• Border ethnography and post-communist discourses of nationality in Poland

      Galasinska, Aleksandra (Sage Publications, 2006)
      In this article I shall explore discursive constructions of ethnicity, and in particular notions of ‘Polishness’, among members of three-generation families living in the Polish town of Zgorzelec, on the border with Germany. The data come from a Europe-wide ethnographic project studying communities living on the borders between the EU and its ascendant nations, funded by the European Commission’s 5th Framework Programme (www.borderidentities.com). The most characteristic feature of the data concerning ethnicity is a clash between my informants’ declared identity (mainly constructed in terms of Polishness) and the constructions of Polishness. Even though the latter is usually described in negative terms, almost all interviewees choose to describe themselves in ethnic terms from the spectrum of labels they have been given. Drawing upon Billig et al.’s (1988) concept of ideological dilemma, I shall argue that the apparent contradiction in my informants’ discourse of identity is a result of two different ideological bases underpinning it: the lived ideology accomplished in their discourse clashes with the intellectual ideology explicitly adopted in their declarations of identity. Finally, I shall discuss this shift in terms of the particular place of residence of the members of Polish community right of the national border. I shall also explore the role of the interviewer in my informants’ discourses of ethnic identity. ‘Insiderness’ and ‘outsiderness’ of the researcher in relation to the community under investigation was perceived as a challenge to a coherence of the narratives and resulted in constant discursive negotiations of my interlocutors’ ‘stories of Polishness’. (Sage Publications)
    • Breach of fiduciary duty, equitable wrongs and proprietary remedies: implications for commercial agents

      Panesar, Sukhninder (Sweet and Maxwell, 2016-08-01)
      Lord Herschell once wrote that ‘it is an inflexible rule of a Court of Equity that a person in a fiduciary position…is not, unless otherwise expressly provided, entitled to make a profit; he is not allowed to put himself in a position where his interest and duty conflict. It does not appear to me that this rule is, as has been said, founded upon principles of morality. I regard it rather as based on the consideration that, human nature being what it is, there is danger, in such circumstances, of the person holding a fiduciary position being swayed by interest rather than by duty, and thus prejudicing those whom he was bound to protect.’ The purpose of this article is to explore exactly how inflexible this rule is in the context of commercial parties who stand in a fiduciary relationship to others. In particular two areas are examined, firstly; commercial fiduciaries who have received a secret bribe or some other profit in the course of their employment. Secondly; commercial parties who, although not having assumed fiduciary duties to a particular commercial principal, have nevertheless assisted in a breach of fiduciary duty by some other person and in doing so have made a profit. In both cases, can the person against who the breach had been committed claim a proprietary right to the profits in the hands of the wrongful fiduciary?
    • Brexit and the fight against human trafficking: Actual situation and future uncertainty

      Ventrella, Matilde (University of Marmara, 2018-10-30)
      By leaving the EU, the UK will also leave EU agencies such as Europol and Eurojust. Brexit, therefore, may create a gap in cooperation between law enforcement authorities of different Member States in their ability to detect human trafficking. Legal instruments such as the European Arrest Warrant may be repealed and the UK may reduce their cooperation in EU criminal matters. While the UK was part (and is still part) of the EU, it could choose to join EU legal measures in the criminal area. After Brexit, this possibility will no longer be available anywhere is the risk they will decide not to be bound by the Human Trafficking Directive. This article seeks to explore where the UK stands in the fight against human trafficking and what position it may adopt after Brexit. Subsequently, the article explicates the claim that a larger number of vulnerable people may be targeted by criminal organisations and recruited for the purpose of human trafficking and forced labour because EU citizens may no longer be entitled to live in the UK with the same rights and entitlements. This analysis will be conducted by examining EU legislation in the criminal area, UK legislation on human trafficking and the proposals presented by the UK government.
    • Britain

      Durham, Martin (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003)
      This book: What attracts women to far-right movements that appear to denigrate them? This question has vexed feminist scholars for decades, and has led to lively debates in the academy. During the 1980s, scholars produced many studies of women, gender, and fascism in twentieth-century Europe. This volume makes a major new contribution to those studies and casts fresh light on questions such as women's responsibility for the collapse of democracy in interwar Europe, the relationship between the women's movement and the extreme right, and the relationships between conceptions of national identity (especially racial conceptions) and gender. Bringing emerging scholarship on Central and Eastern Europe alongside that of more established Western European historiography on the topic, the essays cover Serbia, Croatia, Yugoslavia, Romania, Hungary, Latvia, and Poland in addition to Germany, Italy, France, Spain, and Britain, and conclude with a European-wide perspective. As a whole, the volume provides a compelling comparative examination of this important topic.
    • Britain, NATO and the Lessons of the Balkan Conflicts 1991-1999 (Sandhurst Conference)

