• International internet marketing: A triangulation study of drivers and barriers in the business-to-business context in the United Kingdom

      Eid, Riyad (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      internet technology by business-to-business marketing companies that operate at the international level. Design/methodology/approach - A review of the literature concerning the diffusion and adoption of innovations precedes a triangulation study involving a questionnaire-based survey of 123 companies (a 59 percent response rate) and case studies of four others, all located in the UK. Data were factor-analysed, following testing for validity, reliability and adequacy of the research instrument. Findings - The paper concludes that powerful drivers of international internet-based marketing in business-to-business firms will generally outweigh significant barriers to its adoption in the future. It also explains how innovation-diffusion theory identifies factors instrumental in the adoption of internet marketing. Research limitations/implications - The study was confined to business-to-business marketers, based in the UK and operating internationally. Several suggestions are made for elaboration and extension, including investigation of business-to-consumer users and of other industry types. Practical implications - The findings provide international marketing strategists with important marketing intelligence insights into the benefits of harnessing the power of the internet, the obstacles to be expected in practice, and plans for doing so both efficiently and effectively. Originality/value - Much of what has been written about the application of the internet to marketing is speculative and exploratory. This study, based on responses from practising international marketers, offers something more substantial to marketing planners.
    • International Response to the Money Laundering Threat

      Haynes, Andrew (City & Financial, 2003)
      A Practitioner's Guide to International Money Laundering Law and Regulation brings together a wealth of expertise to examine global regulatory developments. In over 25 chapters, it covers, amongst other areas; the US and UK response; "know your customer" issues; investigations; terrorist financing; and EU directives. In addition, the law and regulation in over 50 territories is also summarised.
    • Internationalism, peace and reconciliation: Anglo-German connections in the Youth Hostels movement, 1930-1950

      Cunningham, Michael; Constantine, Simon (Wiley, 2020-02-11)
      This article examines the close relationship that existed between the English and Welsh Youth Hostel Association (YHA) and the Deutsche Jugendherbergswerk (DJH), the German pioneer movement, between 1930 and 1950. It emphasises the importance of shared cultural values and the influence that the German DJH had on the YHA from its beginnings. It argues that the internationalism and pacifism of the fledgling national association, its debt of gratitude to the parent organisation, and close relationship between leading figures, all pushed it towards a position of accommodation with Germany, even when the German movement was subsumed within the racist, nationalist and militarist Nazi movement in 1933. The YHA thus reinforced the spirit and policy of Appeasement between the wars. In the aftermath of war, the same commitment to peaceful cooperation between nations, and the same personal ties, saw the hostel movement re-emerge as a vehicle for reconciliation.
    • Interpreting in international sign: decisions of Deaf and non-Deaf interpreters

      Stone, Christopher; Russell, Debra; Costello, Brendan; Thumann, Mary; Shaw, Risa (WASLI, 2011)
      The professional use of Deaf Interpreters (DIs) is increasing in several countries and across several contexts. However, there have been few studies that have explored the nature of the work when it involves a Deaf and nondeaf interpreting team. The current study examined the work of two teams of Deaf/non-deaf interpreters providing service in a conference setting. The participants were videotaped while providing service in order to examine the linguistic decisions made by non-deaf interpreters acting as a natural signed language feed, the linguistic decisions made by Deaf interpreters working into International Sign (IS), as well as the meta-communication strategies the team used while constructing the interpretation. The data suggest that interpreting teams that are more familiar with each other rely on different strategies when chunking information, asking for feeds, and for making accommodations. There also appear to be significant differences in the work when the two interpreters share a common natural signed language. All of the data analyzed thus far offer insight into the nature of the relationship and may provide guidance to those arranging interpreting services for international events.
    • Into the Reich: Battles on Germany's Western Frontier 1944-1945

