• Ukraine - A Partial but Reluctant CIS Member

      Wolczuk, Roman (Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki, Aleksanteri Institute (Kikimora Publications), 2007)
      "More than ever do we need a fresh look at what has happened to the post-Soviet space in the last five or six years, rather than the bits and pieces we normally focus on, even large bits, such as the evolution in Russia. This book uses the CIS as a point of departure, not as a decisive or even a very substantive institution, but as a shell for examining the myriad complex dynamics shaping critical bilateral relationships, giving rise to more compelling regional and sub-regional security and economic collaborations, and by the month transforming international relations in this vital part of the world. A welcomeprod to widen our analytical perspective". Robert Legvold, Marshall Shulman Professor of political Science, Columbia University
    • Ukraine's Foreign and Security Policy

      Wolczuk, Roman (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2002)
      This book analyses Ukraine's relations with each of its neighbours in the 1990s. It examines the degree to which these relations fitted into Ukraine's broad objective of reorienting its key political ties from East to West, and asseses the extent to which Ukraine succeeded in achieving this reorientation. It shows how in the early days of independence Ukraine fought off threats from Russia and Romania to its territorial integrity, and how it made progress in establishing good relations with its western neighbours as a means of moving closer towards Central European sub-regional and European regional organisations. It also shows how the sheer breadth and depth of its economic and military ties to Russia continued to exert such a strong influence that relations with Russia dwarfed Ukraine's relations with all other neighbours, resulting in a foreign and security policy which attempted to counterbalance the competing forces of East and West. (Routledge)
    • Understanding Victim Retraction in cases of domestic violence: Specialist Courts, Government Policy, and Victim-Centred Justice

      Robinson, Amanda; Cook, Dee (Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2006)
      Victim retraction is almost universally viewed by criminal justice officials as a problematic outcome in cases of domestic violence, consequently policy initiatives have been designed to increase support to victims in the hope that more will decide to continue with their cases instead of retracting their statements. However our understanding of the various causes and full consequences of retraction remains limited. Using data from five Specialist Domestic Violence Courts (SDVCs) in England and Wales, we analysed a sample of 216 domestic violence cases to assess the relative influence of victim characteristics, offence characteristics, features of case processing, and evidence available from case files on the decision to retract. Despite the innovative courts, each embedded in strong multi‐agency partnerships, half of domestic violence victims still chose to retract. The policy implications of these results are discussed in the context of current British government initiatives designed to `Narrow the Justice Gap' and `Bring Offenders to Justice' while at the same attempting to locate the victim “at the heart of the criminal justice system.
    • United and Divided: Germany Since 1990

      Dennis, Mike; Kolinsky, Eva (Berghahn Books, 2008)
      The system transformation after German unification in 1990 constituted an experiment on an unprecedented scale. At no point in history had one state attempted to redesign another without conquest, bloodshed or coercion but by treaties, public policy and bureaucratic processes. Unification was achieved by erasing the eastern political and economic model. However, in the meantime it has become clear that the same cannot be said about social transformation. On the contrary, social and cultural attitudes and differentiation have continued and resulted in deep divisions between West and East Germany. After unification, the injustices of politics seemed to have been replaced, in the eyes of most former GDR citizens, by unexpected injustices in the personal spheres of ordinary people who lost their jobs and faced unknown realities of deprivation and social exclusion. These are the main concerns of the contributors to this volume. Incorporating new research findings and published data, they focus on key aspects of economic, political, and social transformation in eastern Germany and compare, through case studies, each area with developments in the West.
    • United Kingdom (Healthcare) Chapter 7 pp.137-153

      Brooks, Graham; Button, Mark; Tunley, Martin; Gee, Jim; Sauter, Wolf (Eleven, 2017)
      Healthcare fraud, corruption and waste are a serious and growing threat to the sustainability and the quality of European healthcare systems. For many years, a lack of objective information and hard evidence has stood in the way of finding efficient and effective solutions to tackle the problem. Healthcare fraud, corruption and waste in Europe. National and academic perspectives provides a better understanding of the specific and complex nature of these phenomena and offers best practices from European countries to fight them. In the first part, healthcare fraud, corruption and waste are explained by senior policymakers and experts from health economical, criminological, data analytic and legal perspectives. The second part compiles a series of reports, describing how countries in Europe face the challenges of reducing the financial losses generated by healthcare fraud, corruption and waste.
    • Unity and diversity within pidginized Arabic as produced by Asian migrant workers in the Arabian Gulf

