• Resisting a “digital green revolution”: agri-logistics, India’s new farm laws and the regional politics of protest

      Singh, Tanya; Singh, Pritam; Dhanda, Meena (Taylor & Francis, 2021-07-27)
      Recent laws introduced by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led government aim to centralise India’s federal structure, for the goal of a unified (Hindu) national market, and to corporatise its agro-food system at the expense of smallholder farming and small-scale trade. These laws are being challenged by mass mobilisations led by farmers’ unions from northwestern states—once-booming agricultural regions where, in recent decades and in the aftershocks of the Green Revolution, agrarian suicides have become endemic. The roots of this catastrophe are rapid marketisation in the 1960s (installing monocropping dependent on petrochemical inputs, destroying local agroecology) followed by post-1980s neoliberalism (with highly inequitable contract farming, alongside defunding of public infrastructure). Farmers and labourers now face interwoven crises of social reproduction—ecological depletion, precarisation, and chronic indebtedness, with no post-agricultural future in sight. The new laws claim to redress this by employing populist rhetoric against “exploitative middlemen”; in reality, markets are re-regulated in favour of large export-oriented agribusiness, thereby endangering food security, livelihoods and climate. The laws also herald digitalisation in agriculture and retail—further subsuming smallholders into productivist, financialised and outsourced logics. Their promulgation has triggered substantial FDI from global Big Tech, including Facebook and Google, aided by Indian conglomerates with close ties to the BJP built during PM Narendra Modi’s prior tenure as Chief Minister of Gujarat. This paper details the above and concludes by contextualising the ongoing protest movement. We focus on southern Punjab, a region that has suffered acute crises of health and ecology, as well as violent political conflict and state repression. Decades of left-wing rural union activity in this region, fighting debt and dispossession as well as in support of anticaste land struggles, have laid the organisational groundwork for hopeful new political trajectories, including potentials for grassroots red-green coalitions centring women and landless labourers.
    • Kantian guilt

      Satne, Paula (De Gruyter, 2021-10-25)
    • Introduction

      Satne, Paula; Scheiter, Krisanna; Satne, Paula; Scheiter, Krisanna (Springer, 2021-10-10)
    • La ética de la memoria: una perspectiva Kantiana

      Satne, Paula; Sanchez Madrid, Nuria; Villacañas, José Luis; Muñoz, Julia (Peter Lang, 2021-07-05)
      In this article, I address the issue of whether we have an obligation to remember past immoral actions. My central question is: are we oblige to remember past moral transgressions? I address this central question through three more specific questions. In the first section, I enquiry whether we have an obligation to remember our own past transgressions. In the second section, I ask whether we have an obligation to remember the wrongful actions that others have committed against ourselves. In the last section, I investigate whether we have a duty to remember the suffering of victims of crimes that have a political aspect, crimes such as state violence, oppression and racial discrimination, for example.
    • Does past experience effect balance in older women: a cross-sectional study comparing retired dancers and age-matched controls?

      Wyon, Matthew; Reeve, Eileen; Ambegaonkar, Jatin; Cloak, Ross; Clarke, Frances; Davies, Paul (Springer Nature, 2021-05-24)
      Background: Falls are increasing prevalent in the elderly but little data has been reported on the effect of previous life experience on balance ability. Aims: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine whether participants with historically highly developed postural control (retired dancers) provided protection after activity had stopped by comparing their balance abilities with age-matched sedentary counterparts. Methods: Ten retired dancers [RD] 65 ±7.36yrs and 10 sedentary controls[C] 66 ±5.66yrs carried out a series of balance tests in a laboratory setting in a set order: Romberg, Functional Reach, Timed Up and Go, Berg and Tinetti. Results: The RD group performed significantly better solely in the static balance tests (Romberg and Berg Balance) (p<0.05). Therefore, past exercise history of the individual possibly needs to be considered when selecting a balance test battery with a need to use tests that have multiple constructs of balance. Conclusion: The RD group performed significantly better at static balance tests suggesting a possible skill retention from their dance careers
    • Anti-establishment language humour and creativity in the Czech-speaking lands, 1938 to 1989