      Arnold, James; Ford, Ken; Badsey, Stephen (Osprey Publishing, 2002)
      This book combines Campaign 5: ‘Ardennes 1944’, Campaign 24: ‘Arnhem 1944’, Campaign 74: ‘The Rhineland 1945’ and Campaign 75: ‘Lorraine 1944’. In the aftermath of the German collapse in the west in the summer of 1944, Allied armies rampaged across France and Belgium. A German counter-attack was crushed by General Patton in Lorraine, and Allied armies closed on the borders of the Reich. The Allied plan to end the war at a stroke ended in bloody failure at Arnhem, but a German offensive in the Ardennes, Hitler's last roll of the dice on the western front, proved equally futile. With German forces bled white, the Allies hurled themselves across the River Rhine to bring the crumbling edifice of Hitler's 1,000-year Reich crashing in ruin.
    • The intrinsic value of formative assessment and feedback as learning tools in the acquisition and improvement of a practical legal skill

      Jones, Dawn (Taylor & Francis, 2020-02-06)
      Teaching a practical legal skill in a classroom setting can be challenging, it is an attempt to teach the practical in a theoretical way to students who are unlikely to have undertaken this type of practical task previously. The module considered in this research, Practical Legal Drafting, comprises taught sessions that first introduce the ‘rules’ of legal drafting and then allow the development of key skills. The module includes tutor led taught sessions, student in class group and individual activities and ongoing tutor verbal feedback in class, followed by a formative assessment, extensive specific individual written and generic online feedback, and finally face to face feedback on the formative assessment. This combination forms the learning process for the module considered in this study. The formative assessment is not a compulsory element of the module, the data for three academic years was analysed to determine whether those students who undertook the formative assessment were more successful in the summative assessment than those students who did not and whether it could therefore be said that this was evidence that the formative assessment was beneficial as a teaching tool. The student’s engagement with the feedback available on the VLE was also assessed to determine whether any conclusions could be reached about the impact this may or may not have on improved student performance.
    • Introduction

      Stylos, Nikolaos; Rahimi, Roya; Okumus, Bendegul; Williams, Sarah; Rahimi, Roya; Stylos, Nikolaos; Okumus, Bendegul; Williams, Sarah (Springer Nature, 2021-06-01)
    • Investigating Dynamic Capabilities of Family Businesses in China: A Social Capital Perspective

      Wang, Yong (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016-11-21)
      Purpose - Dynamic capabilities are regarded as the bedrock of businesses that survive in a dynamic environment. Building upon the social capital theory, this study aims to investigate the nexus between dynamic capabilities and social capital in family businesses. Design/methodology/approach - The study adopted a quantitative approach. As there is no formal business database available in China, the study followed a snowball sampling procedure. 628 useful responses were gathered. Findings – The study echoes the call of Arregle et al. (2007) for understanding family business’s internal sources of competitiveness and the role of social capital. Results show that the three dimensions of social capital, namely structural, cognitive, and relational capital, influence dynamic capabilities of family businesses. Research limitations - The lack of an official business database in China made the conventional representative sample survey used in the West difficult to replicate. Furthermore, empirical data were collected from different regions of China; regional cultures and different levels of economic development across the regions might influence the social capital-dynamic capabilities connection, but these were not examined in the current study. Originality/value – The study integrates two significant but disconnected research streams, i.e. social capital and dynamic capabilities. Furthermore, the study shows how different dimensions of social capital influence dynamic capabilities. Research findings derived may contribute to the entrepreneurial debate as to why some family businesses can survive in the dynamic environment while others cannot.
    • Investigation of Evaluative and Facilitative Approaches to Construction Mediation

      Brooker, Penny (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2007)
      Purpose – The paper seeks to examine the debate on mediator style and provide empirical evidence on mediator orientation, which has implications for party choice and the development of professional standards for construction mediators in the UK. Design/methodology/approach – This paper analyses the theoretical arguments and distinctions in mediator style and assesses the available evidence relating to the utilisation of evaluative or facilitative mediator approaches in the UK and US construction industry. The paper reports on data from qualitative interviews with construction lawyers experienced in using mediation in the UK to assess the level of evaluative conduct experienced. Findings – The findings suggest that interviewees had experienced a mix of evaluative and facilitative interventions by mediators. The data support the contention that construction mediation in the UK mirrors the experience of the USA and is becoming “lawyer-driven” and adversarial, with mediators utilising evaluative techniques which some members of the legal profession prefer. Research limitations/implications – The qualitative data are based on a small sample of mediation users in the UK construction industry. However, interviewees were selected from respondents to a randomly conducted large-scale postal survey of commercial and construction lawyers. All interviewees were repeat users of the process and all but one had received training in mediation or are practising lawyer-mediators. Practical implications – The data provide evidence of different mediator techniques currently utilised in the UK construction industry and the practices of lawyers in the mediation process. The findings have implications for party choice and should inform the development of professional standards in construction mediation practice. Originality/value – The paper provides original data on the practices of mediators and lawyers in construction mediation.
    • Inward investment, employment and government policies in Wales

