Recent Submissions

  • Measurement Theory and Psychological Scaling

    Hinton, Daniel; Platt, Tracey (Routledge, 2018-12-07)
    Quantitative research in every branch of psychology involves the measurement of psychological constructs, and consumer psychology is no exception. The use of tools to measure psychological constructs is known as psychometrics. This chapter will outline the use of psychometric measures within consumer psychology and related fields – both in academic and practice settings – and discuss the theory underlying psychological measurement, before exploring the process by which these measures are developed by psychologists.
  • Transforming the relationship between staff and students to effect change

    Hassan, Iman; Hayes, Sarah (University of Greenwich, 2016-09-01)
    This opinion piece argues for the necessity of student-staff partnerships that go beyond the common rhetoric of ‘student engagement’, achieving a richer student and staff dialogue which results in more meaningful change in policy and practice. In particular, attention is drawn to the need for such partnerships when determining technology applications that are often missed out from, or treated in isolation from, the curriculum design process. This piece cites, as an example, a student-led taught day on the Post Graduate Diploma in Learning and Teaching at Aston University in July 2015. There was clear evidence that the staff participants designed their assessments with student partners in mind. It is therefore proposed that a partnership relationship offers an effective means of moving forward from common practices where technology simply replicates, or supplements, traditional activities.
  • A sphere of resonance for networked learning in the ‘non-places’ of our universities

    Hayes, Sarah (Sage, 2015-02-27)
    The logic of ‘time’ in modern capitalist society appears to be a fixed concept. Time dictates human activity with a regularity, which as long ago as 1944, George Woodcock referred to as The Tyranny of the Clock. Seventy years on, Hartmut Rosa suggests humans no longer maintain speed to achieve something new, but simply to preserve the status quo, in a ‘social acceleration’ that is lethal to democracy. Political engagement takes time we no longer have, as we rush between our virtual spaces and ‘non-places’ of higher education. I suggest it is time to confront the conspirators that, in partnership with the clock, accelerate our social engagements with technology in the context of learning. Through Critical Discourse Analysis I reveal an alarming situation if we do not. With reference to Bauman’s Liquid Modernity, I observe a ‘lightness’ in policy texts where humans have been ‘liquified’ Separating people from their own labour with technology in policy maintains the flow of speed a neoliberal economy demands. I suggest a new ‘solidity’ of human presence is required as we write about networked learning. ‘Writing ourselves back in’ requires a commitment to ‘be there’ in policy and provide arguments that decelerate the tyranny of time. I am, though, ever-mindful that social acceleration is also of our own making, and there is every possibility that we actually enjoy it.
  • Postdigital science and education

    Jandrić, Petar; Knox, Jeremy; Besley, Tina; Suoranta, Juha; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor and Francis, 2018-03-26)
    We are increasingly no longer in a world where digital technology and media is separate, virtual, ‘other’ to a ‘natural’ human and social life. This has inspired the emergence of a new concept—‘the postdigital’— which is slowly but surely gaining traction in a wide range of disciplines including but not limited to the arts (Bishop, Gansing, Parikka, & Wilk, 2017; Monoskop, 2018), music (Cascone, 2000), architecture (Spiller, 2009), humanities (Hall, 2013; Tabbi, in press), (social) sciences (Taffel, 2016), and in many inter-, trans-, and post-disciplines between them (Berry & Dieter, 2015). Through this research, the term postdigital is slowly entering academic discourse. The University of Edinburgh’s Center for Research in Digital Education is seriously considering rebranding toward the postdigital (Bayne & Jandrić, 2017, p. 204, see also Jandrić, 2017, p. 201); Coventry University recently established the Center for Postdigital Cultures (Coventry University, 2018); authors of this editorial are editors for the forthcoming journal Postdigital Science and Education1.
  • Identifying the optimal body shape and composition associated with strength outcomes in children and adolescent according to place of residence: an allometric approach

    Lovecchio, Nicola; Giuriato, Matteo; Zago, Matteo; Nevill, Alan M. (Routledge, 2019-01-29)
    The purpose of the study was to identify the optimal body shape and composition associated with physical fitness levels of children living in urban and rural areas of Italy. A total of 7102 children (11–14 years) were assessed for weight, height, percentage body fat (FM%), sit-and-reach flexibility (SAR), standing broad jump (SBJ) and sit-ups (SUP). A multiplicative allometric model, Y = a · massk1 · heightk2 ·ε, was used to predict the physical outcome variables Y = SBJ and SUP. The model was expanded to incorporate FM% and SAR as follows Y = a · massk1 · heightk2 · FM%k3 · exp(b· FM% + c· SAR) ·ε. Note that FM% was incorporated as a “gamma function” that allows an initial growth, and subsequent decline in Y as FM% increases in size. Although having an ectomorph body shape appears advantageous, being too thin appears detrimental to the strength outcomes. Being flexible would also benefit physical fitness levels. Finally, our results indicate that ursban children aged 11–14 have superior strength outcomes compared with rural children, having controlled for differences in body shape and composition, a finding that may be associated with rural environments having fewer exercise facilities compared with urban conurbations.
  • A conversation analysis of asking about disruptions in method of levels psychotherapy

