• Linking transformational leadership and core self-evaluation to job performance: The mediating role of felt accountability

      Vivian Chen, Chun-Hsi; Yuan, Mei-Ling; Cheng, Jen-Wei; Seifert, Roger (Elsevier, 2015-11-03)
      The present study examines the mediating effects of felt accountability on the relationship of both transformational leadership as well as core self-evaluation on task and contextual performance. SEM with AMOS was used to analyze the data collected from questionnaires distributed to 302 supervisor-employee dyads. The concept of felt accountability is based on a social contingency model of accountability, which is distinct from the feelings of responsibility or obligation in organizational research. Our hypotheses of the mediating roles of felt accountability were supported by the data, except that the mediating effect of felt accountability between the relationship of core self-evaluation and contextual performance was not supported. We discuss the implications of these results for research and practice in organizations.
    • Livelihoods, conflict and aid programming: Is the evidence base good enough?

      Mallett, Richard; Slater, Rachel (Wiley, 2015-08-17)
      In conflict-affected situations, aid-funded livelihood interventions are often tasked with a dual imperative: to generate material welfare benefits and to contribute to peacebuilding outcomes. There may be some logic to such a transformative agenda, but does the reality square with the rhetoric? Through a review of the effectiveness of a range of livelihood promotion interventions—from job creation to microfinance—this paper finds that high quality empirical evidence is hard to come by in conflict-affected situations. Many evaluations appear to conflate outputs with impacts and numerous studies fail to include adequate information on their methodologies and datasets, making it difficult to appraise the reliability of their conclusions. Given the primary purpose of this literature—to provide policy guidance on effective ways to promote livelihoods— this silence is particularly concerning. As such, there is a strong case to be made for a restrained and nuanced handling of such interventions in conflict-affected settings.
    • Local and territorial determinants in the realization of public-private-partnerships: an empirical analysis for Italian provinces

      Mazzola, Fabio; Cusimano, Alessandro; Di Giacomo, Giuseppe; Epifanio, Rosalia (Informa UK Limited, 2019-07-17)
      Relational networks and intangible factors are crucial elements for the competitiveness of a territory. Public–Private–Partnerships (PPPs), in particular, allow for the provision of goods and services that favour the exploitation of complementarities between public and private resources. They aim at promoting an increase in the overall efficiency of investment projects through a complex mechanism that distributes risk and revenues among stakeholders. This paper examines the local and territorial determinants of PPPs through an econometric analysis based upon Italian municipal data, grouped at the provincial level. Using a tobit model, we analyse the relationship between the realization of successful PPP initiatives and different sets of factors, including less analysed local and territorial determinants. We stress the role of the local management of infrastructure assets, the administrative efficiency of local authorities and the diffusion of previous local development initiatives. Local management and territorial context factors explain most of the occurrence of successful PPP initiatives in the pre-crisis period while usual determinants (infrastructure endowment and financial distress) display a weaker effect.
    • The Logistics of the British Recovery of the Falkland Islands, 1982

      Badsey, Stephen (National Institute for Defense Studies, 2014-03)
      There is a saying—now a military cliché—attributed to several senior army and navy commanders of the mid-20th century, that amateurs or juniors discuss tactics, while their seniors and other professionals discuss logistics; a saying that has been qualified in recent decades by the view that the most senior and professional decisions of all are concerned with force generation, the creation of the formations needed for a possible future war. Logistics, together with force generation, was very obviously of critical importance to the British recovery of the Falkland Islands in April-June 1982. Port Stanley, the Falklands’ capital and only town, is considerably further from London than Tokyo is. The British won chiefly because of their ability, in an improvised military campaign for which they had no prior planning, to project and sustain a Task Force consisting of a Carrier Task Group and an Amphibious Task Group across a distance of over 12,000 kilometres. A vital role was played by the small British territory of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, just over half way to the Falklands. A lesser but still important role was played by the British recovery early in the campaign of the island of South Georgia, which in 1982 was part of the Falkland Islands Dependencies, and is about 1,500 kilometres east of East Falkland. However, the lack of a secure harbour or port facility of any size on either Ascension Island or South Georgia imposed a severe time limit on how long the British warships could remain in the South Atlantic before they would need to leave the area for essential maintenance.
    • Looking across the river: German-Polish border communities and the construction of the Other

