• Differences in Sustainable Management Between Four- and Five-Star Hotels Regarding the Perceptions of Three-Pillar Sustainability

      Stylos, Nikolaos; Vassiliadis, Chris (Routledge, 2015-02-19)
      Although there is a wealth of publications about sustainability in tourism destinations management literature, the concept has only recently started coming under examination within the area of hospitality management. This paper’s main focus is on capturing the perceptions and practices of hotel management in respect to the concept of three-dimensional sustainability. A literature based self-administered questionnaire was used and 423 hotels participated in the study. Logistic Regression was employed in order to examine four research hypotheses and extract useful findings. The findings suggest that hotel star ratings play a significant role in the perceived importance of financial measures of economic viability, as well as in the application of socially-responsible practices by hotel management; the same conclusion does not apply to environmental practices. Furthermore, it was found that hotel location does not play a significant role in shaping perceptions of sustainability dimensions.
    • Differentiated legitimacy, differentiated resilience: beyond the natural in ‘natural disasters’

      Harrison, Elizabeth; Chiroro, Canford (Taylor and Francis online, 2016-06-27)
      This paper starts with a flood in southern Malawi. Although apparently a ‘natural’ event, those most affected argued that it was made much worse by the rehabilitation of a nearby irrigation scheme. We use this example to interrogate the current interest in resilience from a perspective informed by political ecology and political economy, arguing that a focus on resilience should not be at the expense of understanding the conditions that shape vulnerability, including the ways in which ‘communities’ are differentiated. Complex factors are at play – and the ways in which these combine can result in a ‘perfect storm’ for some individuals and households. These factors include the effects of history combining with ethnicity, of legitimacy influencing voice, and of the interplay of political dynamics at different levels. In particular, processes of commodification have played an important role in shaping how some may benefit at the cost of catastrophic harm to others.
    • Diffusion of sustainability and CSR discourse in hospitality industry: dynamics of local context

      Ertuna, Bengi; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Yamak, Sibel (Emerald, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose: Our focus is on the way in which sustainability and CSR discourses and practices emerge in the collaboration of MNCs with the local hotels in developing country contexts. The paper identifies the prevailing institutional orders and logics that bring about CSR and sustainability discourse in tourism industry in Turkey. It also investigates how and to what extent the CSR and sustainability practices align with the local institutional logics and necessities. Design: Empirical evidence is generated through case studies covering Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc. (Hilton), its Turkish subsidiary and a local hotel chain to ensure data triangulation. Primary data was collected through interviews with the executives of the selected case hotels, which was supported by extensive secondary data. Findings: Some components of CSR and sustainability logics developed in the headquarters diffuse into local affiliate hotel, not all. Local affiliate hotels seek to acquire local legitimacy in their host environment, despite a standard format imposed by their headquarters. Local necessities and priorities translate themselves into such initiatives in a very limited way in the affiliates of the Hilton where there is mostly a top down approach. Similar approach has also been observed in the case of the local hotel which is part of a family business group. Family’s values and family business headquarter shape the CSR and sustainability strategy and the logics reflecting the local component. Originality/value: Through this study, we are able to add further value to the critical writings about the positive contribution of CSR and sustainability in the context of the MNCs and their subsidiaries, which is not substantiated due to limited empirical evidence.
    • Dilemmas of post-enlargement Europe: Building and 'Insecurity Zone'

      Dangerfield, Martin (Kaunas University of Technology, 2016-10-01)
      This article reflects on the development and operation of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) from the perspective of the post-1989 attempt to extend the West European ‘Security Community’ into the wider Europe via processes of both EU enlargement and attempts to foster deep integration with former Soviet states. Whilst the EU’s strategy towards eastern neighbours should certainly not be taken as the sole or even key cause of the ‘insecurity zone’ in and around the EU’s eastern frontier, it seems hard to avoid the conclusion that actions such as the ENP and EaP have played an important part in these developments. This is an analytical contribution rather than a study based on primary research. As well as extending existing discussions about the expansion of the European Security Community and the application of the ‘Optimum Integration Area’ concept to the EaP countries, the article includes a focus on EU states’ economic relations with Russia which is a critical albeit underexplored constraint upon EU ‘eastern’ policy.
    • Disability and the Family in South Wales Coalfield Society, c.1920–1939