      Dickins, Tom (Modern Humanities Research Association, 2021-04-23)
      This article addresses a phenomenon that has been downplayed (especially in publications aimed at non-Czech speakers) — anti-establishment language humour and creativity in the Czech-speaking lands from 1938 to 1989. The study begins with a discussion of the motivation behind the humour and wordplay, with particular reference to their linguistic and comedic functions. This is followed by an examination of the principal themes and targets of the humour, or its message(s). A distinction is drawn here between anti-German humour, which sought to defend Czech identity, and humour critical of Communism, which was aimed mainly at political reform. In the final and longest section, the focus switches to the medium of the humour, which is analysed in detail under two defining headings: metalinguistic playfulness, and intertextual and encoded referents. In conclusion, the article stresses, inter alia, the symbolic importance of the anti-regime humour as a means of subversion, and the pleasure and solace that people took from it, both as a form of escapism and as an aesthetic experience.
    • Kathryn Bigelow: new action realist

      Gaine, Vincent M. (Routledge, 2021-12-31)
      This article argues that Kathryn Bigelow is an auteur of new action realism, a distinct sub-genre within contemporary action cinema. As a new action realist, Bigelow and her collaborators create films that feature unresolved narratives and an aesthetic characterised by claustrophobic immediacy and obscuration. Through discussion of theory, genre, narrative and style in The Hurt Locker (2008) and Zero Dark Thirty (2012), I argue that, as a new action realist, Bigelow problematises notions of film realism. Bigelow’s work brings the viewer into intimate and sometimes uncomfortable proximity with the violent action depicted onscreen, this proximity being a key feature of new action realism. The presentation is explicit and sudden, the graphic presentation creating a discomforting nearness which is partially created through immediacy. Such imagery, particularly evident in The Hurt Locker and Zero Dark Thirty, echoes footage captured by military personnel, news reporters and civilians on portable cameras and smart phones, recalling news reports of 9/11 and similar reports of crisis. With this aesthetic of intimacy and immediacy, Bigelow’s new action realism hints at as much as it explicitly presents. This incomplete visual display imbues her films with a sense of confusion and hopelessness and consequently presents a world of fear and paranoia that is simultaneously familiar and unfamiliar, captured by and yet obscured by its medium.
    • Between man and machine: the liminal superhero body

      Gaine, Vincent M. (Routledge, 2021-04-02)
      This article discusses the liminal bodies of superheroes in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, with a focus upon the blending of the biological and the technological. The article covers the commercial and aesthetic logic of contemporary Hollywood cinema, engaging with discourses around embodiment and digital effects as well as the relationship between visual text and viewer. Furthermore, the article identifies the Marvel franchise’s exploration of the politics of social identity and technology, an exploration that is played out over the superhero bodies.
    • Sway of the sea: Kathryn Bigelow's imperial eco-eschatology

      Halligan, Benjamin (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-31)
      In a 2013 public letter to Bigelow, which concerned Zero Dark Thirty, Naomi Wolf wrote: ‘Like Riefenstahl, you are a great artist. But now you will be remembered forever as torture’s handmaiden’. This essay will expand on this condemnatory Riefenstahl/Bigelow association - but not through a straight likening of Riefenstahl’s exaltation of the Nazi Party in Triumph of the Will to Bigelow’s apologetics for torture in the ‘War on Terror’. Rather, the concern will be that of aesthetics in relation to landscapes and ecology, that is, the parallel is to Riefenstahl of her earlier ‘Mountain Films’ period. Bigelow, at times, reaches for a feminised, New Age mysticism through which her characters are momentarily lifted out of their mundane earthly concerns to commune with the wider universe. And it is this wider universe which seems the ultimate arbitrator of their actions, rather than any (Geneva-based) concerns around human rights. Thus different paths to psychic fulfilment seem to determine Point Break, or the idea of the restless spirit against the failings of the Repressive State Apparatus in Zero Dark Thirty, or soul against the system in Detroit. And thus, and most tellingly, in Last Days of Ivory, Bigelow advocates for military action against African tribal people in the name of conservation, on the grounds (soon revealed to be highly questionable) that the illegal ivory trade funds the terrorist group, Al-Shabaab. The crudity of Bigelow’s propaganda in Last Days of Ivory, which chimed with Hillary Clinton's position on the same (a greenwashed liberal interventionism) is lent the approval of elephants, and of the wider ecology, in Bigelow's film. In the same way that Riefenstahl once repurposed German Romanticism for a sequence of Hitler descending from the clouds as the saviour of Germany from its enemies, Bigelow reworks such Romanticism in the name of the ‘white woman’s burden’: the Western imperial feminist speaks out on the part of the oppressed, and summons the ecosphere as her witness.
    • The vile eastern European: ideology of deportability in the British media discourse