      Galasinski, Dariusz; Meinhof, Ulrike Hanna (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2002)
      The paper reports results of an ongoing ESRC-funded project into constructions of identity in German and Polish border communities. We are interested here in how our informants from different generations position themselves and their communities with regard to those on the other side of the river. The data come from a set of semi-structured interviews conducted in the towns of Guben (Germany) and Gubin (Poland) separated by the river Neisse, with some reference to the data elicited in the similarly split communities on the former East West German border on the Saale. For the people living in our target communities, the official narratives of the nation were re-written not just once, but in the case of the older generation at least three times. This meant a challenge of how to construct their own cultural identity in response to official changes and in relation to oppositional constructions of the nation on the other side of the border literally by ‘looking across’ at the Other in their every-day lives. In this paper we discuss how members of the oldest generation living on both sides of the river Neisse in the respective German and Polish towns of Guben and Gubin construct each other in their discourses. We show that the discourses of the Other are ridden by a mismatch in the constructions of the ownership of the past and the present. While the Polish narratives construct the German neighbours in terms of threat to the present status quo of the town, the German narratives position Gubin mostly in terms of the nostalgic past. (John Benjamins)
    • Lower job satisfaction among workers migrating within Europe: A gender paradox

      Donegani, Chiara Paola; McKay, Stephen (Sage, 2018-09-26)
      Intra-European migrants reported lower job satisfaction levels than native workers, in three rounds of the European Social Survey. This deficit was also experienced by their descendants (the second generation), despite the latter generation achieving native levels of household income. At least some part of these lower levels of job satisfaction was associated with a clustering into lower-productivity industries. There are striking gender differences in experiences: among men the first generation is just as likely to be satisfied with their jobs as the ‘native’ population, whilst it is the second generation who are less likely to achieve job satisfaction. For women, both generations experienced a deficit in job satisfaction. This may reflect changing expectations of work among men, and integration for women, across generations, and contrasts with the convergence in earnings over time. The country of origin, within Europe, did not seem to be associated with levels of job satisfaction.
    • Making Business-to-Business International Internet Marketing Effective: A Study of Critical Factors Using a Case-Study Approach

      Eid, Riyad; Elbeltagi, Ibraheem; Zairi, Mohamed (American marketing association, 2006)
      The recent phenomenal growth in business activities dependent on the Internet has demonstrated that various potential advantages could be derived from using information and communication technology platforms. The Internet has enabled firms to reach out to global markets and has provided them with the opportunity to customize their strategies and offerings in an unprecedented way. These recent developments provide an exciting opportunity for research to study the dynamics involved in international Internet marketing (IIM) and, in particular, to examine closely the factors that could influence success in using this new technology for IIM activities. Using a business-to-business context and a multiple-case-study approach, this article focuses on two main areas of study: (1) the critical examination of the literature and identification of the most important factors that have a significant influence on business-to-business IIM and (2) the first-hand verification of how the identified factors are implemented in various organizational contexts.
    • Management actions, attitudes to change and perceptions of the external environment. A complexity theory approach.

      Mason, Roger B. (Braybrook Press Ltd, 2008)
      This paper, based on complexity theory principles, suggests relationships between environmental turbulence, managers' perceptions of the external environment, attitudes to change, management actions and business success. Data was collected via a case study method, using in-depth interviews, document analysis and observation from two companies each in the computer and packaging industries. Findings reflected a relationship between environmental perceptions and attitudes to change. The more successful firms expected and almost welcomed change, while the less successful companies were victims of change. Overall external environment perceptions, attitudes to change and the resulting management approaches differed between the more successful and less successful companies.
    • Management of e-learners: some implications for practitioners

      Singh, Gurmak (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
      Information technologies have played a leading role in supporting many recent changes in teaching and learning approaches in Higher Education. Contemporary innovation finds information technology (IT) at the heart of Higher Education transformation. The opportunities afforded by these learning technologies are well documented in popular academic literature. They point to new applications of the latest communication technologies. However, they also bring with them a host of new questions and challenges. The management of e-learners is likely to be part of a more far-reaching organisational change. Where learning technologies are introduced, a layer of technical complexity is added. The redesign of business processes and structures is far from simple ‘technical’ matter. It involves significant social redesign. The extent to which enabling technology has driven the shift towards learner-centred learning in all educational contexts is a matter of debate. As the century turns, establishing the acceptance, let alone the effectiveness and quality of technology-mediated learning, is still seriously problematic (Salmon, 1999). However, the suitability of information and communication technology (ICT) as a means of encouraging self-directed learning is not in doubt, nor that the role of the tutor is changing to ‘guide on the side’: a facilitator not transmitter, of information (Marchmont, 2000). This paper reports findings of a single case study at Wolverhampton Business School. Qualitative data was collected through structured and unstructured interviews with learners and tutors on Business Administration Award. A total of 20 learners and 5 tutors form the basis of the findings.
    • Management skills development: the current position and the future agenda

