• Re-evaluating the Anglo-Irish Agreement: Central or Incidental to the Northern Ireland Peace process?

      O'Kane, Eammon (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007-10-18)
      The 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA) was one of the major achievements of Anglo-Irish diplomacy during the course of the Troubles. Yet its importance has been misunderstood and often ignored in subsequent histories of the development of the conflict and the peace process. This article seeks to re-evaluate the AIA. It examines the purposes of the agreement, taking issue with a number of the existing explanations. It is argued that London and Dublin had conflicting analyses of what the AIA was designed to do, which led to disappointment in both states with its impact. These differences also made it difficult for academics to accurately characterize the accord. However, the AIA played a profound and imperative role in shaping the subsequent peace process, but this arose out of consequences of the Agreement that were, despite recent claims to the contrary, unanticipated, and indeed unintended, by those who drew up the document. (Palgrave Macmillan)
    • Re-Framing Fahrenheit 451: Ray Bradbury's dramatic responses to François Truffaut

      Nichols, Phil; Eller, Jonathan; Nichols, Phil (Kent State University Press, 2014)
    • Re-Framing Fahrenheit 451: Ray Bradbury’s dramatic responses to François Truffaut

      Nichols, Phil; Eller, Jonathan; Nichols, Phil (Kent State University Press, 2016-10)
    • Ready-to-wear or Made-to-measure? Consumer Choice in the British Menswear Trade, 1900–1939

      Ugolini, Laura (London: Maney Publishing, 2003)
      This article explores British men's attitudes towards the purchase of a particular commodity — the suit — in order to shed some light on the nature of male consumer demand in the four decades before the outbreak of the Second World War. The focus is on men's motives for choosing between a ready-to-wear and a made-to-measure suit. Financial considerations aside, the article suggests that interested and well-informed male consumers generally preferred to buy bespoke suits : while usually more expensive than their ready-made counterparts, these were also perceived to be better quality, better looking, and better value, and therefore most likely to enhance the wearer's sense of self-worth as a manly, discerning and successful consumer. (Ingenta)
    • Real exchange rate and asymmetric shocks in the West African Monetary Zone

      Adu, Raymond; Litsios, Ioannis; Baimbridge, Mark (Elsevier, 2018-12-20)
      This paper examines real effective exchange rate (REER) responses to shocks in exchange rate determinants for the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) over the period 1980–2015. The analysis is based on a country-by-country VECM, and oil price, supply and demand shocks are identified using long run restrictions in a structural VAR model. We report significant differences in the response of REER to real oil price, productivity (supply) and demand preference shocks across these economies. In addition the relative contribution of these shocks to REER movements in the short and long run appears to be different across economies. Our findings suggest that the WAMZ countries are structurally different, and asymmetric shocks with inadequate adjustment mechanisms imply that a monetary union would be costly.
    • Rebellion and resistance in French Indochina in the First World War

      Krause, Jonathan (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-25)
      The First World War was not merely a clash of empires, it was also a clash within empires. This fact remains largely ignored despite the dozens of anticolonial uprisings around the world which erupted during, and as a result of, the war. In 1916 alone there were uprisings across French North, West and Equatorial Africa, in Portuguese Angola and Mozambique, the Middle East, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and Ireland. Most of these uprisings were responding both to European efforts to extract resources (especially manpower) from the colonies to support the war effort, whilst also taking advantage of the reduced presence of European troops in Asia and Africa as men were recalled from the colonies to take part in the war in Europe. This article examines anticolonial rebellions in French Indochina, especially the attack on Saigon Central Prison in 1916, as a case study in the wider global history of anticolonial rebellion during the Frist World War. Examination of this rebellion shows how the First World War not only generated the opportunities and challenges which led to a surge of anticolonial uprisings around the world, but also changed the political, social and religious character of anticolonial struggle in Indochina. This article offers a reappraisal of the global and imperial consequences of the First World War, and argues that anticolonialism should be more central in our discussion and memory of the conflict.
    • Recognising Effective Legal Protection to People Smuggled at Sea, by Reviewing the EU Legal Framework on Human Trafficking and Solidarity between Member States

