• Corporate Governance and Ethics: A Feminist Perspective.

      Machold, Silke; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.; Farquhar, Stuart S. (SpringerLink, 2008)
      The mainstream literature on corporate governance is based on the premise of conflicts of interest in a competitive game played by variously defined stakeholders and thus builds explicitly and/or implicitly on masculinist ethical theories. This article argues that insights from feminist ethics, and in particular ethics of care, can provide a different, yet relevant, lens through which to study corporate governance. Based on feminist ethical theories, the article conceptualises a governance model that is different from the current normative orthodoxy.
    • Corporate governance and IPO underpricing in a cross-national sample: A multilevel knowledge-based view

      Judge, William Q.; Witt, Michael A.; Zattoni, Alessandro; Talaulicar, Till; Chen, Jean Jinghan; Lewellyn, Krista; Hu, Helen Wei; Shukla, Dhirendra; Bell Robert, R. Greg; Gabrielsson, Jonas; et al. (Wiley, 2015-08)
      Prior studies of IPO underpricing, mostly using agency theory and single-country samples, have generally fallen short. In this study, we employ the knowledge-based view (KBV) to explore underpricing across 17 countries. We find that agency indicators are insignificant predictors, board of director knowledge limits underpricing, and external knowledge both substitutes for and complements internal board knowledge. This third finding suggests that future KBV studies should consider how internal and external knowledge states interact with each other. Our study offers new insights into the antecedents of underpricing and extends our understanding of comparative governance and the KBV of the firm.
    • Corporate governance models in emerging markets: the case of India

      Machold, Silke; Vasudevan, Ajit K (Inderscience, 2004)
      Corporate governance has come to be recognised as a cornerstone of economic reforms seeking to promote stability and growth in developing countries. The Asian crisis of the 1997 was viewed as having roots in poor governance and hence national governments as well as international organisations have sought to promote a strengthening of governance mechanisms. This article investigates governance reforms in India over the last decade. The paper reviews changes in Indian governance codes that indicate a preference of adoption of Anglo-American governance models. A survey of ownership structures of Indian listed companies reveals a mixture of governance mechanisms and a persistence of the ''business house model'' of governance. The paper concludes that despite external pressures towards an ''Anglo-Americanisation'' of governance practice, the outcomes thus far reveal the emergence of a diversity of governance mechanisms arising in a path-dependent fashion.
    • Corporate governance models: is there a right one for transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe?

      Yeoh, Peter (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2007)
      Purpose – Poland along with other members of the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have adopted a hybrid corporate governance model, which draws inspirations from both the insider-oriented system as exemplified in Germany and the outsider-oriented system as exemplified in the UK. The paper aims to examine the effectiveness of the transplantation process in Poland. Design/methodology/approach – The paper looks at common actual practices prevailing in the country itself and compares this with those in Germany and the UK. The research approach relies on a limited case analysis, drawing data primarily from the public domain. Findings – Poland's hybrid corporate governance system appears to align with the country's socio-economic-legal framework and also takes into account the common positive features found in both the insider-oriented system and the outsider-oriented system; and in particular the emphasis on transparency and accountability, proper corporate asset management, and investors’ protection safeguards. However, it would appear that the process of corporate governance monitoring and enforcement in Poland may need to be improved. It is also observed that Poland is increasingly looking towards the Anglo-Saxon model of corporate governance as it developed its own system, largely because of the relatively greater success of the latter, the influence of influential global institutional investors in Continental Europe, and the diminishing influence of the German model, which itself is now contemplating fundamental reforms. Practical implications – The transition economies of CEE like Poland requires the practice of sound corporate governance to ensure more efficient mobilisation of their economic resources. Originality/value – The paper shows that good corporate governance should help to attract more foreign investments into transition economies to help accelerate growth and enhance their balance of payments positions; and reduce gradually the extent of state involvement in the business sector.
    • Corporate Manslaughter: A Radical Reform?

