• Introduction

      Stylos, Nikolaos; Rahimi, Roya; Okumus, Bendegul; Williams, Sarah; Rahimi, Roya; Stylos, Nikolaos; Okumus, Bendegul; Williams, Sarah (Springer Nature, 2021-06-01)
    • Investigating Dynamic Capabilities of Family Businesses in China: A Social Capital Perspective

      Wang, Yong (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016-11-21)
      Purpose - Dynamic capabilities are regarded as the bedrock of businesses that survive in a dynamic environment. Building upon the social capital theory, this study aims to investigate the nexus between dynamic capabilities and social capital in family businesses. Design/methodology/approach - The study adopted a quantitative approach. As there is no formal business database available in China, the study followed a snowball sampling procedure. 628 useful responses were gathered. Findings – The study echoes the call of Arregle et al. (2007) for understanding family business’s internal sources of competitiveness and the role of social capital. Results show that the three dimensions of social capital, namely structural, cognitive, and relational capital, influence dynamic capabilities of family businesses. Research limitations - The lack of an official business database in China made the conventional representative sample survey used in the West difficult to replicate. Furthermore, empirical data were collected from different regions of China; regional cultures and different levels of economic development across the regions might influence the social capital-dynamic capabilities connection, but these were not examined in the current study. Originality/value – The study integrates two significant but disconnected research streams, i.e. social capital and dynamic capabilities. Furthermore, the study shows how different dimensions of social capital influence dynamic capabilities. Research findings derived may contribute to the entrepreneurial debate as to why some family businesses can survive in the dynamic environment while others cannot.
    • Investigation of Evaluative and Facilitative Approaches to Construction Mediation

      Brooker, Penny (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2007)
      Purpose – The paper seeks to examine the debate on mediator style and provide empirical evidence on mediator orientation, which has implications for party choice and the development of professional standards for construction mediators in the UK. Design/methodology/approach – This paper analyses the theoretical arguments and distinctions in mediator style and assesses the available evidence relating to the utilisation of evaluative or facilitative mediator approaches in the UK and US construction industry. The paper reports on data from qualitative interviews with construction lawyers experienced in using mediation in the UK to assess the level of evaluative conduct experienced. Findings – The findings suggest that interviewees had experienced a mix of evaluative and facilitative interventions by mediators. The data support the contention that construction mediation in the UK mirrors the experience of the USA and is becoming “lawyer-driven” and adversarial, with mediators utilising evaluative techniques which some members of the legal profession prefer. Research limitations/implications – The qualitative data are based on a small sample of mediation users in the UK construction industry. However, interviewees were selected from respondents to a randomly conducted large-scale postal survey of commercial and construction lawyers. All interviewees were repeat users of the process and all but one had received training in mediation or are practising lawyer-mediators. Practical implications – The data provide evidence of different mediator techniques currently utilised in the UK construction industry and the practices of lawyers in the mediation process. The findings have implications for party choice and should inform the development of professional standards in construction mediation practice. Originality/value – The paper provides original data on the practices of mediators and lawyers in construction mediation.
    • Inward investment, employment and government policies in Wales

      Cook, Mark; Fallon, Grahame (Taylor and Francis (Routledge), 2016-05-17)
      This empirical paper examines the links between multinational enterprises’ countries of origin, types of inbound foreign direct investment (IFDI), related capital investment levels and the resultant effects on regional employment in Wales, a peripheral region of the UK. Longitudinal, official data are used to examine the relationships between these variables, making use of statistical techniques. The findings are used to make recommendations for inward investment policy development in Wales, focusing on the targeting of IFDI from those countries of origin whose multinational enterprises appear likely to contribute most to the future creation and safeguarding of regional employment.
    • Iron lion or paper tiger? The myth of British naval intervention in the American Civil War

