• Developing effective leadership behaviours: the value of evidence-based management.

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Sawyer, Jenny (Association of MBAs, 2007)
      This article presents the findings of an HRD Professional Partnership study of effective and ineffective managerial and leadership behaviours exhibited by executive leaders within the UK business of a large international telecommunications company, and describes how the research has challenged various aspects of the organisation’s company-wide competency framework and its executive leader development programme. Additionally, the article reveals and discusses the extent to which the results are generalised to the findings of several managerial and leadership effectiveness studies carried out in other UK private and public-sector organisations, and the contribution of this research to current debates concerning the universality of management and leadership, and the concept of evidence-based management.
    • Developing effective managers and leaders within healthcare and social care contexts: an evidence-based approach.

      Cooper, D. J.; Hamlin, Robert G. (Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2007)
      This book: Across Europe and the world, countries are attempting to develop their health and social policies and practices to address the global challenge of increasing demand and pressurized supply, created by ageing populations, emerging technologies and finite resources (financial and human). This text provides examples of attempts to develop HRD practices in health and social care contexts within France, Ireland, The Netherlands, Romania, Russia, the UK and the USA. Thus, the book is European and international in both scope and appeal.
    • Developing entrepreneurship in Africa: investigating critical resource challenges

      Atiase, Victor; Mahmood, Samia; Wang, Yong; Botchie, David (Emerald, 2018-08-13)
      Purpose – By drawing upon institutional theory, this study investigates the role of four critical resources (credit, electricity, contract enforcement and political governance) in explaining the quality of entrepreneurship and the depth of the supporting entrepreneurship ecosystem in Africa. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative approach based on ordinary least squares regression analysis was used. Three data sources were employed. Firstly, the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) of 35 African countries was used to measure the quality of entrepreneurship and depth of the entrepreneurial ecosystem in Africa which represents the dependent variable. Secondly, the World Bank’s data on access to credit, electricity and contract enforcement in Africa was also employed as explanatory variables. Thirdly, the Ibrahim Index of African Governance was used as an explanatory variable. Finally, country-specific data on four control variables (GDP, FDI, population and education) were gathered and analysed. Findings – To support entrepreneurship development, Africa needs broad financial inclusion and state institutions that are more effective at enforcing contracts. Access to credit was nonsignificant and therefore did not contribute to the dependent variable (entrepreneurship quality and depth of entrepreneurial support in Africa). Access to electricity and political governance were statistically significant and correlated positively with the dependent variables. Finally, contract enforcement was partially significant and contributed to the dependent variable. Research limitations/implications – A lack of GEI data for all 54 African countries limited this study to only 35 African countries: 31 in sub-Saharan Africa and 4 in North Africa. Therefore, the generalisability of this study’s findings to the whole of Africa might be limited. Secondly, this study depended on indexes for this study. Therefore, any inconsistencies in the index aggregation if any could not be authenticated. This study has practical implications for the development of entrepreneurship in Africa. Public and private institutions for credit delivery, contract enforcement and the provision of utility services such as electricity are crucial for entrepreneurship development. Originality/value The institutional void is a challenge for Africa. This study highlights the weak, corrupt nature of African institutions that supposedly support MSME growth. Effective entrepreneurship development in Africa depends on the presence of a supportive institutional infrastructure. This study engages institutional theory to explain the role of institutional factors such as state institutions, financial institutions, utility providers and markets in entrepreneurship development in Africa.
    • Developing journal writing skills in undergraduates: the need for journal workshops

      Hockings, Christine (University of Wolverhampton, 1998)
      In recent years, journal writing has become a popular tool for assessing student learning in Business Studies courses throughout UK universities. The writing-to-learn literature is full of the benefits of journal writing, not just as a means of assessing learning but as an essential part of the learning process itself. (Barclay, 1996; Borasi & Rose, 1989; Emig, 1987; Hogan, 1995; Holly 1987; Yinger & Clarke 1981, etc.). In the personal experience (as tutor) explored in this paper, however, journal writing failed to live up to expectations, both as a means of assessing the acquisition and application of subject specific knowledge, but also and more importantly, as a means of developing high level cognitive skills, such as reflection, analysis, critical thinking, evaluating, and hypothesising. In this paper I explain why journal writing failed to develop high level skills amongst a group of first year undergraduates in 1996. I then evaluate the effectiveness of a journal writing workshop designed to address high level skills amongst two similar groups of students in 1997.
    • Developing Responsive Preventative Practices: Key Messages from Children's and Families' Experiences of the Children's Fund

      Pinnock, Katherine; Evans, Ruth (Wiley InterScience, 2008)
      As part of the prevention and social inclusion agenda, the Children's Fund, set up in 2000, has developed preventative services for children at risk of social exclusion. Drawing on a large qualitative dataset of interviews conducted in 2004/05 with children, young people and their parents/carers who accessed Children Fund services, this article analyses key practices and approaches valued by children and parents. These included: specialist support tailored to individual support needs, family-oriented approaches, trusting relationships with service providers, multi-agency approaches and sustainability of services. Finally, the article draws out key lessons for the future development of preventative services. (Blackwell)
    • Did Wigan have a northern soul?