    Cannon, Caitlyn; Meredith, Joanne; Speer, Susan; Mansell, Warren (Wiley, 2019-12-31)
    Background: Method of Levels (MOL) is a cognitive therapy with an emerging evidence base. It is grounded in Perceptual Control Theory and its transdiagnostic nature means techniques are widely applicable and not diagnosis-specific. This paper contributes to psychotherapy process research by investigating a key technique of MOL, asking about disruptions, and in doing so aims to explore how the technique works and aid the understanding of related techniques in other psychotherapies. Method: Conversation Analysis (CA) is applied to asking about disruptions in twelve real-life therapeutic interactions. Findings: Analyses explore how and when therapists ask about disruptions, with examples presented according to their degree of adherence to the MOL approach. The majority of identified instances project responses consistent with MOL aims; encouraging further talk, focused on the client’s problem, and with a shift to meta-level commentary. Also presented are examples of therapist and client influence on disruptions. Conclusion: The paper provides support for a number of MOL practices, with clinical implications and links to other psychotherapies highlighted.
  • The use of the categories Brexiter and Remainer in online comment threads

    Meredith, Joanne; Richardson, Emma (Wiley, 2019-01-22)
    In June 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum on EU membership; 52% of those who voted, voted to leave, and 48% voted to remain. During the referendum campaign, two identities emerged: “Brexiter” and “Remainer,” which remained salient post‐referendum. This study explores how the categories of Brexiter and Remainer were deployed by posters online. Data comprise comment threads collected from four online newspapers both during the campaign and after the vote, which focus on the Brexit campaign promise: “We send £350m a week to the EU. Let's fund our NHS instead.” We draw on membership categorization analysis and discursive psychology to analyse when categories were made salient and what responses to the invocation of categories were. Analysis revealed that posters explicitly categorize the out‐group and in doing so implicitly define their group. Posters resisted other political identities when attributed to them in relation to the referendum. The analysis shows how Brexiter and Remainer are new, albeit contested, political categories and identities in their own right, with other political identities resisted when used. The paper highlights implications for the political system in the United Kingdom and for social divisions within U.K. society.
  • The labour of words in higher education: is it time to reoccupy policy?

    Hayes, Sarah (Brill, 2019-01-28)
    As Higher Education has come to be valued for its direct contribution to the global economy, university policy discourse has reinforced this rationale. In The Labour of Words in Higher Education: Is it Time to Reoccupy Policy? two globes are depicted. One is a beautiful, but complete artefact, that markets a UK university. The second sits on a European city street and is continually inscribed with the markings of passers-by. A distinction is drawn between the rhetoric of university McPolicy, as a discourse that appears to no longer require input from humans, and a more authentic approach to writing policy, that acknowledges the academic labour of staff and students, in effecting change. Inspired by the work of George Ritzer on the McDonaldisation of Society, the term McPolicy is adopted by the author, to describe a rational method of writing policy, now widespread across UK universities. Recent strategies on ‘the student experience’, ‘technology enhanced learning’, ‘student engagement’ and ‘employability’ are explored through a corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Findings are humourously compared to the marketing of consumer goods, where commodities like cars are invested with human qualities, such as ‘ambition’. Similarly, McPolicy credits non-human strategies, technologies and a range of socially constructed buzz phrases, with the human qualities and labour activities that would normally be enacted by staff and students.
  • Radical actions to address UK organ shortage, enacting Iran’s paid donation programme: A discussion paper