      Fuller, Howard (Virginia Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War Commission, 2015-01-15)
      When it comes to the thought-provoking subject of foreign intervention in the Civil War, especially by Great Britain, much of the history has been more propaganda than proper research; fiction over fact. In 1961, Kenneth Bourne offered up a fascinating article on “British Preparations for War with the North, 1861–1862” for the English Historical Review. While focusing largely on the military defense of Canada during the Trent Affair, Bourne also stressed that Britain’s “position at sea was by no means so bad,” though he potentially confused the twentieth-century reader by referring to “battleships” rather than (steam-powered, sail, and screw-propelled) wooden ships-of-the-line, for example. This blurred the important technological changes that were certainly in play by 1861—and not necessarily in Britain’s favor. The Great Lakes the British considered to be largely a write-off as there were no facilities in place for building ironclads, much less floating wooden gunboats up frozen rivers and canals during the long winter season. American commerce and industrialization in the Midwest, on the other hand, had led to booming local ports like Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, and Cleveland—all facilitated by new railroads. Of course, Parliament had not seen to maximizing the defense of the British Empire’s many frontiers and outposts over the years. If anything, the legendary reputation of the Royal Navy continually undermined that imperative. That left the onus of any real war against the United States to Britain’s ability to lay down a naval offensive. And while Bourne was content to trust the judgment of an anonymous British officer in Colburn’s United Service Magazine that “1273 guns” were available to Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Milne’s North American and West Indies naval forces during the Trent crisis, the same publication also went on to warn its contemporary British readers that “in calculating the power of the Northern States at sea, we must not be deluded by the ships actually in existence, but must reckon on those that may be built.” The author might have added that of the 86 guns of Milne’s flagship, HMS Nile, for example, or the 91 guns of the newer Agamemnon (launched in 1852 and reinforcing the British naval base at Bermuda from Gibraltar), no more than a third were 8-inch (65 cwt. ) shell-firing guns, the rest being 32-pounders in use since the Napoleonic era. In fact, the more deep-draft, screw-propelled ships-of-the-line the Admiralty dispatched to Milne, the more nervous he became. The 101-gun Conqueror ran aground in the Bahamas on December 13, 1861, a total loss. The British admiral pleaded for more shallow-draft paddle steamers, like those in use by the Union navy. Indeed, it was the lighter craft of the Yankees which proved better adapted for warfare in American waters.
    • Is environmental reporting changing corporate behaviour?

      Price, Mark (Inderscience Enterprises Limited, 2008)
      Increasingly the business community is being asked to respond to growing societal concerns about the environment (Gray et al., 1996; O'Donovan, 2002; Raar, 2002; Adams, 2002, 2004; KPMG, 2002). One business response which has been widely researched from a number of aspects has been the development of standalone environmental reports (Brown and Deegan, 1998; Deegan and Gordon, 1996; Adams et al., 1998; Holland and Foo, 2003; Buhr, 1998; Cormier and Gordon, 2000; Deegan et al., 2000; Milne and Patten, 2002; O'Donovan 2002; Rahaman et al., 2004). However, one key aspect which has not yet been fully investigated is the impact of environmental reporting upon organisational activity (Dillard et al., 2004; Larringa-Gonzalez and Bebbington, 2001; Ball, 2007). Using an institutional theory perspective, this paper provides a framework for the examination of the embedding of environmental reporting structures into organisational processes and culture. Using this outline framework to analyse existing literature, the paper concludes that there are many issues about the impact of environmental reporting which are still unclear and that many of the attributes of the environmental agenda suggest that it could be another management fad.
    • Is knowledge that powerful? Financial literacy and access to finance: An analysis of enterprises in the UK