      Griffin, Stephen (Vathek Publishing Ltd, 2007)
      Presents a critique of the offence of corporate manslaughter introduced by the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Bill 2006. Compares the statutory offence with the common law position. Raises doubts about the proposed legislation in terms of identifying a senior manager to breach the relevant duty of care, the gross negligence test and the difficulty of establishing a senior management failure in companies with complex management structures.
    • Correction in the Countryside: Convict Labour in Rural Germany 1871-1914

      Constantine, Simon (London: Sage Publications, 2006)
      Over the course of the Empire demand for labour in the countryside and penal reform together created the conditions for a greater deployment of prisoners, workhouse inmates and young offenders in agriculture. Farming on site, and especially leasing offenders, were the most cost-efficient ways of detaining men. Agricultural work was also regarded as key to their rehabilitation. It served to equip inmates upon release for the sector of the economy most in need of workers. ‘Outside work’ away from the institution was also seen as an intermediate stage in the prisoner's sentence before release. Two developments in the charitable sector complemented this correctional strategy: the emergence of a network of workers’ farming colonies which acted as half-way houses for ex-prisoners after release, and ex-offender employment programmes run by prisoner welfare societies, channelling ex-offenders towards agricultural employment. Despite these efforts to reintegrate offenders, re-offending rates remained high. Penal authorities either attributed this to the incorrigibility of some inmates, or pushed for longer sentences. In some cases penal and medical authorities were inclined to re-interpret the criminal behaviour of repeat offenders as behaviour symptomatic of mental illness, and some inmates were transferred to asylums. In the discourse surrounding the failure of reform the argument that the exclusionary and punitive nature of the prison and workhouse régime actually worked against rehabilitation held little sway, nor the argument that high re-offending rates could be attributed to the vagrancy and begging laws which criminalized systemic poverty and homelessness. Absent here was any understanding that the life offered following release, working as ancillary workers or hands on the estates, bore too striking a resemblance to work in agriculture during detention. This in itself was one major reason why many ex-offenders directed into agricultural employment after release refused to stay and work.
    • Court Connected Construction Mediation Practice in England and Wales

      Brooker, Penny; Agapiou, Andrew; Ilter, Deniz (Routledge, 2016-08)
    • Courting white southerners: Theodore Roosevelt’s quest for the heart of the South

      Burns, Adam (Taylor and Francis, 2019-02-13)
      Most studies of President Theodore Roosevelt address his “southern strategy” to revive the Republican Party’s fortunes in a region where it was effectively shut out by 1900. This essay revisits Roosevelt’s approach to the South between 1901 and 1912 and argues that wooing white southerners away from the Democratic Party, more than any other approach, represented Roosevelt’s overriding strategy for the revitalization of the southern GOP.
    • Creating Jobs, Manufacturing Unity: Ulster Unionism and Mass Unemployment 1922-34

      Norton, Christopher (London: Routledge, 2001)
      The inter-war recession and resultant mass unemployment presented a serious problem for the new Northern Ireland government. Having weathered republican attempts to destabilise the state, the Unionist government found its credibility questioned by a core element of its own support: the Protestant working class. In its efforts to galvanise support and ensure Unionist unity the government resorted to a series of strategies to alleviate the unemployment problem. The pursuit of these strategies created tension and division within the Unionist cabinet. What became apparent was that Unionist unity could be secure not by the appeal of sectarianism but only by the appearance of competence. (Informaworld)
    • Creating shared value in an industrial conurbation: evidence from the North Staffordshire ceramics cluster

      Jackson, Ian; Limbrick, Lorraine (Wiley, 2019-03-15)
      The claims by Porter and Kramer that the concept of Creating Shared Value is an effective way of reinventing modern capitalism by releasing an upsurge in innovation is misleading because it maintains self-interest principally of large corporations at the centre of the economic system. The long-term development of the North Staffordshire Ceramics cluster suggests that firms such as Wedgwood were developing a primitive form of CSV over 250 years ago at the start of capitalism as opposed to a recent way of reinventing modern capitalism. The evidence of competitive forces remains strong and the resilience of firms in the cluster is much more in line with Schumpeterian “perennial gale of creative destruction” than a “wave of innovation and growth” offered by Porter and Kramer.
    • Crime & Criminal Justice in China 1949-99

      Jones, Carol (Routledge-Cavendish, 2005)
      This book examines the issues of crime and its control in the 21st century - an era of human history where people live in an increasingly interconnected and interdependent world. It is one of the very few books that examines crime and its control in a global and translational context. The volume contains 15 chapters, which are written by well-established academic criminologists from different parts of the world.The book is divided into four main parts. Part two focuses on an examination of crime and social control issues in selected regions, or countries. It examines crime and social control in Saudi Arabia, Singapore, China, Post-Apartheid South Africa, and West Africa.
    • Crime Prevention as Law: Rhetoric or Reality?