      Gildart, Keith; Catterall, Stephen; Lashua, Brett; Wagg, Stephen; Spracklen, Karl; Yavuz, M. Selim (Palgrave Macmillan, 2019)
      The town of Wigan in Lancashire, England, will forever be associated with the Northern Soul scene because of the existence of the Casino Club, which operated in the town between 1973 and 1981. By contrast, Liverpool just 22 miles west, with the ‘the most intensely aware soul music Black Community in the country’, (Cohen, 2007, p.31 quoting from Melody Maker, 24 July 1976) remained immune to the attractions of Northern Soul and its associated scene, music, subculture and mythology. Similarly, the city of Manchester has been more broadly associated with punk and post-punk. Wigan was and remains indelibly connected to the Northern Soul scene with the Casino representing a symbolic location for reading the geographical, class and occupational basis of the scene’s practitioners. The club is etched into the history, iconography, and mythology of Northern Soul appearing in the academic and more general literature, television documentaries, memoirs, autobiographies and feature films. This chapter seeks to explore the relationship between history, place, class, industrialisation, mythology and nostalgia in terms of Wigan, the Casino Club and the Northern Soul scene. It asks the question: did Wigan have a northern soul? This is explored through the industrial and working-class history of the town and the place of soul music in its post-war popular culture. More broadly, it complements the historical literature on regional identity identifying how Northern Soul both complemented and challenged orthodox readings of Wigan as a town built on coal and cotton that by the 1970s was entering a process of deindustrialisation.
    • Die heeresgruppe mitte. Ihre rolle bei der deportation Weißrussischer kinder nach Deutschland im frühjahr 1944

      Steinert, Johannes-Dieter (Vienna Wiesenthal Institute for Holocaust Studies (VWI), 2016-07-01)
      Based on German and Belorussian archives as well as on testimonies, this paper examines the deportation of Belorussian children as forced labourers to Germany by units of Army Group Centre in 1944. It analyses the decision-making process, the imprisonment of thousands of children, their deportation, employment in Germany, the role of Belorussian collaborators, and finally the liberation of the children by the Red Army. By focussing on the participation of German military units in deporting child forced labourers, the article sheds light on the contemporary and post-war web of lies to create and maintain the myth of the ‘clean’ Wehrmacht.
    • Die sorgsame ondernemingsreddingspraktisyn: ‘n ondersoek na die gepaste maatstaf