      Curtis, Ben; Thompson, Steven (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2017-06-14)
      This article utilises the south Wales coalfield in the interwar period as a case study to illustrate the applicability of two sociological theories – family systems theory and the social ecology of the family – to impairment in the past. It demonstrates that a theoretically-informed approach can help to situate impairment in its particular contexts, most especially the family and the community, and give a better sense of the lived experience of disability. It also demonstrates the complexity of the experience of disability as the family and economic circumstances of each impaired individual varied and led to different forms of care-giving or the utilisation of different sources of support. The article also sheds further light on the ubiquity of disability as many families included a number of individuals with different impairments and this too had consequences for experiences and coping strategies.
    • Discoursive strategies for coping with sensitive topics of the Other

      Galasinska, Aleksandra; Galasinski, Dariusz (London, Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2003)
      This paper explores border residents' strategies for coping with topics which they perceive as difficult or sensitive in their discourses about people living in such European border locations. Thus we are concerned with the way in which people negotiate accounts of implicit or explicit ethnic conflict, prejudice or negative stereotyping of 'the Other'. We indicate two types of such strategies. First, the strategy of mitigation, in which informants attempt to soften or licence their stereotypical views. Second, we shall discuss a strategy in which mitigation is replaced by the practice of 'oracular reasoning' in our informants' constructions of the ethnic Other; this occurs in those instances when a basic premise is confronted with contradictory evidence, but the evidence is ignored or rejected. The data for our analysis come from 12 border communities in which informants talk about the Other from either across the border, or, in the case of multi-ethnic communities, from within the community itself. We focus upon constructions that purport to give a universal answer to questions of 'what they are like'. Specifically, we explore those constructions where informants have to deal with conflictual voices (either explicit or implicit in the informants' discourse) which question their accounts or contradict the claims they make. Finally, we see the strategies for coping with conflictual accounts of the Other as indicative of the tension between the discursively postulated social/ethnic separation of the border communities and the constructed threat from the Other on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the new and changing public discourse of the Other and the politics underpinning it which goes counter to those more private discourses. (Routledge)
    • Discursive Construction of Fatherly Suicide

      Galasinski, Dariusz; Ziółkowska, Justyna (Taylor & Francis, 2016-10-31)
      In this article we are interested in stories of sons and daughters about their fathers who completed suicide. The data come from ten interviews with survivors of suicidal death of their fathers. Taking a constructionist view of discourse, we aim to analyse sons’ and daughters’ narratives in the context of two conflicting discourses of (positive) fatherhood and (negative) suicide. We shall show how they use the discursive strategies of distancing in the narratives about fathers’ suicide as a means of coping with the two conflicting discourses. And so, first, they avoid labelling the act as suicide, second, they avoid direct reference to the fact that it was their father who completed the act, third, they dilute the father’s responsibility for the act.
    • Dissolving the People: Lawyers and the Liberal Political Complex in Hong Kong

      Jones, Carol (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2007)
      Across the world political liberalism is being fought for, consolidated and defended. That is the case for nations that have never enjoyed a liberal political society, for nations that have advanced towards and then retreated from political liberalism, for nations that have recently shifted from authoritarian to liberal political systems, and for mature democracies facing terrorism and domestic conflict. This book tests for the contemporary world the proposition that lawyers are active agents in the construction of liberal political regimes. It examines the efficacy of a framework that postulates that legal professions not only orient themselves to a market for their services but can frequently be seen in the forefront of actors seeking to institutionalise political liberalism. On the basis of some 16 case studies from across the world, the authors present a theoretical link between lawyers and political liberalism having wide-ranging application over radically diverse situations in Asia and the Middle East, North and South America, and Europe. They argue that it is not the politics of lawyers alone but the politics of a 'legal complex' of legally trained occupations, centred on lawyers and judges, that drives advances or retreats from political liberalism, that political liberalism itself is everywhere in play, in countries with established democracies and those without liberal politics and that it is now clear that the legal arena is a central field of struggle over the shape of political power. The case studies presented here provide powerful evidence that the nexus of bar and bench in transitions towards or away from political liberalism is a force which has universal application. (Hart)
    • Diversity and Conflict in Boards of Directors

      Walker, Alan; Machold, Silke; Ahmed, Pervaiz K. (2015-03-04)
      This study seeks to contribute to the debate on board behavior by investigating how deeper-level diversity, specifically differences in personality, interacts with demographic diversity to explain board cognitive and affective conflict. Using survey data from a pilot study of 98 directors in 16 UK boards, we show that dissimilarities in personality traits are negatively related to cognitive conflict, but this relationship is moderated by gender and tenure diversity. Personality differences do not explain affective conflict. The study provides insights into how theories from psychology may help us understand antecedents to board behaviors
    • Doctrine and Reform in the British Cavalry 1880-1918