      Cook, Mark; Fallon, Grahame (Taylor and Francis (Routledge), 2016-05-17)
      This empirical paper examines the links between multinational enterprises’ countries of origin, types of inbound foreign direct investment (IFDI), related capital investment levels and the resultant effects on regional employment in Wales, a peripheral region of the UK. Longitudinal, official data are used to examine the relationships between these variables, making use of statistical techniques. The findings are used to make recommendations for inward investment policy development in Wales, focusing on the targeting of IFDI from those countries of origin whose multinational enterprises appear likely to contribute most to the future creation and safeguarding of regional employment.
    • Iron lion or paper tiger? The myth of British naval intervention in the American Civil War

      Fuller, Howard (Virginia Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War Commission, 2015-01-15)
      When it comes to the thought-provoking subject of foreign intervention in the Civil War, especially by Great Britain, much of the history has been more propaganda than proper research; fiction over fact. In 1961, Kenneth Bourne offered up a fascinating article on “British Preparations for War with the North, 1861–1862” for the English Historical Review. While focusing largely on the military defense of Canada during the Trent Affair, Bourne also stressed that Britain’s “position at sea was by no means so bad,” though he potentially confused the twentieth-century reader by referring to “battleships” rather than (steam-powered, sail, and screw-propelled) wooden ships-of-the-line, for example. This blurred the important technological changes that were certainly in play by 1861—and not necessarily in Britain’s favor. The Great Lakes the British considered to be largely a write-off as there were no facilities in place for building ironclads, much less floating wooden gunboats up frozen rivers and canals during the long winter season. American commerce and industrialization in the Midwest, on the other hand, had led to booming local ports like Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, and Cleveland—all facilitated by new railroads. Of course, Parliament had not seen to maximizing the defense of the British Empire’s many frontiers and outposts over the years. If anything, the legendary reputation of the Royal Navy continually undermined that imperative. That left the onus of any real war against the United States to Britain’s ability to lay down a naval offensive. And while Bourne was content to trust the judgment of an anonymous British officer in Colburn’s United Service Magazine that “1273 guns” were available to Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Milne’s North American and West Indies naval forces during the Trent crisis, the same publication also went on to warn its contemporary British readers that “in calculating the power of the Northern States at sea, we must not be deluded by the ships actually in existence, but must reckon on those that may be built.” The author might have added that of the 86 guns of Milne’s flagship, HMS Nile, for example, or the 91 guns of the newer Agamemnon (launched in 1852 and reinforcing the British naval base at Bermuda from Gibraltar), no more than a third were 8-inch (65 cwt. ) shell-firing guns, the rest being 32-pounders in use since the Napoleonic era. In fact, the more deep-draft, screw-propelled ships-of-the-line the Admiralty dispatched to Milne, the more nervous he became. The 101-gun Conqueror ran aground in the Bahamas on December 13, 1861, a total loss. The British admiral pleaded for more shallow-draft paddle steamers, like those in use by the Union navy. Indeed, it was the lighter craft of the Yankees which proved better adapted for warfare in American waters.
    • Is environmental reporting changing corporate behaviour?