      Jacobs, Lezelle; Neethling, Johann (Litnet - Online, 2016-09-26)
      When the Companies Act 71 of 2008 came into effect on 1 May 2011 it brought about a new era of corporate rescue for South African companies. Chapter 6 of the act provides for a new corporate rescue scheme known as business rescue. Business rescue replaces the previous South African rescue model, judicial management, contained in the Companies Act 61 of 1973. The key role player in the rescue scheme is the business rescue practitioner. The practitioner is afforded extensive powers and rights. He takes control of the management of the company and the duty to rescue the company rests on his shoulders. It is, however, possible for the purposes of chapter 6 to protect the interests of all stakeholders to be frustrated through the incompetence and carelessness of the practitioner. Section 140(3)(b) of the act states that the practitioner has the responsibilities, duties and liabilities of a director of the company for the duration of the rescue proceedings. The responsibilities, duties and liabilities of directors are set out in sections 75, 76 and 77. These sections contain the quasi-codified fiduciary duties of directors as well as the duty of care, skill and diligence and therefore make them applicable to the practitioner. The purpose of this article is to investigate the principles that underpin the test for negligence and the applicability thereof to the practitioner. The conclusion is that the practitioner’s conduct should be measured against that of a reasonable practitioner. This implies that it should be established whether he acted with the same degree of care, skill and diligence that may reasonably be expected of a reasonable practitioner in the same circumstances, having regard also to his personal attributes and qualifications and considering whether this necessitates an even higher standard to be met. At common law it is accepted that a director of a company needs no specific qualifications or even special business acumen to be appointed as such. The degree of care, skill and diligence expected of a director has therefore been determined by applying the notional reasonable person test. The director of a company is, however, held to a somewhat higher standard than the average person due to the fact that he is a fiduciary of the company and is responsible for another’s interests and property. Contrary to this, a business rescue practitioner will be appointed because of his knowledge and experience in the field of business and turnaround management. The notional reasonable person test can therefore not be utilised to evaluate negligent conduct by the practitioner. An argument can, however, be made for the application of the reasonable expert test, and even for the development of a new reasonable practitioner yardstick. The article focuses on an in-depth exploration of the objective and subjective elements of such a reasonable practitioner test and considers all the relevant facts and circumstances that will be of importance during business rescue proceedings. The influence of the business judgment rule as a means to review the fulfilment of the duty of care and the application thereof to the practitioner in the financial distress circumstances will also be investigated. Since the practitioner’s training will influence the consideration of whether he acted with the necessary degree of care, his qualifications, skills and experience will be considered and analysed. The Companies Act of 2008 and the regulations pursuant thereto provide for extensive qualification requirements to be met by a prospective practitioner. Furthermore, practitioners will be appointed as either junior, experienced or senior practitioners, depending on their levels of experience. This article also addresses the disparity between the liability provisions contained in sections 76 and 77 and those contained in chapter 6 of the act – the first requiring ordinary negligence and the latter gross negligence. This is of extreme importance since both provisions apply to the practitioner, but the standard thereof differs. The conclusion is that the yardstick for the practitioner’s liability should be ordinary negligence, that is what could be expected of a reasonable practitioner with the same qualifications and experience.
    • Differences in Sustainable Management Between Four- and Five-Star Hotels Regarding the Perceptions of Three-Pillar Sustainability

      Stylos, Nikolaos; Vassiliadis, Chris (Routledge, 2015-02-19)
      Although there is a wealth of publications about sustainability in tourism destinations management literature, the concept has only recently started coming under examination within the area of hospitality management. This paper’s main focus is on capturing the perceptions and practices of hotel management in respect to the concept of three-dimensional sustainability. A literature based self-administered questionnaire was used and 423 hotels participated in the study. Logistic Regression was employed in order to examine four research hypotheses and extract useful findings. The findings suggest that hotel star ratings play a significant role in the perceived importance of financial measures of economic viability, as well as in the application of socially-responsible practices by hotel management; the same conclusion does not apply to environmental practices. Furthermore, it was found that hotel location does not play a significant role in shaping perceptions of sustainability dimensions.
    • Differentiated legitimacy, differentiated resilience: beyond the natural in ‘natural disasters’

      Harrison, Elizabeth; Chiroro, Canford (Taylor and Francis, 2016-06-27)
      This paper starts with a flood in southern Malawi. Although apparently a ‘natural’ event, those most affected argued that it was made much worse by the rehabilitation of a nearby irrigation scheme. We use this example to interrogate the current interest in resilience from a perspective informed by political ecology and political economy, arguing that a focus on resilience should not be at the expense of understanding the conditions that shape vulnerability, including the ways in which ‘communities’ are differentiated. Complex factors are at play – and the ways in which these combine can result in a ‘perfect storm’ for some individuals and households. These factors include the effects of history combining with ethnicity, of legitimacy influencing voice, and of the interplay of political dynamics at different levels. In particular, processes of commodification have played an important role in shaping how some may benefit at the cost of catastrophic harm to others.
    • Diffusion of sustainability and CSR discourse in hospitality industry: dynamics of local context

      Ertuna, Bengi; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Yamak, Sibel (Emerald, 2018-12-31)
      Purpose: Our focus is on the way in which sustainability and CSR discourses and practices emerge in the collaboration of MNCs with the local hotels in developing country contexts. The paper identifies the prevailing institutional orders and logics that bring about CSR and sustainability discourse in tourism industry in Turkey. It also investigates how and to what extent the CSR and sustainability practices align with the local institutional logics and necessities. Design: Empirical evidence is generated through case studies covering Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc. (Hilton), its Turkish subsidiary and a local hotel chain to ensure data triangulation. Primary data was collected through interviews with the executives of the selected case hotels, which was supported by extensive secondary data. Findings: Some components of CSR and sustainability logics developed in the headquarters diffuse into local affiliate hotel, not all. Local affiliate hotels seek to acquire local legitimacy in their host environment, despite a standard format imposed by their headquarters. Local necessities and priorities translate themselves into such initiatives in a very limited way in the affiliates of the Hilton where there is mostly a top down approach. Similar approach has also been observed in the case of the local hotel which is part of a family business group. Family’s values and family business headquarter shape the CSR and sustainability strategy and the logics reflecting the local component. Originality/value: Through this study, we are able to add further value to the critical writings about the positive contribution of CSR and sustainability in the context of the MNCs and their subsidiaries, which is not substantiated due to limited empirical evidence.
    • Dilemmas of post-enlargement Europe: building an 'Insecurity Zone'