      Moss, Kate (London: Routledge, 2005)
      This innovative and pioneering new book establishes links between crime reduction and the law, uniquely offering a detailed examination of how specific legislation and performance targets aid or undermine attempts at crime reduction. Providing a sustained analysis, this ground-breaking book considers the social policy, politics and legislation that surround and drive the crime reduction agenda. It analyzes: the creation of 'safe environments' through Town and Country Planning legislation, the role of local authorities in crime reduction initiatives, the nature of drug policy, paedophilia legislation, and programs to control mental disorder crime. Bringing together the work of internationally renowned experts in this field, this book will prove very useful to students of criminology and sociology, as well as crime prevention and reduction practitioners, police officers and community safety partnership professionals. (Routledge)
    • Crime Prevention v Planning: Section 17 of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Is it a Material Consideration?

      Moss, Kate (Palgrave Macmillan, 2001)
      In a previous paper, Moss and Pease outlined that although Section 17 of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 was arguably the most radical section, this did not appear to have been recognised. Specifically, fieldwork suggested that police requests for crime prevention measures, made on the basis of Section 17, were not consistently being accommodated, particularly where they conflicted with what planning officers wanted. It was argued that Section 17 should have a greater visible impact upon the agencies that it would necessarily affect. Contested planning applications since this time suggest that whilst many police forces and local councils, including planning departments, have been working hard to implement the requirements of Section 17, this is being undermined by decisions of the Planning Inspectorate. They maintain that in the absence of case law, Section 17 does not constitute a material consideration in terms of planning. Some examples, which have been contested on this basis, are discussed. It is suggested that the Planning Inspectorate should interpret Section 17 as a material consideration, in line with the guidelines laid down in Home Office Circular 5/94 'Planning Out Crime'3 and give greater primacy to the views held by the public in Crime Audits.
    • Crime Reduction

      Moss, Kate (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2008)
      Across the globe, challenging and contentious issues about community safety and security increasingly exercise governments and police forces—as well as, for example, town planners and car-park designers. Consequently, as a specialist area within the wider discipline of criminology, crime reduction has never before enjoyed such prominence in public and scholarly discourse. With research on and around the subject flourishing as never before, this new title in the Routledge Major Works series, Critical Concepts in Criminology, meets the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of the subdiscipline’s colossal literature and the continuing explosion in research output and practice. Edited by Kate Moss, a prominent academic in the field, Crime Reduction is a four-volume collection of foundational and cutting-edge scholarship. The first volume in the collection (‘Approaches to Reduction’) brings together the best research on the different approaches to crime reduction, including its classification and theory, and ideas of what is preventable. The work gathered here also includes criticisms of crime reduction, not least research around the phenomena of displacement and sustainability. Volume II (‘Motivation of the Criminal Inclination’) collects the most important work on issues of crime reduction, particularly those concerned with what one thinker has described as ‘structure and psyche’. The scholarship in this volume draws both on the structural perspective (which emphasizes the view that reduction is achievable only through economic and social change, especially by ameliorating inequality or levels of social exclusion), and the ‘psyche’ approach (which regards crime principally as a product of the human spirit and seeks to change criminal inclination and activity by policies of, for example, deterrence, incapacitation, and reform). The notion of situational crime reduction has been a particularly active area of research in recent years. But the idea that changes to the social and physical settings in which crime may occur can reduce its frequency or impact is far from uncontroversial. Volume III (‘Situational Crime Reduction’) assembles the best thinking in this area tackling, for example, ethical dilemmas about the impact of some reduction strategies on our freedom and privacy rights, as well as the difficult and profound implications that arise from the increasing extent to which crime reduction has become the de facto responsibility of private rather than state organizations. The final volume in the collection (‘Crime Prevention in Action’) gathers together the best cutting-edge work to highlight key examples of empirical crime reduction research in action. It includes research focusing on: the need to incentivize crime reduction to persuade more people to take responsibility for reducing a greater variety of crime; the effects of apparently subtle strategies (such as changes to street lighting); and anticipatory changes (whereby crime seems to reduce in advance of reduction initiatives). Volume IV also includes assessments of the future developments in the field. Crime Reduction is fully indexed and includes a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context. An essential reference collection, it is destined to be valued by scholars, students, and practitioners as a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource.
    • Crime reduction and the law

      Moss, Kate; Stephens, Mike (London: Routledge, 2005)
      This innovative and pioneering new book establishes links between crime reduction and the law, uniquely offering a detailed examination of how specific legislation and performance targets aid or undermine attempts at crime reduction. Providing a sustained analysis, this ground-breaking book considers the social policy, politics and legislation that surround and drive the crime reduction agenda. It analyzes: the creation of 'safe environments' through Town and Country Planning legislation, the role of local authorities in crime reduction initiatives, the nature of drug policy, paedophilia legislation and programs to control mental disorder crime. Bringing together the work of internationally renowned experts in this field, this book will prove very useful to students of criminology and sociology, as well as crime prevention and reduction practitioners, police officers and community safety partnership professionals.(Routledge)
    • Criminal and Social Justice

