• Von der Gstättn nach Auschwitz. Jüdische Kinderzwangsarbeiter 1938-1945

      Steinert, Johannes-Dieter (Vienna Wiesenthal Institute for Holocaust Studies, 2019-12-10)
      This lecture is based on a research project that evaluated – alongside contemporary documents – over 500 autobiographical testimonies in which survivors of the Holocaust reported on their time under German occupation, on ghettos and camps, on the fates of their families, and on forced labour. Jewish children were forced to work in all sectors of industry, mining, and agriculture. They worked in the ghettos, in the concentration and extermination camps, and in the construction of motorways and railways, defensive fortifications, barracks, and airstrips. On the basis of a sample, the lecture traces an arc from the forced labour performed by Jewish children in the Viennese dump in 1938 to the Sonderkommando in Auschwitz. In summary, the lecture focuses on the attempts made in the personal testimonies to explain one’s own survival and the lifelong consequences of forced labour in the shadow of the Holocaust.
    • War graves and salvage: murky waters?

      Williams, Michael V. (Lawtext Publishing, 2000)
      Legal status of war graves contained in warships, background to debate, passing and operation of 1986 Act, restrictions on salvage, administrative policy and Ministry of Defence's attitude. (Legal Journals Index)
    • War in the Air 1903-1939

      Buckley, John (Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2000)
      This book: The history of 20th century warfare, from the strategies and tactics of World War One that had changed little since the Napoleonic Wars some one hundred years earlier, to the dawn of a new millenium where air power and advanced technology play a vital role in shaping future conflicts.
    • War-stained: British Combatants and Uniforms, 1914–18

      Ugolini, Laura (Taylor & Francis, 2014-08-05)
      Historians have long recognised the role of military uniforms in marking the transformation of civilians into servicemen. However, this was not a simple transition, completed the moment individuals put on service dress shortly after enlistment. Rather, the process of transformation continued throughout servicemen’s life in the military, reflecting changed circumstances that might include a move to a different war theatre, promotion or illness and injury. Focusing on the experiences of British soldiers during the First World War, this article explores the meanings of uniforms as servicemen were transformed from raw recruits into experienced combatants. It questions the extent to which the stained and worn uniforms that seemed the inevitable outcome of front line duty were seen as consistent with the manly heroism expected of soldiers, paying attention not only to the army authorities’ insistence on ‘spit and polish’, but especially to combatants’ perceptions of the effect of dirt on their own identities and sense of self. Thus, this article argues, the transformation into combatants involved potentially dangerous and degrading encounters with dirt and vermin, but also the development of strategies – centred on bodies and on uniforms – that sought to counter the threat of long-term harm and pollution.
    • Waterfronts and homes, 1900–1970

      Millar, Grace; Steel, Frances (Bridget Williams Books, 2018-11-30)
      When Kevin Ford was a child in the 1940s, his father worked as a watersider in Bluff. Each morning Kevin or his brother would get up early and walk up the road until they could see the harbour. If there was a ship in port their father would get up and go to work; if there was no ship he would sleep in.1 For most of the twentieth century, the vast majority of goods that came in or out of New Zealand were loaded and unloaded by watersiders like Kevin Ford’s father. Despite technological advances, the activities around shipping and ports were still shaped by the unpredictable oceanic environment, and as the Fords’ story demonstrates, the effects of the sea’s unpredictability did not stop at the port gate. Watersiders’ family members and their domestic spaces were equally influenced by the uncertain conditions of waterside labour and the broken rhythms of the global seaborne trade upon which New Zealand relied.
    • We are not all Terrorists: UK Based Iranians, Consumption Practices and the ‘Torn’ Self.

