• Valuing oral history in the community

      Balaam, Marie-Claire (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      Valuing Oral History in the community has developed out of the University’s involvement in the Wolverhampton Black and Ethnic Minority Experience Project (BEME). BEME is a collaborative project developed by a range of local community groups, the local council, colleges and the University which was established to document the experiences of members of the Black and Ethnic Minority communities in Wolverhampton in the post-war period. The rationale behind BEME was to create a community-based Oral History video archive and to promote the use of this unique source of community-based knowledge within a range of educational settings, to encourage curriculum development and enhance the learning experience of students. The aims of the innovation developed from my work with the BEME project, my own and others’ experiences of the value of doing Oral History with undergraduates and the desire to encourage the development of a more inclusive and diverse curriculum for the 21st century. Out of these aims three key objectives were developed.
    • Vietnam: Netzwerke zwischen Sozialismus und Kapitalismus

      Weiss, Karin (Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2005)
      In 1955-56, within the framework of the GDR's Solidarity programme, 348 Vietnamese pupils arrived in the GDR for education and training. They were the second group to do so after a group from North Korea. The Vietnamese were located in Dresden and Moritzburg. Arriving as children aged 10 to 14 years, most were adults on returning to Vietnam. Despite their diverse biographies, they have retained a close bond with their life in the former GDR, calling themselves the 'Moritzburgers' and meeting regularly in Vietnam. Through their various occupations and social positions they exercise considerable influence on the development of their country, as is exemplified in the detailed biographical study of Mirjam Freytag. The 'Moritzburgers' were soon followed by further groups of Vietnamese as part of inter-governmental training schemes. For example, from the mid-1960s to mid-1970s, many students, pupils and apprentices from Vietnam took part in a special training programme, 'Solidarity means to be victorious', designed as a form of aid for socialist fraternal countries. The unification of the two Vietnamese states allowed for the continuation of educational and occupational training courses in the GDR for schoolchildren, students, apprentices and scientists.
    • VIP: Voice-Text Integrated System for Interpreters

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria (Tradulex, 2017-11-16)
      This paper introduces VIP, an R&D project that explores the impact and feasibility of using Human Language Technology (HLT) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) for interpreting training, practice and research. This project aims at filling the gap in and addressing the pressing need for technology in general for interpreters, which is reported to be scarce. Although most interpreters are unaware of interpreting technologies or are reluctant to use them, there are some tools and resources already available, mainly computer-assisted interpreting (CAI) tools. VIP is working on the development of technology and cutting-edge research with the potential to revolutionise the interpreting industry by lowering costs for interpreter training, fostering an online community which shares, generates and cultivates interpreting resources; and providing an efficient interpreter workbench tool (computerassisted interpreting software).
    • Virtual spaces and virtual layers – governing the ungovernable?

      Barker, Kim (Taylor & Francis, 2016-01-14)
      Online multi-user platforms like World of Warcraft and Twitter have one common regulatory mechanism; the End User License Agreement. This document forms the cornerstone of the regulatory system within each of these spaces. Yet it is regularly contravened by users and providers alike. These agreements are very often the only forms of control or regulation that are present in online environments and therefore control more than user behaviour. Yet these platforms also share another feature: virtual disputes, but these are no longer confined online. Threats of violence and other criminal offences arise too, with examples including the abuse issued to Criado-Perez, and more recently, Flipovic. Criado-Perez suffered Twitter abuse and Flipovic was victimised on online message boards. Cyberspace was once deemed to be free from governmental control but the increasing disputes suggest there is now a need to consider how users of spaces such as online games, virtual worlds and social media are protected. Is it fair and practical to leave regulation to EULAs? How do users achieve redress for wrongs – through online and in-site governance mechanisms or wider controls? This work will consider some of these issues, and will suggest that there is now a need for additional layers of regulation to fill the ‘responsibility gap’ left between EULAs and the offline legal mechanisms.
    • Volunteering for International students and implications for language development, cultural awareness and employability

