Now showing items 1-20 of 479

    • The Ends of Art (curated by Euripides Altintzoglou)

      Altintzoglou, Euripides; Altintzoglou, Euripides; Abernethy, Jim; Bracey, Andrew; Cornford & Cross; Kelland, Dean; Kossoff, Adam; Timberlake, John; Payne, Alistair; Dalgleish, Mat (2013-07-05)
      From Marius de Zayas to David Rabinowitch Richard Huelsenbeck and, and from Arthur Danto to David Kuspit art is declared dead every time it goes through a critical stage in its course of development. Post-modern stylistic plurality posed as the end of art history but recently relational aesthetics placed Pluralism under dispute and in doing so signaled the dawn of a new era. Instead of joining conservative historians in a post-apocalyptic religiosity about the loss of all that was great in art we need to turn to critical self-reflective strategies that echo the spirit of conceptualism. The intention of this group of works is not to simply demonstrate ways by which there can be art after the ‘end of art’ and thus to seek for means to satisfy Arthur Danto’s uncertainty about the future of art after Plurality by sustaining a purist approach to art history. Rather, each work included in the Ends of Art deals solely with the nature of a given discipline through another and, thus investigates the potential for an even more radical and thorough process of examination of the changing nature of art through interdisciplinarity; expanding the field of each discipline is the methodology of this exhibition, not the aim. At the core of this methodology is the intention to eradicate the last remaining traces of humanism in art history: the dissolution of distinct art disciplines for the means of theoretical analysis.
    • The critical invariant: Avant-garde and change

      Altintzoglou, Evripidis (Intellect, 2018-12-01)
      ‘Change’ is the locus of the avant-garde’s revolutionary character. Historical claims and contemporary theorizations of the avant-garde enforce methodological distinctions between radical and conforming attitudes that fluctuate according to existing political agendas. This process of instrumentalization renders the avantgarde susceptible to the conformity of institutionalization. More importantly it prescribes the avant-garde with a subservient role that controls its operational means and deflates its capacity to produce politics. What is to be done, if the avant-garde achieves its goal for socio-political change? Are we to abandon the spirit of critical reflection and surrender to the conditions of the next system? How can there be an avant-garde after capitalism if its ends are solely confined in the substitution of one system with another? This article traces out this problem, assessing what kind of emancipatory potential we might expect, or hope for, from a post-capitalist avant-garde, by advancing a critical examination of recent theories of political subjectivity, the dialectics of change and the reconciliation of the institution.
    • Feeling the beat where it counts: fostering multi-limb rhythm skills with the haptic drum kit

      Holland, Simon; Bouwer, Anders J; Dalgelish, Mathew; Hurtig, Topi M (ACM Press, 2010)
      This paper introduces a tool known as the Haptic Drum Kit, which employs four computer-controlled vibrotactile devices, one attached to each wrist and ankle. In the applications discussed here, haptic pulses are used to guide the playing, on a drum kit, of rhythmic patterns that require multi-limb co-ordination. The immediate aim is to foster rhythm skills and multi-limb coordination. A broader aim is to systematically develop skills in recognizing, identifying, memorizing, retaining, analyzing, reproducing, and composing polyphonic rhythms. We consider the implications of three different theories for this approach: the work of the music educator Dalcroze (1865-1950 [1]; the entrainment theory of human rhythm perception and production [2,3]; and sensory motor contingency theory [4]. In this paper we report on a design study; and identify and discuss a variety of emerging design issues. The study demonstrates that beginning drummers are able to learn intricate drum patterns from haptic stimuli alone.
    • POSTRUM: Developing good posture in trumpet players through directional haptic feedback