      Jafari, Aliakbar; Goulding, Christina (Informaworld - Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2008)
      This paper presents an exploratory study of the consumption practices of UK-based young Iranians. Based on a series of in-depth interviews and participatory observation we provide an insight into the identity-constituting meanings associated with consumption practices. We illustrate how individuals use consumption discourses to tackle a series of ideological tensions in their sociocultural settings, both in Iran and in the UK. We describe how in a theocratic state individuals use commodified cultural symbolic mediators to construct and reaffirm a sense of self and identity and also to covertly resist the dominant order. We discuss consumer's paradoxes and dilemmas when confronted with a complex set of clashes between restricting political/institutional dynamics and the emancipatory forces of Western consumption. We conclude by discussing how these contradictions and strategies lead to a form of “torn” self.
    • We bid you be of hope (again) – A case of sexual consent

      Hyett, Luci (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-08-10)
      The age of consent is a polarised concept which has caused a dissonance between the law and society for the past one hundred fifty years. s9 Sexual Offences Act 2003 epitomises the discord when it creates an offence of Sexual Activity with a Child which envisages that a girl under the age of 16 (and even those under 13) can consent to penetrative sexual acts with an adult. This article contends that whilst it is meritorious of Parliament to create an offence of strict liability which renders liable, any person having sexual intercourse with a girl under 16, the symbolic value of the broad offence label does little to communicate the full extent of the guilty conduct of the perpetrator (where penetration is involved). It argues that the label in fact perpetuates attitudes toward girls under 16: that they are self-determinate, sexually autonomous miscreants sent to inveigle ordinary men with their youthful and phlegmatic erotism. It contends that girls between 13 and 16 are learning to become autonomous adults and the fragility of their vulnerability throughout this process is something which Parliament has a duty to protect. It suggests that the law should thus, deem those under the age of 16 as lacking the legal capacity to consent to sexual intercourse which would give rise to a rebuttable presumption of non-consent under the auspices of the Rape offence.
    • “We humbly beg pardon…” The use of restorative justice in fraud offences, 1718-2018

      Devi-McGleish, Yasmin; Cox, David J (RJAll publications, 2018-08-09)
      Restorative Justice (RJ) has become an increasingly popular alternative to more traditional punishment methods in the last two decades within the Criminal Justice system in England and Wales; often in respect of youth justice and minor crimes which have a clearly defined victim. However, this article will explore the use of restorative justice in cases of financial fraud. Such cases can be particularly complex when identifying culpability within an organisation, and also victims, who may not be aware that they are victims. Corporate and public apologies are not unheard of, particularly with the increasing use of social media platforms, but they have not been widely discussed in relation to RJ. As there is a recognition that RJ entails more than a simple apology, innovative ways of administering RJ will be considered. Alongside discussion of the complexities of using RJ for large-scale financial fraud, the paper will draw on various cases of fraud and the resultant public apology from the early 18th century onward. Several forms of what we now term RJ will be illustrated from before the modern-day resurgence of this type of justice. In most (though not all) of the several examples discussed, there is a clear separation of RJ practices from the formal criminal justice system operating at the time, and this may prove to be a useful guide to the future use of RJ as an adjunct to more legalistic criminal justice processes. Finally, it will be considered whether such apologies could be useful as a restorative intersection with the criminal justice system.
    • We must stand by our own bairns: ILP men and suffrage militancy, 1905-1914

      Ugolini, Laura (Maney Publishing, 2002)
      The Independent Labour Party (ILP) has long enjoyed a reputation as the pre-First World War political party most sympathetic both to feminism in general, and to the suffrage movement in particular. Indeed, it is only recently that such a reputation has been placed under scrutiny. Ironically, considering the amount of attention devoted to it by Edwardian ILPers, the party's relationship with suffrage militancy is also an area that has as yet received little close attention, and it is on this relationship that the present article focuses. More specifically, this article concentrates on male ILP members, in order to shed light both on their attitudes towards women's role in society and in politics, and on their own identities as socialists and as men, providing an important insight into male ILPer's gendered politics. Suffrage militancy's role in jolting ILP men out of a purely formal advocacy of suffrage, forcing them to question the nature of their socialist beliefs and the place of women's enfranchisement in their practical programme, is explored. Further, the article considers how ideas about women's role in politics had to be re-thought as militancy developed and changed in the decade before the outbreak of the First World War. It questions how far ILP men were able to adapt their ideas of 'political womanhood' to accommodate women who not only made an uncompromising entrance into the political arena, but also undertook both illegal and violent activities. Underlying the whole discussion, finally, is the question of how far the suffrage movement in general and militancy in particular forced ILP men to re-think their own masculine identities, and to make changes to their own personal relationships with women. And perhaps more fundamentally, the article questions how far notions of socialist manliness based on chivalrousness and protectiveness towards women were modified, in the light of militants' growing determination to do without male protection and patronage. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] (Ebsco)
    • We never recovered: The social cost of the 1951 New Zealand waterfront dispute and supporting strikes