      Hussain, Javed; Salia, Samuel; Karim, Amin (Emerald, 2018-08-13)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between financial literacy, access to finance and growth among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the Midlands region of the UK. It assesses whether financial literacy assists SMEs to overcome information asymmetry, mitigates the need for collateral, optimizes capital structure and improves access to finance. Design/methodology/approach To gain a deeper insight into the complex relationship between financial literacy, access to finance and growth, a qualitative research is carried out among SMEs that have operated for over five years or longer. Using the purposive sampling technique, 37 firms were selected based on size, location and characteristics, mainly from the city of Birmingham and the joining conurbations. Open-ended and a combination of dichotomous questions were used for the survey. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analyzed. Findings Financial literacy is an interconnecting resource that mitigates information asymmetry and collateral deficit when evaluating loan applications, therefore financial literacy should be part of school curriculum. The analysis suggests enhanced financial literacy, reduces monitoring cost and serves to optimize firms’ capital structure that positively impacts on SMEs growth. Financial management knowledge is recognized as the core resource that aids an effective decision making by owners of SMEs. Research limitations/implications The limitation of this research is the small sample that limits its generalization. Its findings could be enhanced by a larger sample and by conducting comparative studies in other regions or economies. SMEs growth is seen as a strategic policy to stimulate enterprise but the finance gap tends to constrain that objective. The UK Government’s effort to improve access to finance and to mitigate excessive collateral demands by lenders has proved elusive. This empirical research provides evidence that financial literacy enhances access to finance and, in turn, promotes growth potentials. Practical implications The results of this study advocate the provision of financial literacy at schools and target support for SMEs to acquire financial management skills in order to mitigate information asymmetry between lenders and borrowers. Social implications Findings suggest that financial literacy mediates access to finance, enables enterprises to use optimal financial structure to mitigate business failure, creates employment and reduces public sector support for social benefits. Originality/value This study is novel in that it examines financial literacy and its implications for access to finance and firm growth in the UK. The study is an effort to highlight the role of financial information in mitigating barriers to finance for SMEs.
    • Is the public sector at the centre of the class struggle?

      Seifert, Roger (Liverpool University Press, 2018-07-01)
      Public sector workers are workers even though they are not employed by profit-making firms. As a consequence their unions are part of the working-class movement. Working for state-owned and managed services does not detract either from their class position or from the need for their unions to defend and improve their terms and conditions. In the current UK situation with politically-engineered ‘austerity’ (budget, wage, and pension cuts) and the application of tougher performance management systems in the public services (New Public Management), their struggles can be seen to be one centre of the wider class struggle.
    • Is women empowerment a zero sum game? unintended consequences of microfinance for women empowerment in Ghana

      Salia, Samuel; Hussain, Javed; Tingbani, Ishmael; Kolade, Oluwaseun (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017-11-21)
      Purpose: Against the background of growing concerns that development interventions can sometimes be a zero-sum game, this paper examines the unintended consequences of microfinance for women empowerment in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs a participatory mixed-method approach including household questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions and key informant interviews to investigate the dynamics of microfinance effects on women in communities of different vulnerability status in Ghana. Findings: The results of hierarchical regression, triadic closure and thematic analyses demonstrate that the economic benefits of microfinance for women is also directly associated with conflicts amongst spouses, girl child labour, polygyny and the neglect of perceived female-domestic responsibilities due to women’s devotion to their enterprises. Originality/value: In the light of limited empirical evidence on potentially negative impacts of women empowerment interventions in Africa, this paper fills a critical gap in knowledge that will enable NGOs, policy makers and other stakeholders to design and implement more effective interventions that mitigate undesirable consequences.
    • Isaiah Berlin and the totalitarian mind

      Hatier, Cécile (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      One of the important—yet often underestimated—dimensions of the intellectual legacy of Isaiah Berlin is his contribution to the demystification of the totalitarian temptation in the twentieth century. This paper starts with an apparent paradox: Berlin is described as a major figure of the anti-totalitarian camp, yet his writings nowhere touch explicitly on the totalitarian regimes of his time. Nonetheless, it is argued that Berlin's notion of “monism,” and his unique insight into the totalitarian mind, are an indirect yet valuable contribution to the understanding of the appeal exercised by totalitarianism within the modern political imagination. Despite Berlin's highly contestable account of the origins of monism—which he situates in the Enlightenment movement—it is asserted that Berlin's denunciation of utopias remains very much pertinent in light of the emergence of new fundamentalist utopias in a post 9/11 world. Consequently, there are grounds from which to dismiss those claims according to which Berlin's work belongs to an age—that of the Cold War—unfamiliar to the present. (Ingenta)
    • Islam and anticolonial rebellions in north and west Africa, 1914-1918