      Worrall, Les; Cooper, Cary L. (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      In the last ten years, the nature of managerial work has changed considerably largely because the organisational, economic and technological context in which managerial work is conducted has changed beyond recognition. Organisations have been delayered; new concepts such as "the self-managed work team" have been developed; organisations have been subjected to a range of guru driven change such as business process reengineering; the scale of IT-enabled home-based working has increased; the rapid evolution of information and communications technologies have increased the volume and variety of communication that managers have had to learn to cope with; and, increasing globalisation has created a more competitive environment where businesses have had to become leaner, more flexible and adaptable - this often having been achieved by the ruthless implementation of cost-reduction programmes. The consequence of this are that the skills and "capabilites" that managers need to be effective have change radically. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of these changes and to assess the implications of management development and education programmes.
    • Managerial and leadership effectiveness as perceived by managers and non-managerial employees in Mexico

      Ruiz, Carlos E.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Esparza Martinez, Laura (Taylor & Francis, 2014-04-03)
      Using the critical incident (CI) technique, concrete examples of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour (CIs) were collected from managers and non-managerial employees within private and public sector organizations situated in the north and southeast regions of Mexico. The CIs were content analysed using open, axial and selective coding to identify a smaller number of thematic categories. A total of 38 ‘manager’ and 35 ‘non-managerial employee’ behavioural categories were identified respectively, of which 82.19% (n = 60) were found to be either convergent or polar opposite in meaning. The findings suggest that what behaviourally differentiates effective managers from ineffective managers is perceived, described and defined by Mexican managers and non-managerial employees in much the same way. The study provides new insights on the issue of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness in Mexico and is a rare example of indigenous managerial behaviour research in a non-Anglo country.
    • Managers' work-life balance and health: the case of UK managers

      Worrall, Les; Cooper, Cary L. (Inderscience, 2007)
      The paper explores the effects of organisational change on UK managers' perceptions of their organisation and on their well-being. Cost reduction is the prime driver for change and has been implemented using delayering, redundancy, downsizing and off-shoring often supported by culture change programmes. These changes have resulted in work intensification, have not delivered productivity gains and have had a negative effect on managers' well-being. The effects of change were perceived differently by directors and other managers. Despite continuous cost reduction, productivity in the UK remains below that of European competitor nations. This calls into question the prevailing cost reduction ethos as a means of delivering increased productivity in the UK.
    • Managers’ perceptions of their organisation: an application of correspondence analysis

      Worrall, Les; Cooper, Cary L. (University of Wolverhampton, 1998-09)
      The paper is based on a five year, UMIST-Institute of Management study into the changing nature of the Quality of Working Life and seeks to uncover differences in the incidence and impact of organizational change on the perceptions and experiences of managers. The research indicates that there are significant differences in the impact of organizational change on managers and that these vary by the respondent’s position in the organizational hierarchy, by firm size and by sector (sector being here defined as public sector, private sector and “other”). The paper makes use of correspondence analysis as a means of graphically plotting responses as a means of identifying similarities and dissimilarities in perceptions and experiences of organizational change and its impact for sub-groups of managers.
    • Managing workplace religious expression within the legal constraints

      Hambler, Andrew (2016-04-04)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider in broad terms how employers may respond to different forms of religious expression by employees in the workplace, within the discretion afforded to them by law. Design/methodology/approach – Through a discussion of relevant legislation and case law, and a review of relevant literature, it seeks to identify the legal constraints within which employers must operate when determining policy and practice in this area and gives consideration to how they should respond. Findings – It is observed that employers enjoy considerable freedom either to impose restrictions or to encourage religious expression. Originality/value – The paper considers some of the over-arching principled arguments both for and against encouraging religious freedom at work, whilst concluding that support for religious expression may be the better option, not least for the positive benefits for employee well-being, commitment and engagement which, it is argued, may result.
    • Mapping the inventor new product development process

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew (International Society of Professional Innovation Management, 2016-02)
    • Marine Archaeology Legislation Project