      Badsey, Stephen (Ashgate Publishing, 2008)
      A prevalent view among historians is that both horsed cavalry and the cavalry charge became obviously obsolete in the second half of the nineteenth century in the face of increased infantry and artillery firepower, and that officers of the cavalry clung to both for reasons of prestige and stupidity. It is this view, commonly held but rarely supported by sustained research, that this book challenges. It shows that the achievements of British and Empire cavalry in the First World War, although controversial, are sufficient to contradict the argument that belief in the cavalry was evidence of military incompetence. It offers a case study of how in reality a practical military doctrine for the cavalry was developed and modified over several decades, influenced by wider defence plans and spending, by the experience of combat, by Army politics, and by the rivalries of senior officers. Debate as to how the cavalry was to adjust its tactics in the face of increased infantry and artillery firepower began in the mid nineteenth century, when the increasing size of armies meant a greater need for mobile troops. The cavalry problem was how to deal with a gap in the evolution of warfare between the mass armies of the later nineteenth century and the motorised firepower of the mid twentieth century, an issue that is closely connected with the origins of the deadlock on the Western Front. Tracing this debate, this book shows how, despite serious attempts to ‘learn from history’, both European-style wars and colonial wars produced ambiguous or disputed evidence as to the future of cavalry, and doctrine was largely a matter of what appeared practical at the time. Contents: Preface; Doctrine and the cavalry 1880–1918; The Wolseley era 1880–1899; The Boer War 1899–1902; The Roberts era 1902–1905; The Haldane era 1905–1914; The First World War 1914–1918; Conclusion; Appendix; Bibliography; Index.
    • Does board independence influence financial performance in IPO firms? The moderating role of the national business system

      Zattoni, Alessandro; Witt, Michael A.; Judge, William Q.; Talaulicar, Till; Chen, Jean Jinghan; Lewellyn, Krista; Hu, Helen Wei; Gabrielsson, Jonas; Rivas, Jose Luis; Puffer, Sheila; Shukla, Dhirendra; Lopez, Felix; Adegbite, Emmanuel; Fassin, Yves; Yamak, Sibel; Fainshmidt, Stav; van Ees, Hans (Elsevier, 2017-09)
      Prior evidence suggests that board independence may enhance financial performance, but this relationship has been tested almost exclusively for Anglo-American countries. To explore the boundary conditions of this prominent governance mechanism, we examine the impact of the formal and information institutions of 18 national business systems on the board independence-financial performance relationship. Our results show that while the direct effect of independence is weak, national-level institutions significantly moderate the independence-performance relationship. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of board structures is likely to be contingent on the specific national context, but the type of legal system is insignificant.
    • Driving Force Analysis of East European Students to Study Tourism and Hospitality in the UK

      Rahimi, Roya; Akgündüz, Yılmaz (Taylor & Francis, 2017-04-18)
      Using a push-pull model this current study tries to investigate the relative importance of the UK as a location focus for East European students to undertake a Higher National Diploma (HND) in Tourism and Hospitality. The research conducted is based upon a mixed method approach through two sequential phases, a focus group and a questionnaire. The results revealed that the opportunity to improve language skills, financial support from the UK government and job opportunities are the important factors for selecting the UK. The results further showed that the nature of the course, Pre-course expectations and external impacts, such as benefits for EU citizens (student loans) are key factors for choosing to study Tourism and Hospitality.
    • Dual pillars of hotel restaurant food quality satisfaction and brand loyalty

      Bihamta, Hassan; Jayashree, Sreenivasan; Rezaei, Sajad; Okumus, Fevzi; Rahimi, Roya (Emerald, 2017-09)
      Purpose: Current study investigates the impact of service quality (physical quality and staff behaviour) and brand equity (brand quality, brand awareness and brand image) on hotel restaurant food quality satisfaction and brand loyalty among international and local travellers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 354 valid questionnaires were collected to assess the measurement and structural model for reflective latent constructs using the two steps of covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM). Findings: The research findings suggest that while travellers’ nationality moderates the path between physical quality, staff behaviour and brand image on food quality satisfaction, it does not moderate the relationship between brand quality and brand awareness on food quality satisfaction. This finding further suggests that toward enhancing service quality and brand equity on food quality satisfaction and brand loyalty, managers should understand the important distinctions between international and local travellers. Originality/value: Previous studies have mostly examined the impact of brand equity and service quality towards tourist satisfaction and very few studies have examined the impact of restaurant service quality and brand equity on consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty specifically among international and local travellers. This is one of the first few studies providing empirical evidence and discussions in this area.
    • Dynamic capabilities: A review and research agenda