      Millar, Grace (Australian Society for the Study of Labour History inc., 2015-05-05)
      In July 1951, 15,000 New Zealand watersiders, miners, freezing-workers and seamen returned to work after being locked-out or on strike, but their lives, and the lives of those dependent on their income, did not return to normal. For five months, most workers and their families had had to borrow money and leave bills unpaid in order to survive, and they needed to pay their debts. This article examines the social cost of the 1951 waterfront dispute. It concentrates on strike debt, and the long shadow that debt cast on family and community relationships. This article argues that many of the costs of an industrial dispute are not paid until after it ends, but in contrast to union’s collective concern about costs during the dispute, costs after the dispute are privatised and treated as the concern of individual families.
    • "We're not a bottomless pit": food banks' capacity to sustainably meet increasing demand

      Iafrati, Steve; Email: s.iafrati@wlv.ac.uk (Policy Press, 2018-03-31)
      Based on research with 21 food banks across eight local authority areas in England, this article examines the sustainability of food banks in their attempts to balance demand and supply. Against a background of multiple deprivation and welfare reforms in the UK, food banks are becoming increasingly important for growing numbers of people. However, at a time when food banks' ability to meet this increasing demand is close to capacity, this article examines how social purpose is a core element in food banks' understanding of sustainability. With food banks having little control over the level of demand, and supply being increasingly close to capacity, if demand exceeds supply, sustainability will necessitate either denying demand or expanding supply.
    • Wearing the Turban: The 1967-1969 Sikh bus drivers dispute in Wolverhampton

      Hambler, Andrew; Seifert, Roger (Liverpool University Press, 2016-09-30)
      When a Sikh bus driver working for Wolverhampton Borough Council in 1967 wore a turban and beard to work for the first time he was sent home for breaching the existing dress code. The Sikh municipal workers pursued their demands through pressure-group politics after being marginalized by their union. It ended with a change in the employer and the employment regulations, and subsequent changes to the law. This case illustrates how a religious and cultural issue, originating from outside the workplace, led to challenges to the making and enforcement of workplace rules. It indicates the nature of struggle with, in this case, the relevant trade union failing to support its Sikh members, the local Labour council failing to confront its own racial prejudices, and how immigration, then as now, divides and weakens communities across the class spectrum. The limitations of treating industrial relations as mainly based on job regulation within the organization, to the neglect of external, often political, factors, are discussed, and the subsequent arguments over legal exceptionalism for Sikhs are rehearsed.
    • What can screen capture reveal about students’ use of software tools when undertaking a paraphrasing task?

      Bailey, Carol; Withers, Jodi (European Association for the Teaching of Academic Writing, 2018-11-30)
      Previous classroom observations, and examination of students’ written drafts, had suggested that when summarising or paraphrasing source texts, some of our students were using software tools (for example the copy-paste function and synonym lookup) in possibly unhelpful ways. To test these impressions we used screen capture software to record 20 university students paraphrasing a short text using the word-processing package on a networked PC, and analysed how they utilised software to fulfil the task. Participants displayed variable proficiency in using word-processing tools, and very few accessed external sites. The most frequently enlisted tool was the synonym finder. Some of the better writers (assessed in terms of their paraphrase quality) availed themselves little of software aids. We discuss how teachers of academic writing could help students make more efficient and judicious use of commonly available tools, and suggest further uses of screen capture in teaching and researching academic writing.
    • What can western management offer Russian social work?