      Dalgleish, Mathew; Spencer, Steve (Society for Interdisciplinary Musicology (SIM), 2014-12-04)
      The literature of brass pedagogy has identified the typical posture problems found in trumpet players and arrived at a consensus regarding optimal body alignment. The suggestion is that poor posture may not only hinder performance but also lead to longterm injuries. This is supported by a growing body of evidence from fields as diverse as biomechanics and pervasive healthcare. After a review of the literature, we focus on the design process used to develop Postrum; a wearable system for trumpet players that uses real-time haptic feedback to encourage better posture. In response to the multifaceted nature of the activity, the design process combines two aspects from different fields: the ‘sketching in hardware’ approach developed by Moussette and Dore in the context of Interaction Design (IxD), and sensing technologies from the New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) field. We follow this with a brief overview of the Postrum system. This includes a 3D camera, custom software that compares the posture of the player to an idealized model, and two vibrotactile arrays mounted on the torso. Three different types of problem can be detected, their categories based on the literature. If player posture deviates from the ideal, haptic feedback is applied. Directional pulses used to indicate the corrective action needed. Finally, we offer some remarks about our experiences in relation to player engagement and performance, discuss emerging design issues, and outline implications for what Hochenbaum and Kapur term the ‘practice room of the future.’
    • Drums sound in Hackensack: Agnes de Mille and the Jooss Ballet

      Lidbury, Clare (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      In 1941 Agnes de Mille created Drums Sound in Hackensack for the Jooss Ballet. There is no film of the work and few photographs but the work is documented in her choreographic notes, letters to and from de Mille, dancers’ recollections, and reviews. From these can be learned why and how de Mille created the work, what it was like, and why it was significant to the Jooss Ballet. With its American theme, historical setting, dream sequence, and a female character at the center of the work it may be seen as a forgotten stepping stone in de Mille’s choreographic development.
    • MAMIC goes live: a music programming system for non-specialist delivery

      Dalgleish, Mathew; Payne, Chris; Hepworth-Sawyer, Russ; Hodgson, Jay; Paterson, Justin; Toulson, Rob (CRC Press, 2019-06-21)
      The computing curriculum in England has shifted from “software training” to a model where children learn to code as a way of understanding underlying principles. This has created challenges for primary school teaching practitioners, many of whom require upskilling. The Music And Math In Collaboration (MAMIC) project addresses these issues via a custom library for the Pure Data (Pd) visual programming environment that interconnects key musical, mathematical and coding concepts within a unified environment that is able to be delivered by non-specialist teachers. Initial findings from deployment “in the wild” (i.e. in situ) are presented and future work is discussed.
    • Song Walker: Embodied interaction design for harmony

      Dalgleish, Mathew; Holland, Simon; Bouwer, Anders (British Computing Society (BCS), 2011-07-04)
      Tonal Harmony is widely considered to be the most technical and complex part of music theory, and harmonic skills can be hard to acquire. Experience of the precise and flexible manipulation of harmony in real time generally requires hard-won instrumental skill. Even with instrumental skills, it can be hard to gain clear insight into harmonic abstractions. The above state of affairs gives rise to substantial barriers not only for beginners but also for many musicians. To address these problems, Harmony Space [Holland et al, 2009] is an interactive digital music system designed to give insight into a wide range of musical tasks in tonal harmony ranging from performance and composition to analysis. Harmony Space employs a principled set of spatial mappings to offer fluid, precise, intuitive control of harmony. These mappings give rise to sensory-motor, music-theoretic and information-theoretic affordances that are not readily obtainable in any other way. The result is that a wide range of harmonic abstractions are rendered amenable to concrete, visible manipulation by simple spatial means. In the language of conceptual metaphor theory, most relationships in tonal harmony become accessible, to rapid, universal, low-level, robust human inference mechanisms using image schema, such as containment, contact, centre-periphery, and source-path-goal, in place of slow, abstract symbolic reasoning. While keeping the above principles invariant, different versions of Harmony Space have been designed to exploit different detailed interaction styles for different purposes. We note some key variants, such as the desktop version [Holland, 1994], the camera tracked version [Holland et al., 2009], and the most recent whole body version, Song Walker [Holland et al., 2011]. Preliminary results from a recent study of the Song Walker system are outlined, in which both beginners and expert musicians undertook a range of solo and collaborative musical tasks involving the performance, composition and analysis of music. Finally, we offer a discussion of the limitations of the current system, and outline directions for future work.
    • The haptic iPod: passive learning of multi-limb rhythm skills