      Radziwinowiczowna, Agnieszka; Galasinska, Aleksandra (Centre of Migration Research, University of Warsaw and the Polish Academy of Sciences, 2021-03-31)
      Pre-Brexit media discourse in the UK focused extensively on the end of free movement, the governance of European mobility, and its relationship with state sovereignty. This article, methodologically anchored in Critical Discourse Analysis, discusses how the potential post-Brexit deportee, namely the ‘Vile Eastern European’, is depicted by the leading pro-Leave British press. The Vile Eastern European is juxtaposed with a minority of hard-working and tax-paying migrants from the continent, as well as with unjustly deported Windrush and Commonwealth migrants. As the newspapers explain, the UK has not been able to deport the Vile Eastern European because of the EU free movement rights. The press links the UK’s inability to remove the unwanted citizens of EU countries with its lack of sovereignty, suggesting that only new immigration regulations will permit this deportation and make the UK sovereign again. The article concludes that the media discourse reproduces and co-produces the UK ideology of deportability that has been the basis for the EU Settlement Scheme and new immigration regulations.
    • 'What About Love?': claiming and re-claiming LGBTQ+ spaces in 21st century musical theatre

      Lovelock, James; Whitfield, Sarah (Red Globe Press, 2019-03-08)
    • Injury incidence and severity in pre-professional musical theatre dancers: a 5-year prospective study

      Stephens, Nicola; Nevill, Alan; Wyon, Matthew (Thieme, 2021-06-07)
      Dance injury research has mainly focused on ballet and modern dance with little data on musical theatre dancers. The purpose was to assess the incidence and severity of injuries in a musical theatre dance college over a 5-year period; 198 pre-professional musical theatre dancers (3 cohorts on a 3-year training course) volunteered for the study; 21 students left the course over the study period. Injury aetiology data were collected by an in-house physiotherapy team. Differences between academic year and sex were analysed using a Poisson distribution model; significant difference was set at p≤0.05. In total 913 injuries were recorded, more injuries occurred in academic year 1 than year 2 and 3. Overall injury incidence was 1.46 injuries per 1000 hours (95%CI 1.34, 1.56); incidence significantly decreased between year 1, 2 and 3 (p<0.05). There was no significant sex difference for incidence or severity. Most injuries were classified as overuse (71% female, 67% male). Pre-professional musical theatre dancers report a high proportion of lower limb and overuse injuries that is comparable to other dance genres. Unlike other studies on pre-professional dancers; injury incidence and severity decreased with academic year, even though workload increased across the course.
    • Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match

      Draganidis, D; Chatzinikolaou, A; Avloniti, A; Barbero-Álvarez, JC; Mohr, M; Malliou, P; Gourgoulis, V; Deli, CK; Douroudos, II; Margonis, K; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2015-06-04)
      We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05) at 12h (both limbs) and 36h (dominant limb only), b) eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05) in both limbs for 36h at 60°/s and for 60h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05) reduction than concentric peak torque, c) strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05) at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d) the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical conditioning level.
    • Age-related responses in circulating markers of redox status in healthy adolescents and adults during the course of a training macrocycle