      Finn, David; Green, Pat; Cameron, Andrew (University of Wolverhampton, 2007)
      The emphasis which is often placed on the academic-related goals of an international student can often overlook the broader aims and benefits which can accompany their stay in the new host environment. This paper attempts to bridge the theoretical gap between the work of Toyokawa and Toyokawa (2000), which focusses on international students without measuring more specific gains in areas such as language and cultural observation, and Kuh (1995), which focusses successfully on personal development benefits but which deals almost exclusively with home-based (largely white Caucasian) students. Through the use of reflective questionnaires and interviews, data will be gathered on the volunteering placements of a number of international students. Specific questions will be asked in the areas of language (for example, the acquisition of new vocabulary and slang), cultural awareness (for example, observations about the British workplace and labour market) and personal development (especially in relation to transferable skills). In this way, it is hoped that more fruitful conclusions can be reached regarding international learners' experiences in out-of-class activities - in this case volunteering - and the extent to which this type of placement can realise benefits to the learners in terms of language, culture and employability.
    • War graves and salvage: murky waters?

      Williams, Michael V. (Lawtext Publishing, 2000)
      Legal status of war graves contained in warships, background to debate, passing and operation of 1986 Act, restrictions on salvage, administrative policy and Ministry of Defence's attitude. (Legal Journals Index)
    • War in the Air 1903-1939

      Buckley, John (Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2000)
      This book: The history of 20th century warfare, from the strategies and tactics of World War One that had changed little since the Napoleonic Wars some one hundred years earlier, to the dawn of a new millenium where air power and advanced technology play a vital role in shaping future conflicts.
    • War-stained: British Combatants and Uniforms, 1914–18

      Ugolini, Laura (Taylor & Francis, 2014)
      Historians have long recognised the role of military uniforms in marking the transformation of civilians into servicemen. However, this was not a simple transition, completed the moment individuals put on service dress shortly after enlistment. Rather, the process of transformation continued throughout servicemen’s life in the military, reflecting changed circumstances that might include a move to a different war theatre, promotion or illness and injury. Focusing on the experiences of British soldiers during the First World War, this article explores the meanings of uniforms as servicemen were transformed from raw recruits into experienced combatants. It questions the extent to which the stained and worn uniforms that seemed the inevitable outcome of front line duty were seen as consistent with the manly heroism expected of soldiers, paying attention not only to the army authorities’ insistence on ‘spit and polish’, but especially to combatants’ perceptions of the effect of dirt on their own identities and sense of self. Thus, this article argues, the transformation into combatants involved potentially dangerous and degrading encounters with dirt and vermin, but also the development of strategies – centred on bodies and on uniforms – that sought to counter the threat of long-term harm and pollution.
    • We are not all Terrorists: UK Based Iranians, Consumption Practices and the ‘Torn’ Self.

      Jafari, Aliakbar; Goulding, Christina (Informaworld - Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2008)
      This paper presents an exploratory study of the consumption practices of UK-based young Iranians. Based on a series of in-depth interviews and participatory observation we provide an insight into the identity-constituting meanings associated with consumption practices. We illustrate how individuals use consumption discourses to tackle a series of ideological tensions in their sociocultural settings, both in Iran and in the UK. We describe how in a theocratic state individuals use commodified cultural symbolic mediators to construct and reaffirm a sense of self and identity and also to covertly resist the dominant order. We discuss consumer's paradoxes and dilemmas when confronted with a complex set of clashes between restricting political/institutional dynamics and the emancipatory forces of Western consumption. We conclude by discussing how these contradictions and strategies lead to a form of “torn” self.
    • “We humbly beg pardon…” The use of restorative justice in fraud offences, 1718-2018