      Gilbert, K. (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      This paper contributes to the debate on the process and the efficacy of Western management 'knowledge' transfer by casting light on the ways in which it has had an impact on the largely neglected area of public service and public administration. The study from which the paper derives took place in 1997 and 1998 in two social services departments in regions south of Moscow, and in the Ministry of Labour and Social Development (formerly Social Protection) in Moscow. The author is a British management academic acting as a consultant to the development of social work management on a recent Tacis project. The paper is an ethnographic, participant observer account of working with Russian social workers, social work managers, and heads of service. In Russia, the institutions for protection of the most vulnerable groups in the population, and the legislative frameworks for such institutions (the ‘social safety net’), are being radically re-drawn, in efforts to forestall the direst social consequences of a rapid shift to the market. Social work as a profession is being shaped and defined within this context, and an infrastructure to manage and resource it is being gradually and painfully developed by its leaders, often in extremis. Social services managers are struggling with a gargantuan task of reconciling the contradiction between vastly expanding public expectations and rapidly dwindling resources. Within this contradiction, Western influences, traditional Russian values and the harsh reality of the present, meet, collide and confront each other. Inherent tensions lead to the psychological phenomenon known as ‘splitting’ - the separating out of negative emotions or feelings judged unhelpful, and their projection onto other groups. Using an ethnographic approach to a small number of recent consultancy episodes, the author contends that only those Western management approaches which can accommodate a diverse range of ideological positions will be helpful, because they will be recognised in terms of current realities and comprehended as consistent with dominant values. No single set of values can yet be said to be dominant. The ensuing result is that a focus on developing practice in social work delivery is seen to be more relevant, and less problematical, than the transfer of new approaches to service management.
    • What do effective managerial leaders really do? Using qualitative methodological pluralism and analytical triangulation to explore everyday ‘managerial effectiveness’ and ‘managerial coaching effectiveness.

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Beattie, Rona S.; Ellinger, Andrea D. (Inderscience Enterprises Limited, 2007)
      The present study analyses the qualitative research methodologies used for several 'emic' case-study explorations of managerial behaviours that we have carried out independently within various UK and US public, corporate/private and voluntary sector organisations. These results have subsequently been used for a collaborative cross-cultural 'etic' study. The aim of each 'emic' study was to identify either the criteria and/or behavioural indicators/categories of 'managerial and leadership effectiveness', or of 'managerial coaching effectiveness'. The aim of our collaborative cross-cultural 'etic' study was to search for evidence of commonalities and relative generalisations between the findings of our respective 'emic' studies and, if possible, synthesise a 'unified perspective' from the 'multiple realities' identified. The main conclusion of the present article is that research designs embracing 'qualitative methodological pluralism' and 'rigorous analytical triangulation' can result in meaningful generalised findings, and these can lead to the production of 'general knowledge' and 'management theory'.
    • What Goes Around Comes Around: Learning Sentiments in Online Medical Forums

      Bobicev, Victoria; Sokolova, Marina; Oakes, Michael (Springer, 2015-04-02)
      Currently 19%-28% of Internet users participate in online health discussions. A 2011 survey of the US population estimated that 59% of all adults have looked online for information about health topics such as a specific disease or treatment. Although empirical evidence strongly supports the importance of emotions in health-related messages, there are few studies of the relationship between a subjective lan-guage and online discussions of personal health. In this work, we study sentiments expressed on online medical forums. As well as considering the predominant sentiments expressed in individual posts, we analyze sequences of sentiments in online discussions. Individual posts are classified into one of five categories. We identified three categories as sentimental (encouragement, gratitude, confusion) and two categories as neutral (facts, endorsement). 1438 messages from 130 threads were annotated manually by two annotators with a strong inter-annotator agreement (Fleiss kappa = 0.737 and 0.763 for posts in se-quence and separate posts respectively). The annotated posts were used to analyse sentiments in consec-utive posts. In four multi-class classification problems, we assessed HealthAffect, a domain-specific af-fective lexicon, as well general sentiment lexicons in their ability to represent messages in sentiment recognition.
    • What is the optimal number of researchers for social science research?