      Zalavras, A; Fatouros, IG; Deli, CK; Draganidis, D; Theodorou, AA; Soulas, D; Koutsioras, Y; Koutedakis, Y; Jamurtas, AZ; Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, 42100 Trikala, Greece. (Hindawi Limited, 2015-04-06)
      Redox status changes during an annual training cycle in young and adult track and field athletes and possible differences between the two age groups were assessed. Forty-six individuals (24 children and 22 adults) were assigned to four groups: trained adolescents, (TAD, N=13), untrained adolescents (UAD, N=11), trained adults (TA, N=12), and untrained adults (UA, N=10). Aerobic capacity and redox status related variables [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity, TBARS, protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid, and bilirubin] were assessed at rest and in response to a time-trial bout before training, at mid- and posttraining. TAC, catalase activity, TBARS, PC, uric acid, and bilirubin increased and GSH declined in all groups in response to acute exercise independent of training status and age. Training improved aerobic capacity, TAC, and GSH at rest and in response to exercise. Age affected basal and exercise-induced responses since adults demonstrated a greater TAC and GSH levels at rest and a greater rise of TBARS, protein carbonyls, and TAC and decline of GSH in response to exercise. Catalase activity, uric acid, and bilirubin responses were comparable among groups. These results suggest that acute exercise, age, and training modulate the antioxidant reserves of the body.
    • Uremic myopathy: Is oxidative stress implicated in muscle dysfunction in uremia?

      Kaltsatou, A; Sakkas, GK; Poulianiti, KP; Koutedakis, Y; Tepetes, K; Christodoulidis, G; Stefanidis, I; Karatzaferi, C; Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences (DPESS), School of Physical Education (PE), University of Thessaly Trikala, Greece. (Frontiers Media SA, 2015-03-30)
      Renal failure is accompanied by progressive muscle weakness and premature fatigue, in part linked to hypokinesis and in part to uremic toxicity. These changes are associated with various detrimental biochemical and morphological alterations. All of these pathological parameters are collectively termed uremic myopathy. Various interventions while helpful can't fully remedy the pathological phenotype. Complex mechanisms that stimulate muscle dysfunction in uremia have been proposed, and oxidative stress could be implicated. Skeletal muscles continuously produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) at rest and more so during contraction. The aim of this mini review is to provide an update on recent advances in our understanding of how ROS and RNS generation might contribute to muscle dysfunction in uremia. Thus, a systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and Scopus by using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. While few studies met our criteria their findings are discussed making reference to other available literature data. Oxidative stress can direct muscle cells into a catabolic state and chronic exposure to it leads to wasting. Moreover, redox disturbances can significantly affect force production per se. We conclude that oxidative stress can be in part responsible for some aspects of uremic myopathy. Further research is needed to discern clear mechanisms and to help efforts to counteract muscle weakness and exercise intolerance in uremic patients.
    • Fostering autonomous motivation, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in rheumatoid arthritis: Protocol and rationale for a randomised control trial

      Rouse, PC; van Zanten, JJCSV; Metsios, GS; Ntoumanis, N; Yu, CA; Koutedakis, Y; Fenton, SAM; Coast, J; Mistry, H; Kitas, GD; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2014-12-19)
      © 2014 Rouse et al. Background: People with rheumatoid arthritis are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease than the general population. Sustained physical activity increases cardio-respiratory fitness and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, little is known about how we can effectively promote long-term participation in physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The literature consistently calls for physical activity interventions, and their implementation, to be theoretically-grounded. Methods/Design: This paper documents the protocol of a randomised control trial that investigates whether a Self-determination Theory-based intervention fosters the adoption and maintenance of physical activity (3, 6 and 12 months) sufficient to provide sustained cardiovascular and personal well-being benefits in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be determined. The trial is registered as Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN04121489. Discussion: Results from this trial will provide guidance regarding key social environmental factors that can be manipulated to support motivational processes conducive to positive health behaviour change and optimal functioning in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
    • Glycemic response of a carbohydrate-protein bar with ewe-goat whey

      Manthou, E; Kanaki, M; Georgakouli, K; Deli, CK; Kouretas, D; Koutedakis, Y; Jamurtas, AZ; Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Karditsa 43100, Greece. eirinimanthou@yahoo.gr. (MDPI, 2014-06-12)
      In this study we examined the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of a functional food product, which contains ewe-goat whey protein and carbohydrates in a 1:1 ratio. Nine healthy volunteers, (age, 23.3 ± 3.9 years; body mass index, 24.2 ± 4.1 kg·m2; body fat %, 18.6 ± 10.0) randomly consumed either a reference food or amount of the test food both with equal carbohydrate content in two visits. In each visit, seven blood samples were collected; the first sample after an overnight fast and the remaining six at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the beginning of food consumption. Plasma glucose concentration was measured and the GI was determined by calculation of the incremental area under the curve. The GL was calculated using the equation: test food GI/100 g available carbohydrates per test food serving. The GI of the test food was found to be 5.18 ± 3.27, while the GL of one test food serving was 1.09 ± 0.68. These results indicate that the tested product can be classified as a low GI (<55) and low GL (<10) food. Given the health benefits of low glycaemic response foods and whey protein consumption, the tested food could potentially promote health beyond basic nutrition.
    • Instruments to assess secondhand smoke exposure in large cohorts of never smokers: The smoke scales