      Price, Mark (Inderscience Enterprises Limited, 2008)
      Increasingly the business community is being asked to respond to growing societal concerns about the environment (Gray et al., 1996; O'Donovan, 2002; Raar, 2002; Adams, 2002, 2004; KPMG, 2002). One business response which has been widely researched from a number of aspects has been the development of standalone environmental reports (Brown and Deegan, 1998; Deegan and Gordon, 1996; Adams et al., 1998; Holland and Foo, 2003; Buhr, 1998; Cormier and Gordon, 2000; Deegan et al., 2000; Milne and Patten, 2002; O'Donovan 2002; Rahaman et al., 2004). However, one key aspect which has not yet been fully investigated is the impact of environmental reporting upon organisational activity (Dillard et al., 2004; Larringa-Gonzalez and Bebbington, 2001; Ball, 2007). Using an institutional theory perspective, this paper provides a framework for the examination of the embedding of environmental reporting structures into organisational processes and culture. Using this outline framework to analyse existing literature, the paper concludes that there are many issues about the impact of environmental reporting which are still unclear and that many of the attributes of the environmental agenda suggest that it could be another management fad.
    • Is knowledge that powerful? Financial literacy and access to finance: An analysis of enterprises in the UK

      Hussain, Javed; Salia, Samuel; Karim, Amin (Emerald, 2018-08-13)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between financial literacy, access to finance and growth among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the Midlands region of the UK. It assesses whether financial literacy assists SMEs to overcome information asymmetry, mitigates the need for collateral, optimizes capital structure and improves access to finance. Design/methodology/approach To gain a deeper insight into the complex relationship between financial literacy, access to finance and growth, a qualitative research is carried out among SMEs that have operated for over five years or longer. Using the purposive sampling technique, 37 firms were selected based on size, location and characteristics, mainly from the city of Birmingham and the joining conurbations. Open-ended and a combination of dichotomous questions were used for the survey. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analyzed. Findings Financial literacy is an interconnecting resource that mitigates information asymmetry and collateral deficit when evaluating loan applications, therefore financial literacy should be part of school curriculum. The analysis suggests enhanced financial literacy, reduces monitoring cost and serves to optimize firms’ capital structure that positively impacts on SMEs growth. Financial management knowledge is recognized as the core resource that aids an effective decision making by owners of SMEs. Research limitations/implications The limitation of this research is the small sample that limits its generalization. Its findings could be enhanced by a larger sample and by conducting comparative studies in other regions or economies. SMEs growth is seen as a strategic policy to stimulate enterprise but the finance gap tends to constrain that objective. The UK Government’s effort to improve access to finance and to mitigate excessive collateral demands by lenders has proved elusive. This empirical research provides evidence that financial literacy enhances access to finance and, in turn, promotes growth potentials. Practical implications The results of this study advocate the provision of financial literacy at schools and target support for SMEs to acquire financial management skills in order to mitigate information asymmetry between lenders and borrowers. Social implications Findings suggest that financial literacy mediates access to finance, enables enterprises to use optimal financial structure to mitigate business failure, creates employment and reduces public sector support for social benefits. Originality/value This study is novel in that it examines financial literacy and its implications for access to finance and firm growth in the UK. The study is an effort to highlight the role of financial information in mitigating barriers to finance for SMEs.
    • Is the public sector at the centre of the class struggle?

      Seifert, Roger (Liverpool University Press, 2018-07-01)
      Public sector workers are workers even though they are not employed by profit-making firms. As a consequence their unions are part of the working-class movement. Working for state-owned and managed services does not detract either from their class position or from the need for their unions to defend and improve their terms and conditions. In the current UK situation with politically-engineered ‘austerity’ (budget, wage, and pension cuts) and the application of tougher performance management systems in the public services (New Public Management), their struggles can be seen to be one centre of the wider class struggle.
    • Is women empowerment a zero sum game? unintended consequences of microfinance for women empowerment in Ghana

      Salia, Samuel; Hussain, Javed; Tingbani, Ishmael; Kolade, Oluwaseun (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017-11-21)
      Purpose: Against the background of growing concerns that development interventions can sometimes be a zero-sum game, this paper examines the unintended consequences of microfinance for women empowerment in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs a participatory mixed-method approach including household questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions and key informant interviews to investigate the dynamics of microfinance effects on women in communities of different vulnerability status in Ghana. Findings: The results of hierarchical regression, triadic closure and thematic analyses demonstrate that the economic benefits of microfinance for women is also directly associated with conflicts amongst spouses, girl child labour, polygyny and the neglect of perceived female-domestic responsibilities due to women’s devotion to their enterprises. Originality/value: In the light of limited empirical evidence on potentially negative impacts of women empowerment interventions in Africa, this paper fills a critical gap in knowledge that will enable NGOs, policy makers and other stakeholders to design and implement more effective interventions that mitigate undesirable consequences.
    • Isaiah Berlin and the totalitarian mind