      Levitt, Jonathan M. (Springer, 2014-10-19)
      Many studies have found that co-authored research is more highly cited than single author research. This finding is policy relevant as it indicates that encouraging co-authored research will tend to maximise citation impact. Nevertheless, whilst the citation impact of research increase as the number of authors increases in the sciences, the extent to which this occurs in the social sciences is unknown. In response, this study investigates the average citation level of articles with one to four authors published in 1995, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2007 in 19 social science disciplines. The results suggest that whilst having at least two authors gives a substantial citation impact advantage in all social science disciplines, additional authors are beneficial in some disciplines but not in others.
    • When Can Conflicts Be Resolved? A Critique of Ripeness

      O'Kane, Eammon (London: Routledge, 2006-12-22)
      The idea that conflicts cannot be resolved until they are 'ripe' has been influential in conflict resolution literature in recent years. This article critiques the theoretical underpinnings of ripeness using the Northern Ireland peace process as a case study. It highlights the problems that results from the subjectiveness of both the theory itself and the information needed to apply it. By critically examining William Zartman's six 'propositions' of ripeness, the inadequacy of the approach is highlighted and claims that the theory can help predict when conflicts are ripe for resolution are shown to be unsustainable. It advocates a more dynamic approach to conflict resolution than ripeness suggests that parties and mediators adopt. (Informaworld)
    • When is a word not just a word? An investigation into the dissonance and synergy between intention and understanding of the language of feedback in legal education

      Ellison, Lynn; Jones, Dawn (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2020-03-12)
      When is a word not just a word? Can it be expected that using an everyday word or phrase when providing feedback means that it will be understood in the same way by different students at various stages of their academic journey? No matter how well intended feedback is, if a student is unable to correctly interpret the language used, it will prove to be of little use. This research considers the dissonance between the intended message of written feedback on written assessments provided by law academics and the understanding of the recipient. The authors used survey method to obtain free text comments which identified common words and phrases used in legal academic feedback, along with academics’ experiences and opinions of the effectiveness and purpose of feedback. The common words and phrases identified through this process were then incorporated into surveys undertaken by students at three of four levels of study. This stage of the research was completed by examining the qualitative data gathered, paying particular attention to the language of feedback itself. This was completed in the context of examining existing literature surrounding the general language of feedback, but focusing on specific legal language. The authors encountered some unexpected misinterpretations and some surprising synergy.
    • "When we smash windows..." black blocs and breaches of the peace

      Glover, Richard M. (Sweet & Maxwell, 2017-11-30)
      Breach of the peace is a cornerstone of public order law in England and Wales and was considered recently by the Supreme Court in R. (on the application of Hicks) v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis. However, the common starting-point for discussion of the doctrine is the case of Howell. It is argued here that this judgment has been misinterpreted to the extent that it requires a property owner to be present where a breach of peace is founded on harm or the threat of harm to property. The issue has been placed in stark relief by recent changes to the nature of protest. Black Bloc protestors eschew physical violence to persons but pursue a strategy of deliberate property damage. The police may intervene to prevent a breach of the peace that reasonably appears likely “in the near future”, but will be unable to intervene if the property owner is not present, unless harm to persons is anticipated or a criminal offence is “about to” be committed. This article re-examines Howell in light of the Black Bloc phenomenon and contends that, in the absence of legislation, the courts should clarify the law so that the threat of property damage is sufficient to constitute a breach of the peace whether or not the owner is present.