    Timmins, Rebecca; Sque, Magi (Sage, 2019-02-21)
    Globally there is a shortage of organs available for transplant resulting in thousands of lives lost as a result. Last year in the United Kingdom (UK) 457 people died as a result of organ shortage1. NHS Blood and Transplant suggest national debates to test public attitudes to radical actions to increase organ donation should be considered in addressing organ shortage. The selling of organs for transplant in the UK is prohibited under the Human Tissue Act 2004. This discussion paper considers five ethical objections raised in the UK to paid donation, and discusses how these objections are managed within the only legal and regulated paid living unrelated renal donation programme in the world in Iran, where its kidney transplant list was eliminated within two years of its commencement. This paper discusses whether paid living unrelated donation in Iran increases riskier donations, and reduced altruistic donation as opponents of paid donation claim. The paper debates whether objections to paid donation based upon commodification arguments only oppose enabling financial ends, even if these ends enable beneficent acts. Discussions in relation to whether valid consent can be given by the donor will take place, and will also debate the objection that donors will be coerced and exploited by a paid model. This paper suggests that exploitation of the paid donor within the Iranian model exists within the legally permitted framework. However paid living kidney donation should be discussed further and other models of paid donation considered in the UK as a radical means of increasing donation.
  • The state of bereavement support in adult intensive care: A systematic review and narrative synthesis

    Efstathiou, Nikolaos; Walker, Wendy; Metcalfe, Alison; Vanderspank-Wright, Brandi (Elsevier, 2018-12-01)
    Purpose Despite advances in medical science, patient death and family bereavement are commonly encountered in adult intensive care units (ICUs). This is the first review to investigate the state of ICU bereavement support globally, and the availability and effectiveness of bereavement support interventions. Methods A systematic review and narrative synthesis. Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, EMBASE were searched and inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied. Included studies were appraised using relevant appraisal tools. Results Fourteen papers formed the review; five of which were international surveys reporting variable bereavement practices and levels of support. A lack of training and resources were identified barriers. Nine papers reported the effectiveness of primarily discrete bereavement support interventions including: a personal memento, a handwritten condolence letter, a post-death meeting; storytelling, research participation, use of an ICU diary. One study evaluated a bereavement follow-up program. Generally, all identified interventions were well accepted by bereaved families. Conclusions The reviewed evidence was weak, and findings were contextually bound. As such, it is difficult to make recommendations for the most acceptable and effective bereavement support intervention(s). Bereavement support in ICU needs further exploration and clinicians must be adequately trained and supported for the delivery of evidence-informed, culturally competent care.
  • Lived experiences of undergraduate Physical Education students studying gymnastics and dance education

    Ward, Gavin; Scott, David (Taylor and Francis, 2019-01-21)
    The focus of this study was to understand undergraduate students’ experiences of gymnastics and dance education within the scrutiny of modular learning in Higher Education. A phenomenological position was adopted in order to understand the wholeness of students’ experiences whereby identities are constituted through their lived lives. This allowed us to understand the students’ identities as relational to the learning and assessment context and their lives within and beyond the university. Open-ended interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of students who consented to share their experiences. Data were analysed using Merleau-Ponty’s theorising of identity as an embodied cohesion or habit between pre-personal and personal existence. This is revealed through opaqueness and transparencies of consciousness which in this study were revealed through the seven identities of the participants; Negotiating and surviving White space, Strategic masculine competitor, Seeking reassurance, Racially strategic to be unique, Seeking dependence to achieve, Strategically insular and Willing explorer. These identities help to shed light on the tensions Higher Education students may experience when confronted with new learning situations in which they are to be assessed. We concluded that getting to know students, and the opacities and transparencies of their identities, could be of great value in shaping their be-ing as students. In striving to understand the habitual behaviours of students, it is possible to understand how the subject-matter being taught might be received by students within the wider context of their be-ing-in-the-world.
  • Learning, technologies, and time in the age of global neoliberal capitalism

    Hayes, Sarah; Jandrić, Petar (Addleton Academic Publishers, 2017-03-22)
    Though diverse in nature, the articles in this collection discuss both socio-cultural and temporal transformations linked to technology and learning and can be classified into three broad themes. The first theme is interested in temporal experiences within time and learning; the second theme is about practical implementations of these concerns, and the third theme inquires into relationships between our understanding of time and human nature. In many articles, the boundaries between these themes are blurred and fluid. Yet, this general classification does indicate the present state of the art in studies of time, technology and education.
  • Innovative teaching and learning in Higher Education

    Branch, John; Hayes, Sarah; Hørsted, Anne; Nygaard, Claus (Libri, 2017-02-01)
    This latest volume in the Learning in Higher Education series, Innovative Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, brings together examples of teaching and learning innovations, within the domain of higher education. The anthology is diverse in nature and showcases concrete examples of innovative teaching and learning practices in higher education from around the world. The contributions come from all scientific disciplines and in all teaching and learning contexts. The twenty-seven inspiring examples in this volume show considerable diversity in their approaches to teaching and learning practices; at the same time they improve both student engagement and student learning outcomes. All the authors argue that their innovative approach has helped students to learn differently, better, and more. For those involved in higher education, there is a lot to be gained from reading these narrative accounts of innovative teaching and learning.
  • The labour of words in Higher Education is it time to reoccupy policy?

