• Concluding reflections and presentation of an EBOCD conceptual process model

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Jones, Jenni; Ellinger, Andrea D.; Hamlin, R. G.; Ellinger, A. D.; Jones, J.; Hamlin, R. G.; Ellinger, A. D; Jones, J. (IGI GlobalHershey, Pennsylvania, 2018-12-31)
      This chapter begins by presenting a synopsis of insights on EBOCD practice gleaned from the Section 2 chapters, and a range of extant and emergent generalized (common) insights and lessons about evidencebased initiatives for OCD that have resulted from a multiple cross-case comparative analysis of the 33 reflective case histories presented in Section 3. It then offers a response to the skepticisms expressed by McLean and Kim, the authors of Chapter 52, about the reality of EBOCD ever existing beyond what they suggest could be outlier case history examples of OCD by drawing attention to the wide range of extant best evidence that informed them. The chapter concludes with an EBOCD Conceptual Process Model which offers a pathway forward for bridging the reputed research-practice gap in the field of OCD and HRD, and for generating new bodies of best evidence and practice-to-theory research opportunities.
    • Conference Proceedings of the 3rd European First Year Experience (EFYE) Conference

      Pieterick, Jackie; Ralph, Richard; Lawton, Megan (2009-09)
    • Confronting the “fraud bottleneck”: private sanctions for fraud and their implications for justice

      Button, Mark; Wakefield, Alison; Brooks, Graham; Lewis, Chris; Shepherd, David (2015-09-21)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the ways in which contemporary organisations are imposing their own private sanctions on fraudsters. Design/methodology/approach – The research draws on primary data from interviews with counter fraud practitioners in the UK, secondary sources and case examples. Findings – Such developments have been stimulated, at least in part, by the broader limitations of the criminal justice system and in particular a “fraud bottleneck”. Alongside criminal sanctions, many examples are provided of organisations employing private prosecutions innovative forms of civil sanction and “pseudo state” sanctions, most commonly civil penalties comparable to fines. Research limitations/implications – Such changes could mark the beginning of the “rebirth of private prosecution” and the further expansion of private punishment. Growing private involvement in state sanctions and the development of private sanctions represents a risk to traditional guarantees of justice. There are differences in which comparable frauds are dealt with by corporate bodies and thus considerable inconsistency in sanctions imposed. In contrast with criminal justice measures, there is no rehabilitative element to private sanctions. More research is needed to assess the extent of such measures, and establish what is happening, the wider social implications, and whether greater state regulation is needed. Practical implications – Private sanctions for fraud are likely to continue to grow, as organisations pursue their own measures rather than relying on increasingly over-stretched criminal justice systems. Their emergence, extent and implications are not fully understood by researchers and therefore need much more research, consideration and debate. These private measures need to be more actively recognised by criminal justice policy-makers and analysts alongside the already substantial formal involvement of the private sector in punishment through prisons, electronic tagging and probation, for example. Such measures lack the checks and balances, and greater degree of consistency as laid out in sentencing guidelines, of the criminal justice system. In light of this, consideration needs to be given to greater state regulation of private sanctions for fraud. More also needs to be done to help fraudsters suffering problems such as debt or addiction to rebuild their lives. There is a strong case for measures beyond the criminal justice system to support such fraudsters to be created and publicly promoted. Originality/value – The findings are of relevance to criminal justice policy-makers, academics and counter fraud practitioners in the public and private sectors.
    • Constructing East Germany: Interpretations of GDR History since Unification

      Dennis, Mike (2004)
      This book: The system transformation after German unification in 1990 constituted an experiment on an unprecedented scale. At no point in history had one state attempted to redesign another without conquest, bloodshed or coercion but by treaties, public policy and bureaucratic processes. Unification was achieved by erasing the eastern political and economic model. However, in the meantime it has become clear that the same cannot be said about social transformation. On the contrary, social and cultural attitudes and differentiation have continued and resulted in deep divisions between West and East Germany. After unification, the injustices of politics seemed to have been replaced, in the eyes of most former GDR citizens, by unexpected injustices in the personal spheres of ordinary people who lost their jobs and faced unknown realities of deprivation and social exclusion. These are the main concerns of the contributors to this volume. Incorporating new research findings and published data, they focus on key aspects of economic, political, and social transformation in eastern Germany and compare, through case studies, each area with developments in the West.
    • Construction Lawyers' Attitude and Experience with ADR