      Wang, Catherine; Ahmed, Pervaiz K. (Blackwell Publishing, 2007)
      The notion of dynamic capabilities complements the premise of the resource-based view of the firm, and has injected new vigour into empirical research in the last decade. Nonetheless, several issues surrounding its conceptualization remain ambivalent. In light of empirical advancement, this paper aims to clarify the concept of dynamic capabilities, and then identify three component factors which reflect the common features of dynamic capabilities across firms and which may be adopted and further developed into a measurement construct in future research. Further, a research model is developed encompassing antecedents and consequences of dynamic capabilities in an integrated framework. Suggestions for future research and managerial implications are also discussed.
    • E-Democracy from the Perspective of Local Elected Members.

      Parvez, Zahid (IGI Global: Idea Group Publishing, 2008)
      Although efforts for developing e-democracy have been underway for over a decade, recent literature indicates that its uptake by citizens and Elected Members (EMs) is still very low. This paper explores the underlying reasons for why this is so from the perspective of local EMs in the context of UK local authorities. It draws on findings reported in earlier works supplemented with primary case study data. Findings are interpreted through the lens of Giddens structuration theory, which assists in drawing out issues related to three dimensions of human agency: communication of meaning, exercising power and sanctioning behaviour. The paper abstracts categories of agency from the findings and uses these to formulate eight propositions for creating an e-friendly democratic culture and enhancing EMs uptake of e-democracy. These propositions provide an indication for future e-democracy research direction.
    • Economic Impact Assessment of Leicester Cathedral

      Robinson, Peter; Booker, Nick; Oriade, Ade (University of Wolverhampton, 2017-10)
    • Ed-blogs: the use of weblogs in learning, teaching and assessment

      Jones, Mark; Magill, Kevin (University of Wolverhampton, 2003)
    • Education policies on access and reduction of poverty: The case of Ghana

      Dzidza, Peter Mawunyo; Jackson, Ian; Normanyo, Amatefee K.; Walsh, Michael; Ikejiaku, Brian-Vincent (Professors World Peace Academy, 2018-06-15)
    • The effects of poverty reduction strategies on artisanal fishing in Ghana: The case of Keta municipality

      Dzidza, Peter Mawunyo; Jackson, Ian; Normanyo, Amatefee K.; Walsh, Michael (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2017-05-31)
      This paper assesses the level of poverty in Ghana after three decades of successive implementation of numerous poverty reduction strategies including Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) by various governments of Ghana. The Keta municipality in the Volta region, where artisanal fishing thrives, was chosen as a representative sample of the whole country. The authors identified eleven artisanal fishing communities in the selected area using systematic sampling. Data were collected on household consumption patterns. This process was used to determine the profile of poverty using the latest upper poverty line of Ghana and the Greer and Thorbecke (1984) poverty formula. Research findings show that the various poverty alleviation methods implemented over three decades by the Government of Ghana, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) significantly failed as they have not produced any meaningful effect on poverty reduction in the sample area. Finally, this paper offers further suggestions regarding how this poverty gap may be bridged using alternative methods.
    • The effects of remittances on education in a post-conflict society: evidence from Bosnia-Herzegovina

      Oruc, Nermin; Jackson, Ian; Pugh, Geoffrey (Taylor and Francis, 2018-11-20)
      This paper analyses the effects of remittances on the educational enrolment of children in Bosnia-Herzegovina, where a process of forced migration made the relocation decision exogenous. Accordingly, this study has no need of methods to address the endogeneity of remittances. Hence, the approach taken means that the measure of educational enrolment is regressed on a set of individual- and household-level variables. In addition, a new approach to estimation is introduced, whereby the effect of remittances is calculated for each income quintile. It is found that the relationship between remittances and educational enrolment is strong among households from the fourth quintile, which includes households just outside the risk of poverty, while for those in poorer quintiles the effect is not significant.