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Browning formation markers of subcutaneous adipose tissue in relation to resting energy expenditure, physical activity and diet in humansDinas, PC; Valente, A; Granzotto, M; Rossato, M; Vettor, R; Zacharopoulou, A; Carrillo, AE; Davies, NA; Gkiata, P; Jamurtas, AZ; et al. (De Gruyter, 2017-07-05)© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston. Regular exercise and diet may contribute to white adipose tissue (WAT) conversion into a brown adipose-like phenotype that may increase resting energy expenditure (REE), leading to weight loss. We examined the relationship between REE, physical activity (PA) participation and diet with browning formation markers of subcutaneous WAT in healthy men. We assessed REE, diet and body composition of 32 healthy men [age (years): 36.06 ± 7.36, body mass index (BMI): 27.06 ± 4.62 (kg/m 2 )]. Participants also underwent measurements of PA [metabolic equivalent (MET)-min/week] using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), while they undertook a subcutaneous fat biopsy from the abdominal region to assess the mRNA expressions of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). We found no associations between the UCP1, PGC-1α, PPARα and PPARγ mRNAs with REE, PA levels and diet (p > 0.05). However, the PGC-1α, PPARα and PPARγ mRNAs were more expressed in individuals displaying moderate rather than low PA levels (p < 0.05). Furthermore, PGC-1α, PPARα and PPARγ mRNAs were negatively correlated with fat mass percentage (p < 0.05). PGC-1α and PPARα mRNAs were also negatively correlated with BMI, while PGC-1α mRNA was inversely associated with waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05). REE, PA levels and diet are not associated with browning formation indices of subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy adult men.