      Cook, Dee (London: Sage Publications, 2006)
      Criminal and Social Justice provides an important insight into the relationship between social inequality, crime and criminalisation. In this accessible and innovative account, Dee Cook examines the nature of the relationship between criminal and social justice - both in theory and in practice. Current social, economic, political and cultural considerations are brought to bear, and contemporary examples are used throughout to help the student to consider this relationship. The book is essential reading for students and researchers in criminology, social policy, social work and sociology. It is also relevant to practitioners in statutory, voluntary and community sector organisations. (Sage Publications)
    • Criminal Justice in Hong Kong

      Jones, Carol; Vagg, John (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2007)
      Containing a wealth of archival material and statistical data on crime and criminal justice, Criminal Justice in Hong Kong presents a detailed evaluation of Hong Kong’s criminal justice system, both past and present. Exploring the justice system and the perceptions of popular culture, this book demonstrates how the current criminal justice system has been influenced and shaped over time by Hong Kong’s historical position between ‘East’ and ‘West’. Jones and Vagg’s examination of the justice system not only takes into account geographical changes, like the erection of the border with communist China in 1950 but also insists that any deep understanding of the current system requires a dialogue with the rich and complex narratives of Hong Kong’s history. It explores a range of questions, including: * How were Hong Kong's criminal justice institutions and practices formed? * What has been its experience of law and order? * How has Hong Kong's status as between 'East' and 'West' affected its social, political and legal institutions? Careful and detailed, this analysis of one of the most economically successful, politically stable and safe yet frequently misrepresented cities, is a valuable addition to the bookshelves of all undergraduate and postgraduate students studying Asian law. (Routledge)
    • Critical Marketing: Defining the Field

      Saren, Michael; MacLaran, Pauline; Goulding, Christina; Elliott, Richard; Shankar, Avi; Catterall, Miriam (Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007)
      Marketing is still widely perceived as simply the creator of wants and needs through selling and advertising and marketing theory has been criticized for not taking a more critical approach to the subject. This is because most conventional marketing thinking takes a broadly managerial perspective without reflecting on the wider societal implications of the effects of marketing activities. In response this important new book is the first text designed to raise awareness of the critical, ethical, social and methodological issues facing contemporary marketing. Uniquely it provides: • The latest knowledge based on a series of major seminars in the field • The insights of a leading team of international contributors with an interdisciplinary perspective . A clear map of the domain of critical marketing • A rigorous analysis of the implications for future thinking and research. For faculty and upper level students and practitioners in Marketing, and those in the related areas of cultural studies and media, Critical Marketing will be a major addition to the literature and the development of the subject. * The only critical marketing text by marketing academics * Features leading international contributors * Maps out the domain of critical marketing using inter-disciplinary perspectives.
    • Critical perspectives on accounting, audit and accountability in public services

      Gill-Mclure, Whyeda; Sowa, Frank; Staples, Ronald; Zapfel, Stefan (Routledge, 2018)
    • Critical success factors for employee suggestion schemes: a literature review

      Lasrado, Flevy; Arif, Mohammed; Rizvi, Aftab; Urdzik, Chris (Emerald, 2016-05-09)
      Employee suggestion schemes have existed for many years and numerous articles on this subject have been published over the last several decades. These schemes have been studied from many perspectives to illustrate their objectives, nature, content, processes, significance and benefits. Arguments have been made with respect to successes and failures of suggestion schemes. Although organizations widely use suggestion schemes to elicit the creative ideas of their employees, sustaining an effective suggestion scheme is still a challenge. The purpose of this paper is to extract critical success factors and critical success criteria to suggestion schemes and to discuss the importance of these factors on suggestion system sustainability. This is a literature review paper. It identifies 23 critical success factors and 9 critical success criteria for suggestion schemes. It also discusses the interconnection between critical success factors and critical success criteria. Further, the frequency of each of the factors is also presented. It recognizes the lack of work on assessment frameworks for suggestion scheme sustainability. This paper should be of value to practitioners of suggestion schemes and to academics who are interested in knowing how this program has evolved, where it is today and what future it holds. It offers practical help to an individual starting out on research on sustainability of suggestion schemes.