      Dalgleish, Mathew; Holland, Simon; Bouwer, Anders (British Computing Society (BCS), 2011-07-04)
      Recent experiments showed that the use of haptic vibrotactile devices can support the learning of multi-limb rhythms [Holland et al., 2010]. These experiments centred on a tool called the Haptic Drum Kit, which uses vibrotactiles attached to wrists and ankles, together with a computer system that controls them, and a midi drum kit. The system uses haptic signals in real time, relying on human entrainment mechanisms [Clayton, Sager and Will, 2004] rather than stimulus response, to support the user in playing multi-limbed rhythms. In the present paper, we give a preliminary report on a new experiment, that aims to examine whether passive learning of multi-limb rhythms can occur through the silent playback of rhythmic stimuli via haptics when the subject is focusing on other tasks. The prototype system used for this new experiment is referred to as the Haptic iPod.
    • Whole body interaction in abstract domains

      Holland, Simon; Wilkie, Katie; Bouwer, Anders; Dalgleish, Mat; Mulholland, Paul; England, David; England, David (Springer Verlag, 2011)
      Whole Body Interaction appears to be a good fit of interaction style for some categories of application domain, such as the motion capture of gestures for computer games and virtual physical sports. However, the suitability of whole body interaction for more abstract application domains is less apparent, and the creation of appropriate whole body interaction designs for complex abstract areas such as mathematics, programming and musical harmony remains challenging. We argue, illustrated by a detailed case study, that conceptual metaphor theory and sensory motor contingency theory offer analytic and synthetic tools whereby whole body interaction can in principle be applied usefully to arbitrary abstract application domains. We present the case study of a whole body interaction system for a highly abstract application area, tonal harmony in music. We demonstrate ways in which whole body interaction offers strong affordances for action and insight in this domain when appropriate conceptual metaphors are harnessed in the design. We outline how this approach can be applied to abstract domains in general, and discuss its limitations.
    • Postrum II: a posture aid for trumpet players

      Dalgleish, Mathew; Spencer, Steve; Payne, Christopher (Linux Audio Conference, 2015-04-09)
      While brass pedagogy has traditionally focussed on sound output, the importance of bodily posture to both short-term performance and longer-term injury prevention is now widely recognized. Postrum II is a Linux-based system for trumpet players that performs real-time analysis of posture and uses a combination of visual and haptic feedback to try to correct any posture issues that are found. Issues underpinning the design of the system are discussed, the transition from Mac OS X to Ubuntu detailed, and some possibilities for future work suggested.
    • Well-making: co-building pathways for empathy

      Hackney, Fiona (AHRC, 2018-04-14)
      This one day interactive workshop at the Wellcome Collection in London 2017 explored new research on inclusive design and empathy with a particular focus on how maker spaces might be better understood as ‘well-making spaces’: spaces of empathy that promote health and wellbeing. The event included a keynote by Professor Lizbeth Goodman, Chair of Creative Technology Innovation at University College Dublin, founder/director of the SMARTlab and MAGIC (Multimedia and Games Innovation Centre) about her international research and current European Horizon 2020 project. Other participants included, among others: Simon Duncan (Boing Boing: Resilience Research and Practice), Dr Anni Raw (School of Applied Social Sciences, University of Durham), Mah Rana (Artist and research student University College London), Jayne Howard (Director Arts Well) and Karl Royale (Head of Enterprise and Commercial Development University of Wolverhampton), Ben Salter (Course Leader Interior Design Norwich University of the Arts), a diverse interdisciplinary group of designers and design researchers, arts and crafts practitioners, social scientists, arts for health organisations, community partners, and health researchers
    • Introduction: framing and reframing/existing ways of looking

      Whitfield, Sarah; Whitfield, Sarah (Macmillan International, 2019-03-13)
      In an art gallery, a painting hangs on a wall. I stop, my eye called to the painting by the wooden rectangle that separates out the bit of the wall that is ‘the art’ from the rest. The frame does the work of telling me ‘look here, not there, look at this bit. This is the bit that is art’. Even the paintings without frames are framed by the blank wall around them, so that the wall becomes its own kind of frame: ‘here is art and there is not-art’. Frames make a transition between two spaces, and shape the way we look at the art in the middle. The musical, while plainly another kind of art to a painting, has been framed in various ways that shape how it is ‘seen’ and understood. These frames may be what we bring with us, our personal histories of encounters with musicals, perhaps what we might have performed in or listened to before. Popular histories may shape how we put musicals in order, or categorise them: glossy coffee table books and TV histories illustrated with beautiful pictures of the so-called Golden Age era of musical. We may share cultural references to the musicals ‘that were always on the telly when we were growing up’. But just as significantly, critical theories and academic approaches to the musical do this work too. They shape the way the musical is taught in colleges and universities, and ripple out of academia more broadly, impacting how the form is seen and understood in public discourse.
    • An analysis of undergraduate motivations, perceptions of value and concerns in pursuing higher popular music performance education