      Badsey, Stephen; Latowski, Paul (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      This publication considers the lessons to be gained for Britain, the British armed forces, and for NATO as a whole, from the Yugoslav wars of dissolution (1991-1999), with particular emphasis on the Kosovo crisis. The papers come from a diverse and high quality mixture of analysts, practitioners and policy-makers. The issues developed here represent a significant advance in the emerging debate on the lessons to be learnt from the Balkan experience, which will shape thinking on defence and international security far into the new millennium.
    • British Armour in the Normandy Campaign

      Buckley, John (Frank Cass Publishers (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      The popular perception of the performance of British armour in the Normandy campaign of 1944 is one of failure and frustration. Despite overwhelming superiority in numbers, Montgomery''s repeated efforts to employ his armour in an offensive manner ended in disappointing stalemate. Indeed, just a week after the D-Day landings, the Germans claimed to have halted an entire British armoured division with one Tiger tank. Most famously of all, in July, despite a heavy preparatory bombardment, three British armoured divisions were repulsed by much weaker German forces to the east of Caen, suffering the loss of over 400 tanks in the process. Explanation of these and other humiliating failures has centred predominantly on the shortcomings of the tanks employed by British formations. Essentially, an orthodoxy has emerged that the roots of failure lay in the comparative weakness of Allied equipment and to a lesser extent in training and doctrine. This new study challenges this view by analysing the reality and level of the supposed failure and the causes behind it. By studying the role of the armoured brigades as well as the divisions, a more complete and balanced analysis is offered in which it is clear that while some technologically based difficulties were encountered, British armoured forces achieved a good deal when employed appropriately. Such difficulties as did occur resulted from British operational techniques, methods of command and leadership and the operating environment in which armour was employed. In addition, the tactics and doctrine employed by both British and German armoured forces resulted in heavy casualties when on the offensive. Ultimately, the experience of the crews and the effects of fighting on their morale is studied to provide a complete picture of the campaign. (Taylor & Francis)
    • British Armoured Operations in Normandy, June-August 1944

      Buckley, John (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2006)
      With essays from leading names in military history, this new book re-examines the crucial issues and debates of the D-Day campaign. It tackles a range of core topics, placing them in their current historiographical context, to present new and sometimes revisionist interpretations of key issues, such as the image of the Allied armies compared with the Germans, the role of air power, and the lessons learned by the military from their operations. As the Second World War is increasingly becoming a field of revisionism, this book sits squarely within growing debates, shedding new light on topics and bringing current thinking from our leading military and strategic historians to a wider audience. This book will be of great interest to students of the Second World War, and of military and strategic studies in general. (Routledge)
    • British Government Policy in Northern Ireland, 1969-2000

      Cunningham, Mike (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001)
      This completely revised and updated second edition provides a comprehensive introduction to British government policy in Northern Ireland. It is a detailed study and looks at policy in four related areas - constitutional, security, economic and social - offering an overview of the questions of continuity and bipartisanship in British policy. For ease of reference, the book deals with these four policy areas chronologically by administration. The text is completely revised to cover the Major administration and the Labour administration up to 2000, including recent periods of intense legislative activity, such as the Good Friday Agreement, the reform of the Ulster Defence Regiment, and the reform of the Royal Ulster Constabulary. It will prove invaluable as an undergraduate textbook for modules on Northern Ireland, and as a reference source on government policy for students of British politics at undergraduate and postgraduate level. (Manchester University Press)
    • British Steel - is it a wind up?

      Walton, Peter; Keay, Andrew (LexisNexis, 2019-08-01)
      Key Points  The recent compulsory liquidation of British Steel raises a number of fundamental questions about the nature of compulsory liquidation.  Is it possible for compulsory liquidation to be used in a manner similar to administration to rescue (part of) a company’s undertaking with the costs of the process being picked up by the taxpayer rather than met by secured creditors?  In this article we consider the reasons why the court ordered the liquidation of British Steel and more broadly consider the nature of compulsory liquidation and on whose behalf and for what purposes it may be ordered.
    • Building resilience to climate risks through social protection: from individualised models to systemic transformation.