    Hayes, Sarah (Brill, 2019-01-28)
    As Higher Education has come to be valued for its direct contribution to the global economy, university policy discourse has reinforced this rationale. In The Labour of Words in Higher Education: Is it Time to Reoccupy Policy? two globes are depicted. One is a beautiful, but complete artefact, that markets a UK university. The second sits on a European city street and is continually inscribed with the markings of passers-by. A distinction is drawn between the rhetoric of university McPolicy, as a discourse that appears to no longer require input from humans, and a more authentic approach to writing policy, that acknowledges the academic labour of staff and students, in effecting change. Inspired by the work of George Ritzer on the McDonaldisation of Society, the term McPolicy is adopted by the author, to describe a rational method of writing policy, now widespread across UK universities. Recent strategies on ‘the student experience’, ‘technology enhanced learning’, ‘student engagement’ and ‘employability’ are explored through a corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Findings are humourously compared to the marketing of consumer goods, where commodities like cars are invested with human qualities, such as ‘ambition’. Similarly, McPolicy credits non-human strategies, technologies and a range of socially constructed buzz phrases, with the human qualities and labour activities that would normally be enacted by staff and students. This book is written for anyone with an interest in the future of universities. It concludes with suggestions of ways we might all reoccupy McPolicy.
  • Quantitative research methods for linguistics

    Grant, T.; Clark, U.; Reershemius, G.; Pollard, D.; Hayes, Sarah; Plappert, G. (Taylor and Francis, 2017-06-29)
    Quantitative Research Methods for Linguistics provides an accessible introduction to research methods for undergraduates undertaking research for the first time. Employing a task-based approach, the authors demonstrate key methods through a series of worked examples, allowing students to take a learn-by-doing approach and making quantitative methods less daunting for the novice researcher. Key features include: Chapters framed around real research questions, walking the student step-by-step through the various methods; Guidance on how to design your own research project; Basic questions and answers that every new researcher needs to know; A comprehensive glossary that makes the most technical of terms clear to readers; Coverage of different statistical packages including R and SPSS. Quantitative Research Methods for Linguistics is essential reading for all students undertaking degrees in linguistics and English language studies.
  • Locus of control and involvement in videogaming

    Lloyd, Joanne; Frost, Sally; Kuliesius, Ignas; Jones, Claire (Sage, 2019-02-13)
    Abstract An external locus of control (feeling low personal control over one’s life) has been linked with excessive/addictive behaviours, including problematic videogaming. The current study sought to determine whether this is driven by the opportunity for greater control over one’s environment within a videogame. Participants (n = 252, 59% males) completed a traditional locus of control scale, alongside a modified version assessing in-game feelings of control. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that feeling less under the control of powerful others in-game than in the real world was a significant predictor of gaming frequency (standardised β = .31, p < .0005), while feeling comparatively more internal control in-game than in real life significantly predicted problematic gaming (standardised β = .17, p = .02). This demonstrates that locus of control in-game can diverge from that experienced in the real world, and the degree of divergence could be a risk factor for frequent and/or problematic gaming in some individuals.
  • Can waist circumference provide a new “third” dimension to BMI when predicting percentage body fat in children? Insights using allometric modelling

    Nevill, Alan M.; Bryant, Elizabeth; Wilkinson, Kate; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Chaves, Raquel; Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José; Duncan, Michael J. (Wiley, 2018-12-27)
    Introduction: Body mass index (BMI) is often criticised for not being able to distinguish between lean and fat tissue. Waist circumference (WC), adjusted for stature, is proposed as an alternative weight-status index, as it is more sensitive to changes in central adiposity. Purpose: To combine the three dimensions of height, mass and WC to provide a simple, meaningful and more accurate index associated with percentage body fat (BF%). Methods: We employed a four independent sample design. Sample 1 consisted of 551 children (320 boys) (Mean ± S.D. of age = 7.2 ± 2.0 years), recruited from London, UK. Samples 2, 3 and 4 consisted of 5387 children (2649 boys) aged 7-17 years recruited from schools in Portugal. Allometric modelling was used to identify the most effective anthropometric index associated with BF%. The data from sample 2, 3 and 4 were used to confirm and cross validate the model derived in sample 1. Results: The allometric models from all four samples identified a positive mass exponent and a negative height exponent that was approximately twice that of the mass exponent and a waist circumference exponent that was approximately half the mass exponent. Consequently, the body-shape index most strongly associated with BF% was BMI√WC. The √WC component of the new index can simply be interpreted as a WC “weighting” of the traditional BMI. Conclusions: Compared to using BMI and WC in isolation, BMI√WC could provide a more effective and equally non-invasive proxy for BF% in children that can be used in public and community health settings.
  • The role of subjective quality judgements in user preferences for mobile learning apps