      Hatier, Cécile (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      One of the important—yet often underestimated—dimensions of the intellectual legacy of Isaiah Berlin is his contribution to the demystification of the totalitarian temptation in the twentieth century. This paper starts with an apparent paradox: Berlin is described as a major figure of the anti-totalitarian camp, yet his writings nowhere touch explicitly on the totalitarian regimes of his time. Nonetheless, it is argued that Berlin's notion of “monism,” and his unique insight into the totalitarian mind, are an indirect yet valuable contribution to the understanding of the appeal exercised by totalitarianism within the modern political imagination. Despite Berlin's highly contestable account of the origins of monism—which he situates in the Enlightenment movement—it is asserted that Berlin's denunciation of utopias remains very much pertinent in light of the emergence of new fundamentalist utopias in a post 9/11 world. Consequently, there are grounds from which to dismiss those claims according to which Berlin's work belongs to an age—that of the Cold War—unfamiliar to the present. (Ingenta)
    • Islam and anticolonial rebellions in north and west Africa, 1914-1918

      Krause, Jonathan (Cambridge University Press, 2020-10-01)
      European empires experienced widespread anticolonial rebellions during the First World War. These rebellions occurred for many different reasons, reflecting the diversity of context and history across colonial societies in Africa and Asia. Religion naturally played a strong role in most of the anticolonial rebellions during the First World War, most prominently Islam. This article looks at the role Islam played in two key anticolonial rebellions in North and West Africa: the rebellions in Batna, Algeria and the Kaocen War in Niger, respectively. The article examines how Islam was instrumentalized by rebels, imperial collaborators, and French officers and administrators to further their own ends. Rebels called upon Islam to help inspire anticolonial movements, to bind together diverse populations, and to contextualise their actions in wider socio-political conflicts. Imperial collaborators likewise called on religious authority to assist with European imperial recruitment efforts. French officers and administrators used Islam both as a justification and a target for collective punishment and repression after the rebellions were put down from 1917. This repression is still under-studied in a period usually portrayed as evidencing broad imperial harmony, rather than violent extraction and oppression.
    • It’s Officialism - the uncertain past, present and future of the Insolvency Practitioner Profession in the United Kingdom

      Walton, Peter (Lexis Nexis, 2017)
      One of the largely unheralded battles in the world of insolvency law has been the debate, which has come and gone over a two hundred year period, as to whether, and to what extent, the State should be involved in the administration of insolvent estates. It has long been recognised that insolvency law does not just involve debtors and creditors. The State has a crucial interest in ensuring that insolvent estates are administered effectively and that culpable behaviour is investigated with appropriate remedies and sanctions being applied against wrongdoers.
    • Iura Novit Arbiter in England and Wales; the exercise of arbital discretion

      Mistelis, Loukas; Potocnik, Metka; Ferrari, Franco; Cordero-Moss, Giuditta (Juris Legal Information, 2018-04-16)
      The role and function of the principle iura novit arbiter is contested and controversial in international arbitration. Whereas courts in civil law jurisdictions accept this principle more broadly, courts in common law jurisdictions are less willing to accept its existence in international arbitration. This chapter reviews the existing legal position in the United Kingdom (with focus on England and Wales) and argues that the broad powers of arbitral tribunals as provided for in sections 33(1)(b) and 34(2)(g) of the English Arbitration Act (1996) are better viewed as important efficiency drivers in the case management of arbitral proceedings and are less to be viewed as aspects of a “truth finding” exercise to be performed by arbitrators. Even if arbitrators find an independent line of inquiry in a case they are adjudicating, they must present this thinking to the parties, as failing to do so, would typically result in the setting aside of the award under section 68(2)(a) EAA.