      Krause, Jonathan (Cambridge University Press, 2020-10-01)
      European empires experienced widespread anticolonial rebellions during the First World War. These rebellions occurred for many different reasons, reflecting the diversity of context and history across colonial societies in Africa and Asia. Religion naturally played a strong role in most of the anticolonial rebellions during the First World War, most prominently Islam. This article looks at the role Islam played in two key anticolonial rebellions in North and West Africa: the rebellions in Batna, Algeria and the Kaocen War in Niger, respectively. The article examines how Islam was instrumentalized by rebels, imperial collaborators, and French officers and administrators to further their own ends. Rebels called upon Islam to help inspire anticolonial movements, to bind together diverse populations, and to contextualise their actions in wider socio-political conflicts. Imperial collaborators likewise called on religious authority to assist with European imperial recruitment efforts. French officers and administrators used Islam both as a justification and a target for collective punishment and repression after the rebellions were put down from 1917. This repression is still under-studied in a period usually portrayed as evidencing broad imperial harmony, rather than violent extraction and oppression.
    • It’s Officialism - the uncertain past, present and future of the Insolvency Practitioner Profession in the United Kingdom

      Walton, Peter (Lexis Nexis, 2017)
      One of the largely unheralded battles in the world of insolvency law has been the debate, which has come and gone over a two hundred year period, as to whether, and to what extent, the State should be involved in the administration of insolvent estates. It has long been recognised that insolvency law does not just involve debtors and creditors. The State has a crucial interest in ensuring that insolvent estates are administered effectively and that culpable behaviour is investigated with appropriate remedies and sanctions being applied against wrongdoers.
    • Iura Novit Arbiter in England and Wales; the exercise of arbital discretion

      Mistelis, Loukas; Potocnik, Metka; Ferrari, Franco; Cordero-Moss, Giuditta (Juris Legal Information, 2018-04-16)
      The role and function of the principle iura novit arbiter is contested and controversial in international arbitration. Whereas courts in civil law jurisdictions accept this principle more broadly, courts in common law jurisdictions are less willing to accept its existence in international arbitration. This chapter reviews the existing legal position in the United Kingdom (with focus on England and Wales) and argues that the broad powers of arbitral tribunals as provided for in sections 33(1)(b) and 34(2)(g) of the English Arbitration Act (1996) are better viewed as important efficiency drivers in the case management of arbitral proceedings and are less to be viewed as aspects of a “truth finding” exercise to be performed by arbitrators. Even if arbitrators find an independent line of inquiry in a case they are adjudicating, they must present this thinking to the parties, as failing to do so, would typically result in the setting aside of the award under section 68(2)(a) EAA.
    • Japan 1868-1945: From Isolation to Occupation

      Benson, John; Matsumura, Takao (London: Longman/Pearson, 2001)
      The history of Imperial Japan, from the Meiji Restoration through to defeat and occupation at the end of the Second World War, is central to any understanding of the way in which modern Japan has developed and will continue to develop in the future. This wide-ranging accessible and up-to-date interpretation of Japanese history between 1868 and 1945 provides both a narrative and analysis. Describing the major changes that took place in Japanese political, economic and social life during this period, it challenges widely-held views about the uniqueness of Japanese history and the homogeneity of Japanese society. (Longman)
    • Jean Baudrillard - against banality

      Pawlett, William (London, Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2007)
      This uniquely engaging introduction to Jean Baudrillard’s controversial writings covers his entire career focusing on Baudrillard’s central, but little understood, notion of symbolic exchange. Through the clarification of this key term a very different Baudrillard emerges: not the nihilistic postmodernist and enemy of Marxism and Feminism that his critics have constructed, but a thinker immersed in the social world and passionately committed to a radical theorizsation of it. Above all Baudrillard sought symbolic spaces, spaces where we might all, if only temporarily, shake off the system of social control. His writing sought to challenge and defy the system. By erasing our ‘liberated’ identities and suspending the pressures to compete, perform, consume and hate that the system induces, we might create spaces not of freedom, but of symbolic engagement and exchange. (Routledge)
    • Jim Phillips, Scottish coal miners in the twentieth century

      Gildart, Keith (Edinburgh University Press, 2019-11-18)
    • Job insecurity, employee anxiety, and commitment: The moderating role of collective trust in management