      Brooker, Penny (Sweet & Maxwell, 2002)
      Survey of construction lawyers on their experiences of ADR, particularly mediation, including mediation settlement rates, categories of disputes and parties involved in mediation, and factors involved in mediation failure or rejection.
    • Construction of suicidal ideation in medical records

      Galasinski, Dariusz; Ziółkowska, Justyna (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2017-07-13)
      In this paper we are interested in exploring discursive transformation of patients’ stories
of suicidal ideation into medical discourses. In other words, we focus on how the narrated experience of suicidal thoughts made during the psychiatric assessment interview is recorded in the patients’ medical record. Our data come from recordings of psychiatric interviews, as well as the doctors’ notes in the medical records made after the interviews, collected in psychiatric hospitals in Poland. Assuming a constructionist view of discourse, we demonstrate that lived experience of suicide ideation resulting in stories of a complex and homogeneous group of “thoughts” is reduced to brief statements of fact of presence/existence. Exploration of the relationship between the interviews and the notes suggest a stark imposition of the medical gaze upon them. We end with arguments that discursive practices relegating lived experience from the focus of clinical practice deprives it of information which is meaningful and clinically significant.
    • Consultation for a Change? Engaging Users and Communities in the policy Process

      Cook, Dee (Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2002)
      The process of consultation has become integral to the development, implementation and evaluation of a raft of UK health and social policies. However, the current bewildering patchwork of area–based initiatives means that, in many localities, it is impossible to evaluate the outcomes of particular targeted initiatives, let alone make sense of local planning consultations, Best Value reviews and (multi–agency) service reviews which run concurrently. The cumulative effects of this consultation "overload" threaten to swamp both local authorities and their service users. Consul–tation is itself a crucial yet deeply problematic process. There is an official view which holds that an "old" model of consultation—often tokenistic and unrepresentative—is being replaced with a "new" one. This paper examines and challenges that view in relation to the key policy areas of housing, social services and policing. It also pays particular attention to, and problematizes, the notion of "hard–to–reach groups", which is so dominant in the discourse of consultation. The paper argues that developing appropriate tools and recognizing that consultation is a process—not an event—are essential starting points in addressing these problems. The next step is to reconcile the principles of both evidence–based policy and user–led services into a strategic (and "joined–up") framework. But, when all this is accomplished, we still need to question the political and fiscal contexts in which policy–making takes place and within which the process of consultation is itself bounded.
    • Consumer Protection Awareness in South Africa

      Mason, Roger B. (World Research Organization, 2007)
      This paper addresses the lack of knowledge about awareness of consumer protection in South Africa, especially amongst disadvantaged consumers. Literature shows that there is a high correlation between the level of economic development and the awareness of consumer rights. The more developed a country is, the more aware its people will be in terms of their consumer rights. The less developed a country is, the lower the level of consumer rights awareness consumers will have. Consumers, like any other citizens of a country, have a right to be protected by the law. Private and nongovernmental organisations and the consumer councils should to ensure that the interests and rights of consumers are well protected. The study involved a literature review and an exploratory empirical study into the effect of income and education on awareness of consumer protection by a sample of Durban consumers. A strong, positive relationship between consumer protection awareness and income and education was found. Recommendations for actions which should improve consumer protection awareness amongst low income, poorly educated consumers, are suggested in, this study, while, further research to develop a deeper understanding of the problem, and are also suggested.
    • Consumer research, interpretive paradigms and methodological ambiguities

      Goulding, Christina (MCB UP Ltd, 1999)
      The 1980s and 1990s have witnessed a growing application of qualitative methods, particularly in the study of consumer behaviour. This has led to some division between researchers on the basis of methodological orientation, or a positivist/interpretivist split. Much of the criticism regarding qualitative research centres on issues of clarity, methodological transgressions, and the mixing of methods without clear justification and explication of “why” and “how”. Offers the example of phenomenology and grounded theory, two methods which are often treated as one. Compares and contrasts them in relation to underpinning philosophies, procedures for sampling, data collection and techniques for analysis. Suggests that methods are “personal” and that researcher introspection and the philosophical basis of a given methodology should form the starting-point for enquiry.
    • Contemporary perceptions of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour: a 21st century case for the U.S.A.