      Dangerfield, Martin (Kaunas University of Technology, 2016-10-01)
      This article reflects on the development and operation of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) from the perspective of the post-1989 attempt to extend the West European ‘Security Community’ into the wider Europe via processes of both EU enlargement and attempts to foster deep integration with former Soviet states. Whilst the EU’s strategy towards eastern neighbours should certainly not be taken as the sole or even key cause of the ‘insecurity zone’ in and around the EU’s eastern frontier, it seems hard to avoid the conclusion that actions such as the ENP and EaP have played an important part in these developments. This is an analytical contribution rather than a study based on primary research. As well as extending existing discussions about the expansion of the European Security Community and the application of the ‘Optimum Integration Area’ concept to the EaP countries, the article includes a focus on EU states’ economic relations with Russia which is a critical albeit underexplored constraint upon EU ‘eastern’ policy.
    • Directors’ duty to act in the interests of creditors under section 172 of the Companies Act 2006 – Aussie Rules Gone Walkabout

      Walton, Peter (Wolverhampton University, 2019-06-11)
      Sections 171 to 177 of the Companies Act 2006 (“the Act”) codified the duties owed by directors to their companies in equity and at common law. Section 170(4) of the Act states that the codified duties: “shall be interpreted and applied in the same way as common law rules or equitable principles, and regard shall be had to the corresponding common law rules and equitable principles in interpreting and applying the general duties.”
    • Disability and the family in South Wales coalfield society, c.1920–1939

      Curtis, Ben; Thompson, Steven (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2017-06-14)
      This article utilises the south Wales coalfield in the interwar period as a case study to illustrate the applicability of two sociological theories – family systems theory and the social ecology of the family – to impairment in the past. It demonstrates that a theoretically-informed approach can help to situate impairment in its particular contexts, most especially the family and the community, and give a better sense of the lived experience of disability. It also demonstrates the complexity of the experience of disability as the family and economic circumstances of each impaired individual varied and led to different forms of care-giving or the utilisation of different sources of support. The article also sheds further light on the ubiquity of disability as many families included a number of individuals with different impairments and this too had consequences for experiences and coping strategies.
    • Discoursive strategies for coping with sensitive topics of the Other

      Galasinska, Aleksandra; Galasinski, Dariusz (London, Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2003)
      This paper explores border residents' strategies for coping with topics which they perceive as difficult or sensitive in their discourses about people living in such European border locations. Thus we are concerned with the way in which people negotiate accounts of implicit or explicit ethnic conflict, prejudice or negative stereotyping of 'the Other'. We indicate two types of such strategies. First, the strategy of mitigation, in which informants attempt to soften or licence their stereotypical views. Second, we shall discuss a strategy in which mitigation is replaced by the practice of 'oracular reasoning' in our informants' constructions of the ethnic Other; this occurs in those instances when a basic premise is confronted with contradictory evidence, but the evidence is ignored or rejected. The data for our analysis come from 12 border communities in which informants talk about the Other from either across the border, or, in the case of multi-ethnic communities, from within the community itself. We focus upon constructions that purport to give a universal answer to questions of 'what they are like'. Specifically, we explore those constructions where informants have to deal with conflictual voices (either explicit or implicit in the informants' discourse) which question their accounts or contradict the claims they make. Finally, we see the strategies for coping with conflictual accounts of the Other as indicative of the tension between the discursively postulated social/ethnic separation of the border communities and the constructed threat from the Other on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the new and changing public discourse of the Other and the politics underpinning it which goes counter to those more private discourses. (Routledge)
    • Discursive construction of fatherly suicide

      Galasinski, Dariusz; Ziółkowska, Justyna (Taylor & Francis, 2016-10-31)
      In this article we are interested in stories of sons and daughters about their fathers who completed suicide. The data come from ten interviews with survivors of suicidal death of their fathers. Taking a constructionist view of discourse, we aim to analyse sons’ and daughters’ narratives in the context of two conflicting discourses of (positive) fatherhood and (negative) suicide. We shall show how they use the discursive strategies of distancing in the narratives about fathers’ suicide as a means of coping with the two conflicting discourses. And so, first, they avoid labelling the act as suicide, second, they avoid direct reference to the fact that it was their father who completed the act, third, they dilute the father’s responsibility for the act.
    • Dissolving the People: Lawyers and the Liberal Political Complex in Hong Kong