      Wang, Wen; Mather, Kim; Seifert, Roger; University of Wolverhampton Business School, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK; Keele Management School, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK; University of Wolverhampton Business School, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (2018-04-25)
      This article examines the moderating effect of collective trust in management on the relation between job insecurity (both objective and subjective) and employee outcomes (work-related anxiety and organisational commitment). This is contextualised in the modern British workplace which has seen increased employment insecurity and widespread cynicism. We use matched employer-employee data extracted from the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS) 2011, which includes over 16,000 employees from more than 1100 organisations. The multilevel analyses confirm that objective job insecurity (loss of important elements of a job such as cuts in pay, overtime, training, and working hours) are significantly correlated with high levels of work-related anxiety and lower levels of organisational commitment. These correlations are partially mediated by subjective job insecurity (perception of possible job loss). More importantly, collective trust in management (a consensus of management being reliable, honest and fair) significantly attenuates the negative impact of objective job insecurity on organisational commitment, and reduces the impact of subjective job insecurity on work-related anxiety. Theoretical and practical implications and limitations of these effects are discussed.
    • Job stress and employee outcomes: employment practices in a charity

      Wang, Wen; Seifert, Roger (Emerald Publishing, 2021-03-19)
      Design/methodology/approach We collected both quantitative (through a staff survey and administrative records of sick leave in the previous 12 months) and qualitative data (through interviews and focus groups) from one branch of an internationally well-established and UK-based religious charity between 2017 and 2018. Purpose The study intends to examine employee relations with a changing workforce resulting from the business-like transformation in the charity sector. We investigated sector-specific employment practices which can alleviate job stress (as a given and which has been made worse by the transformation). Developed from the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation framework, the findings can inform human resource management practices in its new efficiency-seeking business model. Findings The quantitative results support a strong mediating effect of job satisfaction between job stress and staff sick leave. The negative correlation shown between job stress and job satisfaction is subject to paid staff perception of meaningful work and their level of involvement in decisionmaking, with the latter having a stronger moderating effect. The qualitative data provides further contextualized evidence on the findings. Practical implications It is important for charities to uphold and reflect their charitable mission towards beneficiaries and paid staff during the shift to an efficiency-seeking business model. Charities should involve their new professional workforce in strategic decision-making to better shape a context-based operational model. Originality/value The study examined employee relations in the nonprofit charity sector with a changing workforce during the transition to a more business-oriented model. In particular, we revealed sector-specific factors that can moderate the association between job stress and absenteeism, and thereby contribute to the understanding of HRM practices in the sector.
    • Junta by Another Name? The 1974 Matapolitefsi and the Greek Extra-Parliamentary Left

      Kassimeris, George (Sage Publications, 2005)
      In the years following metapolitefsi (the 1974 transition from dictatorship to multi-party democracy) a plethora of groups from the far left appeared on the Greek post-junta political scene. Obsessed with the dynamics of the Athens Polytechnic revolt of November 1973, these marginal but vocal and persistent groups viewed the process of constitutional change and democratic consolidation with deep scepticism. Many of them did not accept the legitimacy of the transfer of power and used confrontational anti-regime rhetoric and radical forms of action to denounce constitutional structures and attack the regime’s legality, conservative ethos and lack of structured political solutions. The purpose of this article is to describe the emergence and evolution of the major extra-parliamentary groups of the left and to examine their analyses and interpretations of Greek political circumstances in the late 1970s. (Sage Publications)
    • Just about everybody doing the business? Explaining 'cash-for-crash insurance fraud in the United Kingdom

      Button, M.; Brooks, Graham; Lewis, C.; Aleem, A. (Sage, 2016-03-21)
      There is much international research on the different types of fraud committed by individuals and/or organised crime. There is, however, limited research on insurance fraud and a particular species of such fraud which has become known as ‘cash-for-crash’ fraud in the United Kingdom. In addition there are very few published studies of fraudsters which actually draw upon interviews with those that have committed the act(s). This paper bridges both of these gaps providing a focus upon ‘cash-for-crash’ fraudsters which is based upon empirical research drawn from six interviews with such offenders and a database of over 400 offenders built upon successful prosecutions of such cases in the United Kingdom. This paper offers a profile of such offenders and presents insights into why and how some people might become involved in ‘cash-for-crash’ type frauds.