      Hall, Rich (SAGE, 2019-04-11)
      The popular music performance undergraduate degree is a growing area within UK higher education. These courses carry a vocational emphasis and are popular with students looking to establish professional performing careers. As such, they are often marketed as an intermediary step towards this aspiration but, despite their popularity, there has been little critical review into their effectiveness. This article, based on doctoral research conducted by the author, draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 12 second- and third-year undergraduates studying popular music performance-based courses. The article presents data and analysis concerning the motivations for study, perceptions of vocational value and the concerns around establishing professional careers. Concerns across four key areas are identified: (a) issues of negative public perception; (b) problematic conceptions of the popular music industries (PMI); (c) the value of practical experience over and above qualifications; and (d) negative narratives concerning developments in digital technologies and their effect on career opportunities. Implications from the article include the need for higher education providers (HEPs) to challenge students’ misconceptions concerning professional careers in the new popular music industries.
    • Associations between balance ability and dance performance using field balance tests

      Clarke, Frances; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wilson, Margaret; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose: Although balance is a key element of dance, it remains to be confirmed which balance components are associated with dance performance. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between different balance field tests and dance performance in an in-house measure in ballet, contemporary and jazz genres. Methods: 83 female undergraduate dance students (20±1.5 years; 163.04±6.59 cm; 60.97±10.76 kg) were subjected to the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), the Airplane test, a dance-specific pirouette test, the modified Romberg test, and the BioSway Balance System (Biodex, USA). The results from these balance tests were compared to the participants’ technique and repertoire performance scores in ballet, contemporary, and jazz genres. Results: Ballet scores were best predicted by SEBT 90˚ and Romberg for technique (r = 0.4, p = 0.001, SEE ±2.49) and Romberg, SEBT 90˚, and SEBT 225˚ for repertoire (r = 0.51, p = 0.001, SEE±1.99). Contemporary data indicated SEBT 90˚ and Romberg for technique (r = 0.37, p = 0.001, SEE±2.67) and SEBT 225˚ for repertoire (r = 0.27, p = 0.015, SEE±2.29). Jazz indicated SEBT 90˚, Romberg, SEBT 315˚, and SEBT 225˚ for technique (r = 0.51, p = 0.001, SEE±2.28) and SEBT 225˚ and Romberg for repertoire (r = 0.41, p = 0.001, SEE±2.29). Conclusion: The present study suggests that balance ability has a limited influence on dance performance, with existing field balance tests demonstrating low to moderate associations with dance technique and repertoire.
    • Balance in theatrical dance performance: a systematic review

      Clarke, Frances; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wilson, Margaret; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine, 2018-12-01)
      AIM: Due to movement complexity and the use of interdisciplinary styles, all theatrical dance genres require dancers to have excellent balance skills to meet choreographic demands. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the experimental evidence for the relationship between balance and dance performance, including balance testing, balance training, and balance performance. The key focus was on balance and theatrical styles of dance, involving adult participants who were either in full-time dance training or professional dancers. METHODS: The databases MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health (CINAHL), SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH terms postural balance, balance, postural, musculoskeletal equilibrium, and postural equilibrium, and used in combination with dance, between 1980 and 2016. PRISMA recommendations were applied in modifications to the search terms. RESULTS: The initial search revealed 1,140 published articles. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 47 articles were judged to be relevant for further assessment using the GRADE system. Results revealed only 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT); the remaining articles were experimental without randomisation or pre-experimental, thus achieving low scores. A total of 39 articles focused on balance ability, including postural sway and control; 5 were related to multi-joint coordination; and 3 investigated laterality and balance. Female ballet dancers were the most studied population, while a wide range of measurement tools and balance tasks were employed. CONCLUSION: The available material on balance and dance performance is of rather low quality. There is a need for more RCTs and intervention balance studies.
    • Jack’s Jumper: designing a sensibility for sustainable clothing communities