      Williams, Michael V. (English Heritage, 2004)
      INTRODUCTION: This Part reviews in depth the genesis and the nature of the present legal framework relating to maritime archaeology in England and Wales. It also considers what advantages and difficulties have resulted from the United Kingdom's continued adherence to this structure. Annexed to this Part is a Report of a survey conducted by NAS Training of the experiences of stakeholders regarding the functioning of the designation and licensing processes under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973. Two principal characteristics determine the legal structure for maritime archaeology in England. The first is the continued reliance on the law of salvage to govern the recovery of wreck from the sea, irrespective of its antiquity. Consequently, the corner stone of this structure is the law of salvage, with its associated legislation, principally the Merchant Shipping Act 1995, which incorporates the International Convention on Salvage 1989 into United Kingdom law. However, it has been recognised that the application of the law of salvage to archaeological material is not considered appropriate by many in the archaeological community, as this approach is contrary to the internationally recognised precautionary principle, which seeks as the first option to preserve the heritage in situ1. Consequently, a few statutory amendments to the salvage regime have been introduced to take account of the particular cultural nature of archaeological material, the desirability of preserving it in situ if possible and the importance, if recovery is necessary, of regulating that process so to preserve archaeologically significant information. However, these amendments are fairly limited in nature, being confined to limitations on the freedom to access wreck sites and initiate salvage operations. Otherwise, the rights and duties of the participants in the maritime archaeological process and the disposal of the recovered wreck material continue to be determined by the law of salvage. The second principal characteristic of the legal structure is the absence of a satisfactory mechanism for protecting archaeology which is not derived from shipwreck, since the salvage regime is not applicable to the protection and recovery of evidence relating to submerged landscapes, dwellings or other former human habitation or activity. Only one statute, the Ancient Monuments & Archaeological Areas Act 1979 enables such archaeological material to be protected and its application underwater has been very limited, never having been applied underwater to remains other than wrecks. This conservative approach to the legal regime for maritime archaeology has generated controversy and numerous documents have drawn attention to the alleged inadequacies of the present framework. To many in the archaeological community, this framework is unduly limited in scope, fails to provide adequate protection to maritime archaeology and, by continued adherence to the salvage regime, has facilitated the use of inappropriate practices relating to the excavation and disposal of artefacts. This, it is claimed, is in stark contrast to the more regulatory stance taken by some other countries, where the diving and excavation of historic wrecks is far more heavily regulated and the protection of historic shipwreck has been taken entirely outside the ambit of the salvage regime.
    • Maritime Air Power in the Second World War: Britain, Japan and the USA

      Buckley, John (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2002)
      The 20th century saw air power transformed from novelists' fantasy into stark reality. From string and canvas to precision weaponry and stealth, air power has progressed to become not only the weapon of first political choice, but often the only conceivable option. This rapid development has given rise to considerable debate and controversy with those holding entrenched views rarely slow to shout their case. Many myths have grown over the period, ranging from the once much vaunted ability of air power to win wars alone through to its impact as a coercive tool. This volume examines the theory and practice of air power from its earliest inception. The contributors have been drawn from academia and the military and represent some of the world's leading proponents on the subject. All significant eras on air power employment are examined: some are evidently turning points, while others represent continuous development. Perhaps more importantly, the book highlights the areas that could be considered to be significant, and invites the reader to enter the debate as to whether it constitutes a continuum, a turning point, or indeed a revolution.
    • Market abuse, an analysis of its nature and regulation

      Haynes, Andrew (Sweet and Maxwell Ltd., 2007)
      Examines the operation of market abuse law under legislation including the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 and European Parliament and Council Directive 2003/6 (the Market Abuse Directive). Reviews the potential offences, the range of investments to which the regime applies, the reporting requirements and key features of the Financial Services Authority (FSA) regulations, including what constitutes insider dealing. Details the approach of the FSA conduct of business rules to issues such as investment research and conflicts of interest, and their application in enforcement actions.
    • Market Failure, State Failure, Institutions, and Historical Constraints in the East European Transition

      Haynes, Michael J.; Husan, Rumy (Oxford: Carfax Publishing, 2002)
      This paper attempts to extend these arguments to the way in which the transition in the Soviet bloc has been conceived. We first review some of the questionable approaches to the role of the market that underpins so much thinking about the transition. We then attempt to situate the transition in a broader historical perspective before finally suggesting that recent attempts to learn from 'the mistakes' of the early transition years reflect a far less substantial rethinking than is actually necessary. Much transitology still bears all the hallmarks of belief in a theory 'in the face of commanding evidence to the contrary'. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] (Ebsco)
    • Martin Ives, Reform, Revolution and Direct Action amongst British Miners: The Struggle for the Charter in 1919

      Gildart, Keith (Athabasca University Press/ Canadian Committee on Labour History, 2020-04-30)