      Ruiz, Carlos E.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Gresch, Eric B. (North American Business Press, Inc, 2017-02-28)
      This qualitative study explores how contemporary US managers and non-managerial employees in the metropolitan region of Atlanta, Georgia behaviorally differentiate effective managers from ineffective ones. We collected from 81 research participants 381 critical incidents (CIs) of observed effective and ineffective managerial behavior. These CIs were subjected to open, axial and selective coding which resulted in the emergence of 10 effective and 13 ineffective behavioral indicators of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness. The findings could be valuable to managers seeking to make better decisions about how best to behaviorally manage and lead US employees in the 21st century.
    • Cooperation and Conflict: Episodes from the North Wales Coalfield, 1925-35

      Gildart, Keith (Keele University: Centre for Industrial Relations, 2001)
    • Cooperation for innovation and its impact on technological and non-technological innovations: empirical evidence for European SMEs in traditional manufacturing industries

      Radicic, Dragana; Douglas, David; Pugh, Geoffrey; Jackson, Ian (World Scientific, 2018-10-19)
      Drawing on a sample of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in traditional manufacturing industries from seven EU regions, this study investigates how cooperation with external organisations affects technological (product and process) innovations and non-technological (organisational and marketing) innovations as well as the commercial success of product and process innovations (i.e., innovative sales). Our empirical strategy takes into account that all four types of innovation are potentially complementary. Empirical results suggest that cooperation increases firms’ innovativeness and yields substantial commercial benefits. In particular, increasing the number of cooperation partnerships has a positive impact on all measures of innovation performance. We conclude that a portfolio approach to cooperation enhances innovation performance and that innovation support programs should be demand-led.
    • Coping with complexity and turbulence: An entrepreneurial solution

      Mason, Roger B. (World Scientific Publishing, 2006)
      This paper considers the adoption of an entrepreneurial orientation as a paradigm for companies operating in a complex and turbulent environment, viewing the environment as a complex and turbulent system in terms of chaos theory. Approaches suggested by chaos theory are compared with the entrepreneurial orientation to identify if such an orientation matches these suggested approaches. Literature on chaos theory and entrepreneurship is compared, and a short case is presented, providing an illustration of how a company operating successfully in a complex and turbulent environment has used the principles of an entrepreneurial orientation. The paper identifies considerable similarity between the management approaches suggested by chaos theory and the principles of the entrepreneurial orientation, indicating that chaos theory may provide the theoretical underpinning of the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and turbulent environments. The case also shows how an entrepreneurial orientation has been successfully used in a complex and turbulent environment. The conclusion is that companies operating in a complex and turbulent environment could benefit from adopting an entrepreneurial orientation.
    • Corporate collapse and the reform of boardroom structures - lessons from America?

      Griffin, Stephen (Sweet & Maxwell, 2003)
      Comments on the events leading to the collapse of the Enron corporation in the US. Highlights the responsibility for Enron's demise, focusing on the role of the auditors, the board and senior management. Examines key provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002, passed as a direct response to Enron, including the prohibitions on corporate activity, the regulation of auditors and the imposition of criminal penalties. Discusses the UK's response to the corporate scandals in the US, reviewing proposed reforms in the Higgs report relating to boardroom structures and the role of non-executive directors, and the scope of the revised Code on Corporate Governance, published in July 2003.
    • Corporate Governance and Ethics: A Feminist Perspective.

      Machold, Silke; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.; Farquhar, Stuart S. (SpringerLink, 2008)
      The mainstream literature on corporate governance is based on the premise of conflicts of interest in a competitive game played by variously defined stakeholders and thus builds explicitly and/or implicitly on masculinist ethical theories. This article argues that insights from feminist ethics, and in particular ethics of care, can provide a different, yet relevant, lens through which to study corporate governance. Based on feminist ethical theories, the article conceptualises a governance model that is different from the current normative orthodoxy.
    • Corporate governance and IPO underpricing in a cross-national sample: A multilevel knowledge-based view

      Judge, William Q.; Witt, Michael A.; Zattoni, Alessandro; Talaulicar, Till; Chen, Jean Jinghan; Lewellyn, Krista; Hu, Helen Wei; Shukla, Dhirendra; Bell Robert, R. Greg; Gabrielsson, Jonas; et al. (Wiley, 2014-05-27)
      Prior studies of IPO underpricing, mostly using agency theory and single-country samples, have generally fallen short. In this study, we employ the knowledge-based view (KBV) to explore underpricing across 17 countries. We find that agency indicators are insignificant predictors, board of director knowledge limits underpricing, and external knowledge both substitutes for and complements internal board knowledge. This third finding suggests that future KBV studies should consider how internal and external knowledge states interact with each other. Our study offers new insights into the antecedents of underpricing and extends our understanding of comparative governance and the KBV of the firm.
    • Corporate governance models in emerging markets: the case of India