      Ventrella, Matilde (Cogitatio, 2015-02-23)
      The death toll of migrants at sea is on the increase. The EU and its Member States are not addressing the situation by widening the EU legal framework on human trafficking to persons smuggled at sea. People smuggled at sea are extremely vulnerable at the hands of their smugglers and suffer serious abuse of their human rights from their journeys through the desert, on the boats and when they reach their final destination. They become victims of human trafficking and they should not be neglected anymore by the EU and its Member States. However, all EU proposals lack of concreteness as Member States do not want to support and host migrants at sea on their territories. They are reluctant to launch solidarity between each other as requested by the Lisbon Treaty and by doing this, they are indirectly responsible for the death of many migrants at sea and for the abuse of their human rights. This article proposes alternatives to explore that could change the situation if Member States show their willingness to cooperate with each other.
    • Recognizing Events 4.0: The digital maturity of events

      Ryan, William Gerard; Fenton, A; Wasim, A; Scarf, P (Emerald, 2020-02-12)
      The purpose of this research is to explore and define the digital maturity of events using the Industry 4.0 model (I4.0), to create a definition for Events 4.0 (E4.0) and to place various relevant technologies on a scale of digital maturity. In a mixed methods approach, we carried out a qualitative social media analysis and a quantitative survey of tourism and events academics. These surveys and the thorough literature review that preceded them allowed us to map the digital technologies used in events to levels of a digital maturity model. We found that engagement with technology at events and delegate knowledge satisfactorily coexists for and across a number of different experiential levels. However, relative to I4.0, event research and the events industry appear to be digitally immature. At the top of the digital maturity scale, E4.0 might be defined as an event that: is digitally managed; frequently upgrading its digital technology; fully integrates its communication systems; and optimizes digital operations and communication for event delivery, marketing, and customer experience. We expect E4.0 to drive further engagement with digital technologies and develop further research. This study has responded to calls from the academic literature to provide a greater understanding of the digital maturity of events and how events engage with digital technology. Furthermore, the research is the first to introduce the concept of E4.0 into the academic literature. This work also provides insights for events practitioners which include: the better understanding of the digital maturity of events, and the widespread use of digital technology in event delivery.
    • Reconciling mental health, public policing and police accountability

      McDaniel, John L M (SAGE Publications, 2018-03-26)
      The paper evaluates a range of policy documents, parliamentary debates, academic reports and statutes in an attempt to contextualise the condition of mental health policing in England and Wales. It establishes that mental health care plays an important role in public policing and argues that police organisations need to institute urgent reforms to correct a prevailing culture of complacency. An unethical cultural attitude towards mental health care has caused decision-making and the exercise of police discretion to be neither well informed nor protective in many cases, resulting in the substandard treatment of people with mental health problems. The paper argues that changes introduced by the Policing and Crime Act 2017 and the revised College of Policing mental health guidelines do not go far enough and that more extensive root-and-branch reforms are needed.
    • Reconstructing resistance and renewal in public service unionism in the twenty-first century: lessons from a century of war and peace

      Gill-McLure, Whyeda; Thörnqvist, Christer; Management Research Centre, Wolverhampton Business School, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK; School of Business, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden (Routledge, 2017-10-26)
      This special issue uses the occasion of the centenary of the Whitley Commission Reports to illuminate the contemporary crisis in public service industrial relations from a historical perspective. In all six countries studied—Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the USA—public service employment is labour intensive and quantitatively significant in the overall economy. Public services have also been major targets of neoliberal reforms, starting in the UK and the USA at the turn of the 1980s and in the other countries about a decade later. In addition, the relatively high union density and the political dimension of public services and public union strategies have been major targets of new public management and more latterly austerity. However, the regressive period has had a differential impact in different countries. In the liberal market economies of the UK and the USA, the neoliberal turn has destabilised traditional patterns of public sector industrial relations to greatest effect. While in the more coordinated market economies, traditional arrangements and values have been more resistant to austerity and neoliberal reforms. We attempt to shed light on these differential impacts through a critical analysis of the historical evolution of public sector industrial relations in each country.
    • Recovering from conflict: What matters for livelihoods, economic activity and growth?