      Jones, Carol (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2007)
      Across the world political liberalism is being fought for, consolidated and defended. That is the case for nations that have never enjoyed a liberal political society, for nations that have advanced towards and then retreated from political liberalism, for nations that have recently shifted from authoritarian to liberal political systems, and for mature democracies facing terrorism and domestic conflict. This book tests for the contemporary world the proposition that lawyers are active agents in the construction of liberal political regimes. It examines the efficacy of a framework that postulates that legal professions not only orient themselves to a market for their services but can frequently be seen in the forefront of actors seeking to institutionalise political liberalism. On the basis of some 16 case studies from across the world, the authors present a theoretical link between lawyers and political liberalism having wide-ranging application over radically diverse situations in Asia and the Middle East, North and South America, and Europe. They argue that it is not the politics of lawyers alone but the politics of a 'legal complex' of legally trained occupations, centred on lawyers and judges, that drives advances or retreats from political liberalism, that political liberalism itself is everywhere in play, in countries with established democracies and those without liberal politics and that it is now clear that the legal arena is a central field of struggle over the shape of political power. The case studies presented here provide powerful evidence that the nexus of bar and bench in transitions towards or away from political liberalism is a force which has universal application. (Hart)
    • Diversity and Conflict in Boards of Directors

      Walker, Alan; Machold, Silke; Ahmed, Pervaiz K. (2015-03-04)
      This study seeks to contribute to the debate on board behavior by investigating how deeper-level diversity, specifically differences in personality, interacts with demographic diversity to explain board cognitive and affective conflict. Using survey data from a pilot study of 98 directors in 16 UK boards, we show that dissimilarities in personality traits are negatively related to cognitive conflict, but this relationship is moderated by gender and tenure diversity. Personality differences do not explain affective conflict. The study provides insights into how theories from psychology may help us understand antecedents to board behaviors
    • Doctrine and Reform in the British Cavalry 1880-1918

      Badsey, Stephen (Ashgate Publishing, 2008)
      A prevalent view among historians is that both horsed cavalry and the cavalry charge became obviously obsolete in the second half of the nineteenth century in the face of increased infantry and artillery firepower, and that officers of the cavalry clung to both for reasons of prestige and stupidity. It is this view, commonly held but rarely supported by sustained research, that this book challenges. It shows that the achievements of British and Empire cavalry in the First World War, although controversial, are sufficient to contradict the argument that belief in the cavalry was evidence of military incompetence. It offers a case study of how in reality a practical military doctrine for the cavalry was developed and modified over several decades, influenced by wider defence plans and spending, by the experience of combat, by Army politics, and by the rivalries of senior officers. Debate as to how the cavalry was to adjust its tactics in the face of increased infantry and artillery firepower began in the mid nineteenth century, when the increasing size of armies meant a greater need for mobile troops. The cavalry problem was how to deal with a gap in the evolution of warfare between the mass armies of the later nineteenth century and the motorised firepower of the mid twentieth century, an issue that is closely connected with the origins of the deadlock on the Western Front. Tracing this debate, this book shows how, despite serious attempts to ‘learn from history’, both European-style wars and colonial wars produced ambiguous or disputed evidence as to the future of cavalry, and doctrine was largely a matter of what appeared practical at the time. Contents: Preface; Doctrine and the cavalry 1880–1918; The Wolseley era 1880–1899; The Boer War 1899–1902; The Roberts era 1902–1905; The Haldane era 1905–1914; The First World War 1914–1918; Conclusion; Appendix; Bibliography; Index.
    • Does board independence influence financial performance in IPO firms? The moderating role of the national business system

      Zattoni, Alessandro; Witt, Michael A.; Judge, William Q.; Talaulicar, Till; Chen, Jean Jinghan; Lewellyn, Krista; Hu, Helen Wei; Gabrielsson, Jonas; Rivas, Jose Luis; Puffer, Sheila; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-08-31)
      Prior evidence suggests that board independence may enhance financial performance, but this relationship has been tested almost exclusively for Anglo-American countries. To explore the boundary conditions of this prominent governance mechanism, we examine the impact of the formal and information institutions of 18 national business systems on the board independence-financial performance relationship. Our results show that while the direct effect of independence is weak, national-level institutions significantly moderate the independence-performance relationship. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of board structures is likely to be contingent on the specific national context, but the type of legal system is insignificant.