      Ulrichs, Martina; Slater, Rachel; Costella, Cecilia; Program Officer, Pathy Family Foundation, Canada. (Wiley, 2019-04-04)
      This article analyses the role of social protection programmes in contributing to people's resilience to climate risks. Drawing from desk-based and empirical studies in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda, it finds that social transfers make a strong contribution to the capacity of individuals and households to absorb the negative impacts of climate-related shocks and stresses. They do so through the provision of reliable, national social safety net systems-even when these are not specifically designed to address climate risks. Social protection can also increase the anticipatory capacity of national disaster response systems through scalability mechanisms, or pre-emptively through linkages to early action and early warning mechanisms. Critical knowledge gaps remain in terms of programmes' contributions to the adaptive capacity required for long-term resilience. The findings offer insights beyond social protection on the importance of robust, national administrative systems as a key foundation to support people's resilience to climate risks.
    • Business advice to fast growth small firms

      Mole, Kevin (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      A small proportion of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) create most new employment in the sector (Storey et al., 1987). Thus UK Business Link’s remit to provide advice to small firms with the potential to grow should maximise the employment impact of small firm advice. Yet, the risks involved in fast growth and the perceived need for visionary leadership constrains advisors from proffering that advice. This research uses data from 29 transcribed semi-structured research interviews and a group interview of 10 business advisors in the UK’s West Midlands region collected in Autumn 1996 to Spring 1997. The interviewees respond to a prompt for advice for a firm contemplating fast growth. This research suggests that in the implementation stage strategy toward small firms is subtly altered. The research suggests that advisors tend to offer general advice and support to all firms, and focus toward support for all, rather than targeting, and support to help companies survive, rather than grow. Given the importance of these fast growing firms to local employment the findings suggest that present business advice might reduce insolvency rather than increase the number of fast growth firms.
    • “Buying brains and experts”: British coal owners, regulatory capture and miners’ health, 1918–1946

      Perchard, A; Gildart, K (Informa UK Limited, 2015-08-08)
      © 2015 Taylor & Francis. This article examines British coal owners’ use of medical and scientific knowledge of occupational lung diseases in the mining industry to resist regulatory changes between 1918 and 1946. It explores the strategies deployed by coal owners in response to scientific and lay debates over the hazard to workers’ health presented by dust, and legislation to compensate miners for pneumoconiosis and silicosis contracted in the nation’s collieries. In particular, it investigates coal owner deployment of the views of notable scientists, especially the eminent physiologist John Scott Haldane (1860–1936), who insisted on the harmlessness of coal dust, in order to avoid costly compensation payments, as well as capital investment in ameliorative measures to reduce miners’ exposure to such hazards. In so doing, the article provides new insights by illustrating how coal owners influenced mining education programmes, deploying the arguments of Haldane and others, with direct implications for health and safety in British mines. This contributed to the mounting public health disaster wrought by coal dust on Britain’s mining communities. This process is viewed as part of the broader political activities of the coal owners – and their industry body, the Mining Association of Great Britain – in its attempts to influence the regulatory process in a period of dramatic change in the political economy of coal.
    • Calling the police: The use of the Non-Emergency 101 in England and Wales

      Bain, Andy; Brooks, Graham; Golding, Bob; Ellis, Tom; Lewis, Chris (2016-02-08)
      Many calls for assistance received by the police are issues of non-emergency, and with public spending cuts ever-present, there is need to revisit the uses of a single non-emergency number (SNEN) as a way to reduce the non-emergency call volume. This paper is a review of one local service in England. We examine the need and development of SNEN, report the findings of our own research, and conclude that a service such as SNEN is a worthwhile approach that helps reduce the number of inappropriate calls to the police, increases access to services and reduces fear regarding low-level disorder
    • Can Brotherhood be Sold Like Soap…Online? An Online Social Marketing and Advocacy Pilot Study Synopsis

      Cugelman, Brian; Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Philip L. (SpringerLink, 2007)
      Having engaged one billion users by early 2006, the Internet is the world’s fastest-growing mass communications medium. As it permeates into countless lives across the planet, it offers social campaigners an opportunity to deploy interactive interventions that encourage populations to adopt healthy living, environmental protection and community development behaviours. Using a classic set of social campaigning criteria, this paper explores relationships between social campaign websites and behavioural change.
    • Carbon footprint of polycrystalline photovoltaic systems