      Devi-McGleish, Yasmin; Cox, David J (RJAll publications, 2018-08-09)
      Restorative Justice (RJ) has become an increasingly popular alternative to more traditional punishment methods in the last two decades within the Criminal Justice system in England and Wales; often in respect of youth justice and minor crimes which have a clearly defined victim. However, this article will explore the use of restorative justice in cases of financial fraud. Such cases can be particularly complex when identifying culpability within an organisation, and also victims, who may not be aware that they are victims. Corporate and public apologies are not unheard of, particularly with the increasing use of social media platforms, but they have not been widely discussed in relation to RJ. As there is a recognition that RJ entails more than a simple apology, innovative ways of administering RJ will be considered. Alongside discussion of the complexities of using RJ for large-scale financial fraud, the paper will draw on various cases of fraud and the resultant public apology from the early 18th century onward. Several forms of what we now term RJ will be illustrated from before the modern-day resurgence of this type of justice. In most (though not all) of the several examples discussed, there is a clear separation of RJ practices from the formal criminal justice system operating at the time, and this may prove to be a useful guide to the future use of RJ as an adjunct to more legalistic criminal justice processes. Finally, it will be considered whether such apologies could be useful as a restorative intersection with the criminal justice system.
    • We must stand by our own bairns: ILP men and suffrage militancy, 1905-1914

      Ugolini, Laura (Maney Publishing, 2002)
      The Independent Labour Party (ILP) has long enjoyed a reputation as the pre-First World War political party most sympathetic both to feminism in general, and to the suffrage movement in particular. Indeed, it is only recently that such a reputation has been placed under scrutiny. Ironically, considering the amount of attention devoted to it by Edwardian ILPers, the party's relationship with suffrage militancy is also an area that has as yet received little close attention, and it is on this relationship that the present article focuses. More specifically, this article concentrates on male ILP members, in order to shed light both on their attitudes towards women's role in society and in politics, and on their own identities as socialists and as men, providing an important insight into male ILPer's gendered politics. Suffrage militancy's role in jolting ILP men out of a purely formal advocacy of suffrage, forcing them to question the nature of their socialist beliefs and the place of women's enfranchisement in their practical programme, is explored. Further, the article considers how ideas about women's role in politics had to be re-thought as militancy developed and changed in the decade before the outbreak of the First World War. It questions how far ILP men were able to adapt their ideas of 'political womanhood' to accommodate women who not only made an uncompromising entrance into the political arena, but also undertook both illegal and violent activities. Underlying the whole discussion, finally, is the question of how far the suffrage movement in general and militancy in particular forced ILP men to re-think their own masculine identities, and to make changes to their own personal relationships with women. And perhaps more fundamentally, the article questions how far notions of socialist manliness based on chivalrousness and protectiveness towards women were modified, in the light of militants' growing determination to do without male protection and patronage. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] (Ebsco)
    • We never recovered: The social cost of the 1951 New Zealand waterfront dispute and supporting strikes

      Millar, Grace (Australian Society for the Study of Labour History inc., 2015-05-05)
      In July 1951, 15,000 New Zealand watersiders, miners, freezing-workers and seamen returned to work after being locked-out or on strike, but their lives, and the lives of those dependent on their income, did not return to normal. For five months, most workers and their families had had to borrow money and leave bills unpaid in order to survive, and they needed to pay their debts. This article examines the social cost of the 1951 waterfront dispute. It concentrates on strike debt, and the long shadow that debt cast on family and community relationships. This article argues that many of the costs of an industrial dispute are not paid until after it ends, but in contrast to union’s collective concern about costs during the dispute, costs after the dispute are privatised and treated as the concern of individual families.
    • "We're not a bottomless pit": food banks' capacity to sustainably meet increasing demand