    Uther, Maria; Ylinen, Sari (MDPI, 2018-12-24)
    This study investigated whether subjective quality judgements on sound and picture quality across three devices (iPhone, iPad, and iPad mini) affected user preferences for learning applications. We tested 20 native Finnish-speaking users trialing generic audio clips, video clips, and two kinds of learning apps that were heavily reliant on sound. It was found that there was a main effect of the device on perceived sound quality, replicating earlier findings. However, these judgements did not impact on the users’ preferences for different devices nor on their preferences for different applications. The results are interpreted as indicating that perceived quality and affordances are less important for users in these contexts than other considerations (e.g., convenience, mobility, etc.).
  • Measuring training load in dance: the construct validity of session-RPE

    Surgenor, Brenton; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine Inc, 2019-12-31)
    The session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) is a practical and non-invasive method that allows a quantification of internal training load (ITL) in individual and team sports. As yet, no study has investigated its construct validity in dance. This study examines the convergent validity between the session-RPE method and an objective heart rate (HR)-based method of quantifying the similar ITL in vocational dance students during professional dance training. METHODS: Ten dance students (4 male, 20±1.16 yrs; 6 female, 20±0.52 yrs) participated in this study. During a normal week of training, session-RPE and HR data were recorded in 96 individual sessions. HR data were analysed using Edwards-TL method. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the convergent validity between the session-RPE and Edwards-TL methods for assessing ITL in a variety of training modes (contemporary, ballet, and rehearsal). RESULTS: The overall correlation between individual session-RPE and Edwards-TL was r=0.72, p<0.0001, suggesting there was a statistically significantly strong positive relationship between session-RPE and Edwards-TL. This trend was observed across all the training modes: rehearsal sessions (r=0.74, p=0.001), contemporary (r=0.60, p=0.001), and ballet (r=0.46, p=0.018) sessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that session-RPE can be considered as a valid method to assess ITL for vocational dance students, and that notably there is some variation between session-RPE and HR-based TL in different dance activities. Med Probl Perform Art 2019;34(1):1–5.
  • Functional responses of uremic single skeletal muscle fibers to redox imbalances

    Mitrou, G.I.; Poulianiti, K.P.; Koutedakis, Y.; Jamurtas, A.Z.; Maridaki, M.D.; Stefanidis, I.; Sakkas, G.K.; Karatzaferi, C. (PMC, 2017-01-22)
    BACKGROUND: The exact causes of skeletal muscle weakness in chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain unknown with uremic toxicity and redox imbalances being implicated. To understand whether uremic muscle has acquired any sensitivity to acute redox changes we examined the effects of redox disturbances on force generation capacity. METHODS: Permeabilized single psoas fibers (N =37) from surgically induced CKD (UREM) and sham-operated (CON) rabbits were exposed to an oxidizing (10 mM Hydrogen Peroxide, H2O2) and/or a reducing [10 mM Dithiothreitol (DTT)] agent, in a blind design, in two sets of experiments examining: A) the acute effect of the addition of H2O2 on maximal (pCa 4.4) isometric force of actively contracting fibers and the effect of incubation in DTT on subsequent re-activation and force recovery (N =9 CON; N =9 UREM fibers); B) the effect of incubation in H2O2 on both submaximal (pCa 6.2) and maximal (pCa 4.4) calcium activated isometric force generation (N =9 CON; N =10 UREM fibers). RESULTS: Based on cross-sectional area (CSA) calculations, a 14 % atrophy in UREM fibers was revealed; thus forces were evaluated in absolute values and corrected for CSA (specific force) values. A) Addition of H2O2 during activation did not significantly affect force generation in any group or the pool of fibers. Incubation in DTT did not affect the CON fibers but caused a 12 % maximal isometric force decrease in UREM fibers (both in absolute force p =0.024, and specific force, p =0.027). B) Incubation in H2O2 during relaxation lowered subsequent maximal (but not submaximal) isometric forces in the Pool of fibers by 3.5 % (for absolute force p =0.033, for specific force p =0.019) but not in the fiber groups separately. CONCLUSIONS: Force generation capacity of CON and UREM fibers is affected by oxidation similarly. However, DTT significantly lowered force in UREM muscle fibers. This may indicate that at baseline UREM muscle could have already been at a more reduced redox state than physiological. This observation warrants further investigation as it could be linked to disease-induced effects.

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