      Stylos, Nikolaos; Koroneos, Christopher (Elsevier, 2014-02)
      The environmental and energy parameters of Photovoltaic (PV) systems play a very important role when compared to conventional power systems. In the present paper, a typical PV-system is analyzed to its elements and an assessment of the material and energy requirements during the production procedures is attempted. A Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is being performed on the production system of photovoltaics. Energy and environmental analyses are extended to the production of the primary energy carriers. This allows having a complete picture of the life cycle of all the PV-components described in the present study. Four different scenarios are examined in detail providing every possible aspect of scientific interest involving polycrystalline PV systems. In order to obtain concrete results from this study, the specific working tool used is the Eco-Indicator ’95 (1999) as being reliable and widely applied and accepted within LCA community. A process that relates inventory information with relevant concerns about natural resource usage and potential effects of environmental loadings is attempted. Large-scale PV-systems have many advantages in comparison with a conventional power system (e.g. diesel power station) in electricity production. As a matter of fact, PV-systems become part of the environment and the ecosystems from the moment of their installation. Carbon Footprints of various PV-systems scenarios are greatly smaller than that of a diesel power station operation. Further technological improvements in PV module production and in the manufacture of Balance-of-System components, as well as extended use of renewable energy resources as primary energy resources could make Carbon Footprint of PV-systems even smaller. Extended operational period of time (O.P.T.) of PV-systems determined by system reliability should be given special attention, because it can dramatically mitigate energy resources and raw materials exploitation.
    • Causal maps of information technology and information systems

      Singh, Gurmak (University of Wolverhampton, 1998-09)
      It is becoming increasingly recognised that a cognitive view of the individual user executing various tasks at the interface is an inadequate conceptual framework for developing information systems. The conventional cognitive setting has disregarded the importance of how these users execute work tasks in the real world when using information systems. Furthermore, the design process is heavily biased towards scientific problem solving methodologies that omit the psychological cognitive styles of the users. In this paper, IT and IS managers are considered as the ‘influencers’ in the development of information systems; a role that forms the shape of the system. A methodology for deriving the causal maps is described and then applied to twenty IT and IS managers. The maps are analysed from three perspectives; information analysis, end-users involvement in the development stages and characteristics of the users. The resulting causal maps are used to develop a conceptual framework for development of IS.
    • CEFTA: Between the CMEA and the European Union

      Dangerfield, Martin (London, Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      This article uses the CEFTA experience to explore interactions between subregional integration and the EU pre-accession process. It covers the following issues. What contributions did CEFTA make to the EU membership endeavour? In which ways did the EU membership drive impact on the subregional cooperation process? Were restrictions on the form of integration applied (basic trade liberalisation in the CEFTA case) a conscious choice or are there inbuilt limits to subregional integration pursued in the EU pre-accession context? What factors influenced the institutionalisation and widening issues? Does the CEFTA experience offer any lessons for other subregional integration exercises, including those already underway - as in the West Balkans - or purportedly on the agenda - as in the 'United Economic Space' planned by certain former Soviet states? The discussion is organised as follows: introduction/preliminaries; the origins of CEFTA; the evolution of CEFTA cooperation; outcomes of CEFTA cooperation; the future of CEFTA. (Informaworld)
    • Ceilings are out - why women are now stuck in the 'glass labyrinth'

      Jones, Jenni (IoD West Midlands, 2018-01)
      Forget out-dated concepts such as the glass ceiling - it’s the sticky floor and the glass labyrinth which is holding women back in the workplace,How can we create a more gender-diverse workforce at all levels? We need to help each other and involve men more.
    • Celebrity Creatures: The ‘Starification’ of the Cinematic Animal

      Hockenhull, Stella; Qiong Yu, Sabrina; Austin, Guy (Edinburgh University Press, 2016)
    • Challenges in discriminating profanity from hate speech

      Malmasi, Shervin; Zampieri, Marcos; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.; Research Group in Computational Linguistics, University of Wolverhampton, UK. (Taylor & Francis, 2017-12-13)
      In this study, we approach the problem of distinguishing general profanity from hate speech in social media, something which has not been widely considered. Using a new dataset annotated specifically for this task, we employ supervised classification along with a set of features that includes -grams, skip-grams and clustering-based word representations. We apply approaches based on single classifiers as well as more advanced ensemble classifiers and stacked generalisation, achieving the best result of accuracy for this 3-class classification task. Analysis of the results reveals that discriminating hate speech and profanity is not a simple task, which may require features that capture a deeper understanding of the text not always possible with surface -grams. The variability of gold labels in the annotated data, due to differences in the subjective adjudications of the annotators, is also an issue. Other directions for future work are discussed.