      Iafrati, Steve; Email: s.iafrati@wlv.ac.uk (Policy Press, 2018-03-31)
      Based on research with 21 food banks across eight local authority areas in England, this article examines the sustainability of food banks in their attempts to balance demand and supply. Against a background of multiple deprivation and welfare reforms in the UK, food banks are becoming increasingly important for growing numbers of people. However, at a time when food banks' ability to meet this increasing demand is close to capacity, this article examines how social purpose is a core element in food banks' understanding of sustainability. With food banks having little control over the level of demand, and supply being increasingly close to capacity, if demand exceeds supply, sustainability will necessitate either denying demand or expanding supply.
    • Wearing the Turban: The 1967-1969 Sikh bus drivers dispute in Wolverhampton

      Hambler, Andrew; Seifert, Roger (Liverpool University Press, 2016-09-30)
      When a Sikh bus driver working for Wolverhampton Borough Council in 1967 wore a turban and beard to work for the first time he was sent home for breaching the existing dress code. The Sikh municipal workers pursued their demands through pressure-group politics after being marginalized by their union. It ended with a change in the employer and the employment regulations, and subsequent changes to the law. This case illustrates how a religious and cultural issue, originating from outside the workplace, led to challenges to the making and enforcement of workplace rules. It indicates the nature of struggle with, in this case, the relevant trade union failing to support its Sikh members, the local Labour council failing to confront its own racial prejudices, and how immigration, then as now, divides and weakens communities across the class spectrum. The limitations of treating industrial relations as mainly based on job regulation within the organization, to the neglect of external, often political, factors, are discussed, and the subsequent arguments over legal exceptionalism for Sikhs are rehearsed.
    • What can screen capture reveal about students’ use of software tools when undertaking a paraphrasing task?

      Bailey, Carol; Withers, Jodi (European Association for the Teaching of Academic Writing, 2018-11-30)
      Previous classroom observations, and examination of students’ written drafts, had suggested that when summarising or paraphrasing source texts, some of our students were using software tools (for example the copy-paste function and synonym lookup) in possibly unhelpful ways. To test these impressions we used screen capture software to record 20 university students paraphrasing a short text using the word-processing package on a networked PC, and analysed how they utilised software to fulfil the task. Participants displayed variable proficiency in using word-processing tools, and very few accessed external sites. The most frequently enlisted tool was the synonym finder. Some of the better writers (assessed in terms of their paraphrase quality) availed themselves little of software aids. We discuss how teachers of academic writing could help students make more efficient and judicious use of commonly available tools, and suggest further uses of screen capture in teaching and researching academic writing.
    • What can western management offer Russian social work?

      Gilbert, K. (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      This paper contributes to the debate on the process and the efficacy of Western management 'knowledge' transfer by casting light on the ways in which it has had an impact on the largely neglected area of public service and public administration. The study from which the paper derives took place in 1997 and 1998 in two social services departments in regions south of Moscow, and in the Ministry of Labour and Social Development (formerly Social Protection) in Moscow. The author is a British management academic acting as a consultant to the development of social work management on a recent Tacis project. The paper is an ethnographic, participant observer account of working with Russian social workers, social work managers, and heads of service. In Russia, the institutions for protection of the most vulnerable groups in the population, and the legislative frameworks for such institutions (the ‘social safety net’), are being radically re-drawn, in efforts to forestall the direst social consequences of a rapid shift to the market. Social work as a profession is being shaped and defined within this context, and an infrastructure to manage and resource it is being gradually and painfully developed by its leaders, often in extremis. Social services managers are struggling with a gargantuan task of reconciling the contradiction between vastly expanding public expectations and rapidly dwindling resources. Within this contradiction, Western influences, traditional Russian values and the harsh reality of the present, meet, collide and confront each other. Inherent tensions lead to the psychological phenomenon known as ‘splitting’ - the separating out of negative emotions or feelings judged unhelpful, and their projection onto other groups. Using an ethnographic approach to a small number of recent consultancy episodes, the author contends that only those Western management approaches which can accommodate a diverse range of ideological positions will be helpful, because they will be recognised in terms of current realities and comprehended as consistent with dominant values. No single set of values can yet be said to be dominant. The ensuing result is that a focus on developing practice in social work delivery is seen to be more relevant, and less problematical, than the transfer of new approaches to service management.
    • What do effective managerial leaders really do? Using qualitative methodological pluralism and analytical triangulation to explore everyday ‘managerial effectiveness’ and ‘managerial coaching effectiveness.

