People with intellectual disabilities make valuable contributions to the evidence base; personal views and perceptions of healthcare are important if health services are to meet individual needs.
  • Physical fitness profile in elite beach handball players of different age categories

    Lemos, LF; Oliveira, VC; Duncan, MJ; Ortega, JP; Martins, CM; Ramirez-Campillo, R; Sanchez, JS; Nevill, AM; Nakamura, FY; Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education UPE/UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil - (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2020-06-30)
    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to compare anthropometric and fitness variables of high-level beach handball players across under-19 (u-19), under-21 (u-21) and senior male categories, and between male and female senior players; and to test the correlations among those measures. MeThodS: a total of 70 high-level players (53 male of different ages) were evaluated for 5-m acceleration, 15-m sprint, horizontal jump, handgrip strength, specific beach handball throwing velocities, and anthropometric variables. Differences between age groups were tested using anoVa. independent t-test was used to compare fitness variables between male and female elite athletes, and Pearson partial correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the fitness variables using BMI and age as covariates. SPSS Software was used, and the level of significance was set at 95%. reSulTS: The u-21 athletes better performed on horizontal jump and 6-m throw than the u-19 athletes. Senior athletes showed better performance on horizontal jump than U-19 athletes (P≤0.05). Positive correlation was seen for handgrip on dominant and non-dominant hands and 6-m throwing speed, and for handgrip on dominant hand and inflight velocity (P≤0.05). Negative correlations were observed between horizontal jump and 5-m acceleration, and 15-m sprint (P≤0.01 and P≤0.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Male athletes better performed than women in all the fitness tests. The study, for the first time, showed physical fitness comparisons between beach handball elite male athletes of different ages and between genders. These are key steps for coaches and athletes and may support future beach handball studies and practice.
  • How does foreigner-directed speech differ from other forms of listener-directed clear speaking styles?

    Hazan, Valerie; Uther, Maria; Grunlund, Sonia (University of Glasgow, 2015-08-10)
    Forty talkers participated in problem-solving tasks with another talker in conditions differing in communication difficulty for the interlocutor. A linguistic barrier condition (L2 interlocutor) was compared to acoustic barrier conditions (native interlocutors hearing vocoded or noisy speech). Talkers made acoustic-phonetic enhancements in all barrier conditions compared to the no-barrier condition, but talkers reduced their articulation rate less and showed less increase in vowel hyperarticulation in foreigner-directed speech than in the acoustic barrier condition, even though communicative difficulty was greater in the L2 condition. Foreigner-directed speech was also perceived as less clear. This suggests that acoustic enhancements in clear speech are not simply a function of the level of communication difficulty.
  • The Clinical and legal management of parental alienation in the UK

    Morgan, Angela; Ahmad, Nahid; Webster, Marilyn (Parental Allienation Study Group, 2020-10-29)
  • Socioeconomic factors and health status disparities associated with difficulty in ADLs and IADLs among long-lived populations in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Matheson, David; Santos, Silvana; Nobrega, JC; Medeiros, J; Alves, S; Freitas, J; Silva, J; Simões, R; Santos, T; Brito, A; et al. (SAGE, 2021-04-09)
    Objective: To evaluate the association between socioeconomic factors, health status, and Functional Capacity (FC) in the oldest senior citizens in a metropolis and a poor rural region of Brazil. Method: Cross-sectional study of 417 seniors aged ≥80 years, data collected through Brazil’s Health, Well-being and Aging survey. FC assessed by self-reporting of difficulties in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using “R” statistical software. Results: Socioeconomic and demographic inequalities in Brazil can influence FC in seniors aged 80 years and older. Comparatively, urban long-lived people had a higher prevalence of difficulties for ADLs and rural ones showed more difficulties for IADLs. Among urban oldest seniors, female gender and lower-income were correlated with difficulties for IADLs. Among rural oldest seniors, female gender, stroke, joint disease, and inadequate weight independently were correlated with difficulties for ADLs, while the number of chronic diseases was associated with difficulties for IADLs. Conclusion: Financial constraints may favor the development of functional limitations among older seniors in large urban centers. In poor rural areas, inadequate nutritional status and chronic diseases may increase their susceptibility to functional decline.
  • The effect of HVP training in vowel perception on bilingual speech production

    Kangatharan, Jayanthiny; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria (Consentia Beam, 2021-03-10)
    Prior investigations (Giannakopoulou et al., 2013) have indicated high variability phonetic training intervention can help L2 English adult learners change the perception of vowels such that they shift their attention to primary cues (spectral features) rather than secondary cues (e.g. duration) to correctly identify vowels in L2. This experiment explores if high-variability training impacts on L2 adult learners’ production of L2 speech. Production samples from a prior experiment were used to conduct ratings of accuracy (Giannakopoulou, 2012). In the current experiment, the production samples were transcribed and rated for accuracy by twenty native English listeners. The intelligibility levels of L2 learners’ speech samples as indexed by higher accuracy in transcription were observed as having been rated higher following training than prior to training. The implications of the results are considered with regard to theories on the connection between speech production and perception, and Flege’s (1995) Speech Learning Model.

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