      Hackney, Fiona; Hill, Katie; Saunders, Clare (IFFTI, 2019-12-31)
      Jack’s Jumper is a short film co-produced by an emergent community of participant researchers and film-makers R&A Collaborations as part of S4S Designing a Sensibility for Sustainable Clothing, an Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded research project. The need to improve the sustainability of fashion has been widely noted by academics (Black 2012; Fletcher 2008 and 2016), activist campaigns (Greenpeace and Fashion Revolution) and policy makers (Environmental Audit Committee Report on the Sustainability of the Fashion Industry, 2019). In this project the authors combine arts and social science methods, including film making, to develop a methodology for pro-environmental behaviour change and sustainable fashion through, literally and metaphorically, making a new relationship with clothes. The paper outlines the aims and purpose of the project and its methods, which include fashion design workshops designed to mimic phases of the lifecycle of clothing (making fibre and fabric, pattern cutting, mending, modifying, repurposing and clothes), films, wardrobe audits, clothing diaries and surveys. It focuses on the series of over twenty short films, including Jack’s Jumper, to consider how they might function not only as reflective devices for those involved in the project and emotional prompts for future action, but also as an affective means of building and developing a sustainable fashion sensibility among wider audiences, and the role of aesthetics and emotion in this. As such, we argue that creative participatory fashion design practices are potentially an important tool for generating a sensibility of sustainability and therefore for informing policy on behaviour change.
    • Tools for interpreters: the challenges that lie ahead

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria (University of Helsinki, 2018-12-31)
      This paper intends to outline the state of the art of language tools applied to interpreting and discusses the challenges and new opportunities ahead. Unlike translators, interpreters have rarely benefited from language technologies and tools to make their work more efficient. However, nowadays there are some tools and resources already available. Computer-assisted interpreting (CAI) represents a significant new trend for the profession. While CAI tools will definitely reshape interpreters’ work conditions, new skills for the related job profiles will also bring dramatic changes to the training agenda.
    • Simple or not simple? A readability question

      Sjaner, Sanja; Mitkov, Ruslan; Corpas Pastor, Gloria (Springer, 2014-11-12)
      Text Simplification (TS) has taken off as an important Natural Language Processing (NLP) application which promises to offer a significant societal impact in that it can be employed to the benefit of users with limited language comprehension skills such as children, foreigners who do not have a good command of a language, and readers struggling with a language disability. With the recent emergence of various TS systems, the question we are faced with is how to automatically evaluate their performance given that access to target users might be difficult. This chapter addresses one aspect of this issue by exploring whether existing readability formulae could be applied to assess the level of simplification offered by a TS system. It focuses on three readability indices for Spanish. The indices are first adapted in a way that allows them to be computed automatically and then applied to two corpora of original and manually simplified texts. The first corpus has been compiled as part of the Simplext project targeting people with Down syndrom, and the second corpus as part of the FIRST project, where the users are people with autism spectrum disorder. The experiments show that there is a significant correlation between each of the readability indices and eighteen linguistically motivated features which might be seen as reading obstacles for various target populations, thus indicating the possibility of using those indices as a measure of the degree of simplification achieved by TS systems. Various ways they can be used in TS are further illustrated by comparing their values when applied to four different corpora.
    • Measuring post-editing time and effort for different types of machine translation errors

      Zaretskaya, Anna; Vela, Mihaela; Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Seghiri, Miriam (International Association for Translation and Intercultural Studies, 2016-01-01)
      Post-editing (PE) of machine translation (MT) is becoming more and more common in the professional translation setting. However, many users refuse to employ MT due to bad quality of the output it provides and even reject post-editing job offers. This can change by improving MT quality from the point of view of the PE process. This article investigates different types of MT errors and the difficulties they pose for PE in terms of post-editing time and technical effort. For the experiment we used English to German translations performed by MT engines. The errors were previously annotated using the MQM scheme for error annotation. The sentences were post-edited by students in translation. The experiment allowed us to make observations about the relation between technical and temporal PE effort, as well as to discover the types of errors that are more challenging for PE.