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Beattie, Rona S.; Ellinger, Andrea D. (Inderscience Enterprises Limited, 2007)
      The present study analyses the qualitative research methodologies used for several 'emic' case-study explorations of managerial behaviours that we have carried out independently within various UK and US public, corporate/private and voluntary sector organisations. These results have subsequently been used for a collaborative cross-cultural 'etic' study. The aim of each 'emic' study was to identify either the criteria and/or behavioural indicators/categories of 'managerial and leadership effectiveness', or of 'managerial coaching effectiveness'. The aim of our collaborative cross-cultural 'etic' study was to search for evidence of commonalities and relative generalisations between the findings of our respective 'emic' studies and, if possible, synthesise a 'unified perspective' from the 'multiple realities' identified. The main conclusion of the present article is that research designs embracing 'qualitative methodological pluralism' and 'rigorous analytical triangulation' can result in meaningful generalised findings, and these can lead to the production of 'general knowledge' and 'management theory'.
    • What Goes Around Comes Around: Learning Sentiments in Online Medical Forums

      Bobicev, Victoria; Sokolova, Marina; Oakes, Michael (Springer, 2015-04-02)
      Currently 19%-28% of Internet users participate in online health discussions. A 2011 survey of the US population estimated that 59% of all adults have looked online for information about health topics such as a specific disease or treatment. Although empirical evidence strongly supports the importance of emotions in health-related messages, there are few studies of the relationship between a subjective lan-guage and online discussions of personal health. In this work, we study sentiments expressed on online medical forums. As well as considering the predominant sentiments expressed in individual posts, we analyze sequences of sentiments in online discussions. Individual posts are classified into one of five categories. We identified three categories as sentimental (encouragement, gratitude, confusion) and two categories as neutral (facts, endorsement). 1438 messages from 130 threads were annotated manually by two annotators with a strong inter-annotator agreement (Fleiss kappa = 0.737 and 0.763 for posts in se-quence and separate posts respectively). The annotated posts were used to analyse sentiments in consec-utive posts. In four multi-class classification problems, we assessed HealthAffect, a domain-specific af-fective lexicon, as well general sentiment lexicons in their ability to represent messages in sentiment recognition.
    • What is the optimal number of researchers for social science research?

      Levitt, Jonathan M. (Springer, 2014-10-19)
      Many studies have found that co-authored research is more highly cited than single author research. This finding is policy relevant as it indicates that encouraging co-authored research will tend to maximise citation impact. Nevertheless, whilst the citation impact of research increase as the number of authors increases in the sciences, the extent to which this occurs in the social sciences is unknown. In response, this study investigates the average citation level of articles with one to four authors published in 1995, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2007 in 19 social science disciplines. The results suggest that whilst having at least two authors gives a substantial citation impact advantage in all social science disciplines, additional authors are beneficial in some disciplines but not in others.
    • When Can Conflicts Be Resolved? A Critique of Ripeness

      O'Kane, Eammon (London: Routledge, 2006-12-22)
      The idea that conflicts cannot be resolved until they are 'ripe' has been influential in conflict resolution literature in recent years. This article critiques the theoretical underpinnings of ripeness using the Northern Ireland peace process as a case study. It highlights the problems that results from the subjectiveness of both the theory itself and the information needed to apply it. By critically examining William Zartman's six 'propositions' of ripeness, the inadequacy of the approach is highlighted and claims that the theory can help predict when conflicts are ripe for resolution are shown to be unsustainable. It advocates a more dynamic approach to conflict resolution than ripeness suggests that parties and mediators adopt. (Informaworld)