      Slater, Rachel; Mallett, Richard; Van Der Haar, Gemma; Hilhorst, Dorothea; Weijs, Bart (Routledge, 2017-02-17)
      This chapter explores the impacts of conflict on growth, economic activity and livelihoods–impacts that often last long into a post-conflict period. It considers the role of 'enabling environments' for successful economic and livelihood recovery, exploring the various elements of their construction. The chapter focuses on the dominant approaches to external economic engagement in conflict-affected situations, and the role of power, politics and informal institutions in mediating the experience and effects of policy reforms in conflict-affected situations. It discusses flaws, tensions and uncertainties in specific development practice, and highlights in particular the questionable positioning of economic growth as a means to achieving peacebuilding outcomes and the persistence of standardised, neo-liberal-orientated economic models. The chapter defines the politics of growth as the 'processes of conflict, negotiation and cooperation between interest groups in the use, production and distribution of resources'.
    • Reforming Further Education: the changing labour process for college lecturers

      Mather, Kim; Worrall, Les; Seifert, Roger (Emerald, 2007)
      Purpose – The purpose of this article is to examine how the labour process of further education lecturers has changed as a result of legislative reforms introduced in the early 1990s. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on labour process theory and emergent perspectives on “the new public management” to provide theoretical frameworks. Evidence is derived from research carried out at three FE colleges in the English West Midlands involving interviews with managers and lecturing staff, documentary material and a survey of lecturing staff employed in the colleges. Findings – Market-based reforms in this sector have resulted in the intensification and extensification of work effort for lecturers. This paper argues that these changes have been driven by the ideological underpinning of the reform process. Individual and collective acts of lecturer resistance have been insufficiently strong to prevent change from occurring and worker alienation has increased. Research limitations/implications – The case study method renders generalisability of findings difficult. Comparative studies in other localities and sectors are needed. Practical implications – The research indicates that the “new managerialism” – which has developed in the public sector – has created an increasingly alienated workforce and that the processes of change in many institutions have had negative outcomes. Originality/value – The research demonstrates and application of labour process theory, supported by empirical evidence, as a means for examining the changing experiences of a group of public sector workers and assessing the effect of the “new managerialism” on workers' experiences.
    • Regional Cooperation in the Western Balkans: Stabilisation Device or Integration Policy?

      Dangerfield, Martin (London, Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      This article analyses regional cooperation between the Stabilisation and Association Process (SAP) states with particular emphasis on the interplay with EU integration. It argues that regional cooperation is not solely a means of stabilising the SAP 'five' (SAP5) in advance of policies to integrate them with the EU but that regional cooperation is itself a vital part of the EU integration process. This applies to both the regional integration/trade liberalisation component, which is a clear functional EU pre-accession activity, and also to the more diverse set of activities which are targeting the regional hard and soft security problems. The latter addresses the more baseline, region-wide aspects of Europeanisation, and is therefore more of a foundation course for EU accession than integration 'proper', but is nevertheless a necessary step in the SAP countries own 'return to Europe'. With Croatia on the verge of EU candidate status the political conditions for SAP zone regional cooperation should become increasingly favourable and it is important that the practical as well as political contributions of the regional cooperation commitment to the EU integration endeavour of the SAP5 are clearly understood. It is also vital that the actual regional cooperation programme avoids over-ambitious agendas and is properly adjusted to real needs and evolving circumstances of the SAP region. (Ingenta)
    • Regulating recovery of historic wreck in UK waters: when is a salvor not a salvor?

      Williams, Michael V.; Fletcher-Tomenius, Paul (Informa Legal Publishing (UK), 2000)
      Whether historic wrecks should be subject to salvage regime and therefore capable of exploitation by commercial interests and whether existing legislation is sufficient to protect sites of archaeological interest.
    • Regulatory offences and reverse burdens: the 'licensing approach'

      Glover, Richard M. (Vathek Publishing Ltd, 2007)
      Highlights inconsistencies in the case law on burdens of proof and the presumption of innocence and proposes the adoption of a "licensing approach" as a means of resolving the problem of reverse legal burdens. Considers the meaning of burden of proof and the impact of the concept of the "gravamen" of an offence on the reverse legal burden. Discusses the "licensing" justification for the different treatment of regulatory and "truly criminal" offences and proposes a definition of "regulatory offence" based on this approach.
    • Relationships between innovation stimulus, innovation capacity, and innovation performance