      Machold, Silke; Vasudevan, Ajit K (Inderscience, 2004)
      Corporate governance has come to be recognised as a cornerstone of economic reforms seeking to promote stability and growth in developing countries. The Asian crisis of the 1997 was viewed as having roots in poor governance and hence national governments as well as international organisations have sought to promote a strengthening of governance mechanisms. This article investigates governance reforms in India over the last decade. The paper reviews changes in Indian governance codes that indicate a preference of adoption of Anglo-American governance models. A survey of ownership structures of Indian listed companies reveals a mixture of governance mechanisms and a persistence of the ''business house model'' of governance. The paper concludes that despite external pressures towards an ''Anglo-Americanisation'' of governance practice, the outcomes thus far reveal the emergence of a diversity of governance mechanisms arising in a path-dependent fashion.
    • Corporate governance models: is there a right one for transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe?

      Yeoh, Peter (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2007)
      Purpose – Poland along with other members of the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have adopted a hybrid corporate governance model, which draws inspirations from both the insider-oriented system as exemplified in Germany and the outsider-oriented system as exemplified in the UK. The paper aims to examine the effectiveness of the transplantation process in Poland. Design/methodology/approach – The paper looks at common actual practices prevailing in the country itself and compares this with those in Germany and the UK. The research approach relies on a limited case analysis, drawing data primarily from the public domain. Findings – Poland's hybrid corporate governance system appears to align with the country's socio-economic-legal framework and also takes into account the common positive features found in both the insider-oriented system and the outsider-oriented system; and in particular the emphasis on transparency and accountability, proper corporate asset management, and investors’ protection safeguards. However, it would appear that the process of corporate governance monitoring and enforcement in Poland may need to be improved. It is also observed that Poland is increasingly looking towards the Anglo-Saxon model of corporate governance as it developed its own system, largely because of the relatively greater success of the latter, the influence of influential global institutional investors in Continental Europe, and the diminishing influence of the German model, which itself is now contemplating fundamental reforms. Practical implications – The transition economies of CEE like Poland requires the practice of sound corporate governance to ensure more efficient mobilisation of their economic resources. Originality/value – The paper shows that good corporate governance should help to attract more foreign investments into transition economies to help accelerate growth and enhance their balance of payments positions; and reduce gradually the extent of state involvement in the business sector.
    • Corporate Manslaughter: A Radical Reform?

      Griffin, Stephen (Vathek Publishing Ltd, 2007)
      Presents a critique of the offence of corporate manslaughter introduced by the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Bill 2006. Compares the statutory offence with the common law position. Raises doubts about the proposed legislation in terms of identifying a senior manager to breach the relevant duty of care, the gross negligence test and the difficulty of establishing a senior management failure in companies with complex management structures.
    • Correction in the Countryside: Convict Labour in Rural Germany 1871-1914

      Constantine, Simon (London: Sage Publications, 2006)
      Over the course of the Empire demand for labour in the countryside and penal reform together created the conditions for a greater deployment of prisoners, workhouse inmates and young offenders in agriculture. Farming on site, and especially leasing offenders, were the most cost-efficient ways of detaining men. Agricultural work was also regarded as key to their rehabilitation. It served to equip inmates upon release for the sector of the economy most in need of workers. ‘Outside work’ away from the institution was also seen as an intermediate stage in the prisoner's sentence before release. Two developments in the charitable sector complemented this correctional strategy: the emergence of a network of workers’ farming colonies which acted as half-way houses for ex-prisoners after release, and ex-offender employment programmes run by prisoner welfare societies, channelling ex-offenders towards agricultural employment. Despite these efforts to reintegrate offenders, re-offending rates remained high. Penal authorities either attributed this to the incorrigibility of some inmates, or pushed for longer sentences. In some cases penal and medical authorities were inclined to re-interpret the criminal behaviour of repeat offenders as behaviour symptomatic of mental illness, and some inmates were transferred to asylums. In the discourse surrounding the failure of reform the argument that the exclusionary and punitive nature of the prison and workhouse régime actually worked against rehabilitation held little sway, nor the argument that high re-offending rates could be attributed to the vagrancy and begging laws which criminalized systemic poverty and homelessness. Absent here was any understanding that the life offered following release, working as ancillary workers or hands on the estates, bore too striking a resemblance to work in agriculture during detention. This in itself was one major reason why many ex-offenders directed into agricultural employment after release refused to stay and work.