      Misailidi, M; Tzatzarakis, MN; Kavvalakis, MP; Koutedakis, Y; Tsatsakis, AM; Flouris, AD; FAME Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Trikala, Greece ; Department of Exercise Sciences, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece ; Regional Directorate of Primary and Secondary Education of Western Greece, Patras, Greece. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2014-01-21)
      The objectives of this study were to: (i) to develop questionnaires that can identify never-smoking children and adults experiencing increased exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS+), (ii) to determine their validity against hair nicotine, and (iii) assess their reliability. A sample of 191 children (85 males; 106 females; 7-18 years) and 95 adult (23 males; 72 females; 18- 62 years) never-smokers consented to hair nicotine analysis and answered a large number of questions assessing all sources of SHS. A randomly-selected 30% answered the questions again after 20-30 days. Prevalence of SHS+ in children and adults was 0.52±0.07 and 0.67±0.10, respectively (p<0.05). The Smoke Scale for Children (SS-C) and the Smoke Scale for Adults (SS-A) were developed via factor analysis and included nine questions each. Positivity criteria for SS-C and SS-A via receiver operating characteristics curve analysis were identified at >16.5 and >16, respectively. Significant Kappa agreement (p<0.05) was confirmed when comparing the SS-C and SS-A to hair nicotine concentration. Reliability analyses demonstrated that the SS-C and SS-A scores obtained on two different days are highly correlated (p<0.001) and not significantly different (p>0.05). Area under the curve and McNemar's Chi-square showed no pair-wise differences in sensitivity and specificity at the cutoff point between the two different days for SS-C and SS-A (p>0.05). We conclude that the SS-C and the SS-A represent valid, reliable, practical, and inexpensive instruments to identify children and adult never-smokers exposed to increased SHS. Future research should aim to further increase the validity of the two questionnaires. © 2014 Misailidi et al.
    • Evidence of increased muscle atrophy and impaired quality of life parameters in patients with Uremic restless legs syndrome

      Giannaki, CD; Sakkas, GK; Karatzaferi, C; Hadjigeorgiou, GM; Lavdas, E; Liakopoulos, V; Tsianas, N; Koukoulis, GN; Koutedakis, Y; Stefanidis, I; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2011-10-03)
      Background: Restless Legs Syndrome is a very common disorder in hemodialysis patients. Restless Legs Syndrome negatively affects quality of life; however it is not clear whether this is due to mental or physical parameters and whether an association exists between the syndrome and parameters affecting survival. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using the Restless Legs Syndrome criteria and the presence of Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep (PLMS/h >15), 70 clinically stable hemodialysis patients were assessed and divided into the RLS (n = 30) and non-RLS (n = 40) groups. Physical performance was evaluated by a battery of tests: body composition by dual energy X ray absorptiometry, muscle size and composition by computer tomography, while depression symptoms, perception of sleep quality and quality of life were assessed through validated questionnaires. In this cross sectional analysis, the RLS group showed evidence of thigh muscle atrophy compared to the non-RLS group. Sleep quality and depression score were found to be significantly impaired in the RLS group. The mental component of the quality of life questionnaire appeared significantly diminished in the RLS group, reducing thus the overall quality of life score. In contrast, there were no significant differences between groups in any of the physical performance tests, body and muscle composition. Conclusions: The low level of quality of life reported by the HD patients with Restless Legs Syndrome seems to be due mainly to mental health and sleep related aspects. Increased evidence of muscle atrophy is also observed in the RLS group and possibly can be attributed to the lack of restorative sleep. © 2011 Giannaki et al.