      Prajogo, Daniel I.; Ahmed, Pervaiz K. (Wiley InterScience, 2006)
      This paper examines the integration of the human and technological aspects of innovation management by modelling the innovation stimulus – innovation capacity relationship in determining innovation performance. The research framework developed in this study was tested amongst 194 managers of Australian firms. The survey responses indicate that both the relationships between innovation stimulus and innovation capacity and between innovation capacity and innovation performance are significant and strong. However, innovation stimulus does not show any direct effect on innovation performance, suggesting that its effect is mediated through innovation capacity. The overall practical implication that can be drawn from the findings is that to achieve high innovation performance, organizations first need to develop the behavioural and cultural context and practices for innovation (i.e. stimulus), and only within such conducive environments is it possible for organizations to develop innovative capacity in research and development and technology so as to more effectively deliver innovation outcomes and performance.
    • Residual brand awareness following the termination of a long-term event sponsorship and the appointment of a new sponsor

      Mason, Roger B.; Cochetel, Fabrice (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2006)
      This study examined brand awareness after a change in sponsor and audience perceptions about the sponsors and the event before and after the change. A survey of the audience at a surfing event was conducted. The findings were that the original sponsor maintained high awareness levels with the audience, particularly awareness of the previously sponsored event, thereby supporting the proposition that long‐term sponsorship supports long‐term brand awareness. Secondly, the research found that a change in sponsorship does not necessarily lead to changes in respondents' perceptions of the event. Thirdly, the research showed that there was a mismatch in the values of the original sponsor and the event, whereas the current sponsor had a closer match with the event's values. Sponsorships change fairly frequently and it would be of interest to sponsors to know the extent to which benefits continue to accrue after they have stopped sponsoring an event. Since almost no research has been carried out on residual awareness and awareness decay, this paper should contribute to knowledge about the cessation of sponsorships, as well as to the broader field of sponsorship knowledge.
    • Retail markets in northern and midland England, 1870-1914: civic icon, municipal white elephant, or consumer paradise?

      Mitchell, Ian; University of Wolverhampton (Wiley, 2017-12-27)
      Retail markets were a notable feature of urban England in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth, particularly in the midlands and north. Market halls were the most visible manifestation of this, and were important public buildings. This article looks beyond the imposing architecture to take a more critical view of their function and justification. It argues that while most were well-managed and earned income in excess of current expenditure, very substantial investment in large and elaborate buildings was hard to justify in purely financial terms. The return on capital was often negligible. Food and drink traders were the largest group in almost all markets, but there were significant numbers of traders selling clothing, textiles, and household goods. There was some justification to complaints that local authorities were providing publicly financed miscellaneous shops in competition with rent- and rate-paying shopkeepers. Most retailers supplying basic necessities operated from shops rather than markets. Saturday night markets were important in working-class culture and as a source of cheap food, but most day-to-day necessities were purchased from local shops or street traders.
    • Rethinking the law and politics of democratic police accountability

      McDaniel, John; School of Social, Historical and Political Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Mary Seacole Building, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (SAGE Publications ltd, 2017-01-06)
      This paper evaluates the work and impact of a number of Police and Crime Commissioners (PCCs) in England and Wales and attempts to refocus public discourse and scrutiny on their Police and Crime Plans as a key prism through which their performance should be measured. Drawing upon the literature published by various PCCs, the Stevens Commission, the Home Affairs Committee and numerous academics, the paper will argue that a major reform of democratic police accountability in England and Wales is needed. Due to the often voluminous and piecemeal nature of the documents published on the PCCs’ websites, the textual analysis is limited to the Police and Crime Plans for Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and the London Metropolitan area
    • Retrospectivity and the Human Rights Act 1998

      Glover, Richard M. (Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, 2003)
      The purpose of this paper is to examine their Lordships’ interpretation in Lambert [2001] UKHL 37, [2002] 2 AC 69, HL and in Kansal (No.2) [2001] UKHL 62, [2002] 2 AC 545, HL of the ‘retrospectivity provision’ of the Human Rights Act 1998, section 22(4), and the extent to which their analysis accords with Parliament’s intentions. Key to an understanding of these decisions is the interrelationship between sections 7 and 22(4) of the 1998 Act. I will consider their Lordships’ interpretation of this interrelationship and suggest that it was overly influenced by policy concerns: a fear of uncertainty in the law and of a flood of appeals if the Act were allowed to operate retrospectively. It will be argued that as a consequence of these misplaced concerns and a misunderstanding of the significance of the Act their Lordships erred in their analysis of section 22(4), which does not accord with Parliament’s intentions.