      Albaqawi, Najah Salem (University of Central Lancashire 2010-2013, 2016-11-30)
      Gulf Pidgin Arabic (GPA) is a simplified contact variety of language spoken in the Gulf States in the Middle East. This unique linguistic phenomenon has resulted from the frequent language contact between the non-indigenous workforce with no Arabic skills, who come from countries such as India, Indonesia, Pakistan and the Philippines for job opportunities, and native speakers who do not share a common language with them. Pidgin languages have not been studied until relatively recently, since the middle of the last century. Similarly, GPA has received relatively little attention in the literature apart from a few descriptive works such as Albakrawi, 2013; Alghamdi, 2014; Almoaily, 2008, 2012; Alshammari, 2010; Al-Zubeiry, 2015; Avram, 2014, 2015; Gomaa, 2007; Hobrom, 1996; Næss, 2008; Smart, 1990; Wiswal, 2002. This study aims to propose an account of both unity and diversity within Asian migrant Arabic pidgins in the states of the Arabian Gulf in terms of a set of parameters where purely linguistic developments interact with contextual ones. The analysis of the social situation and of the available linguistic data shows that the main factor behind conventionalizing within GPA is migrants’ mobility in the Gulf region. This is basically compatible with Bizri (2014)[1] who suggests that in Asian Migrant Arabic Pidgins (AMAP) “[’] mobility across the region is the major factor for homogenizing both native Arabic-speakers’ foreigner talk and migrants’ pidgin Arabic” (p. 385). One of the recommendations at the end of the study is that Saudi government should offer some courses for the foreign laborers to help them become familiar with basic Arabic words.
    • Unraveling the diverse nature of service quality in a sharing economy: a social exchange theory perspective of Airbnb accommodation

      Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Stylos, Nikolaos; Rahimi, Roya; Vedanthachari, Lakshmi Narasimhan (Emerald, 2017-07-24)
      Purpose- This study investigates customers’ perceptions of the service quality facets of Airbnb accommodation using social exchange theory as a suitable conceptual framework to explain aspects of interactivity between guests and hosts. Design/methodology/approach- A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 25 accommodation- specific service quality attributes, structured according to Akbaba’s (2006) measurement scale and based on the service quality hierarchical conceptualization described by Brady and Cronin (2001) and Cronin and Taylor (1992), was distributed to Airbnb international guests visiting Phuket, Thailand. The sample was chosen through a two-stage sampling process and the PLS-SEM technique was used for data analysis. Findings- The results showed that convenience and assurance are critical contributors to the measurement of service quality in remote Airbnb lodgings. The findings further revealed that Airbnb guests are mainly interested in lodgings which have access to certain tourist sights, and in easily accessible information and efficient resolution of problems during their stay. We also found that guests greatly value the convenience and flexibility offered by Airbnb, and that they particularly appreciate the warm hospitality provided by the hosts. Finally, Airbnb guests have very low expectations of the amenities and services available at the lodgings. Research limitations/implications-Airbnb is one of the most well-known examples of hospitality in the sharing economy and results cannot be generalized to similar accommodation providers in sharing economies. Despite the appropriateness of using the measurement tool provided by Akbaba (2006), it is only one option among others for measuring service quality. Practical implications- The current study can assist hosts in gaining better knowledge of guests’ decision making processes and in designing effective marketing strategies by focusing on guests’ requirements in terms of service quality. The effective use of competitive strengths and the prioritization of business resources would potentially enhance guests’ positive experiences at the accommodation and at the destination. Originality/value-Limited numbers of studies have focused on the sharing economy and hospitality and in particular on Airbnb and this is the first study with a focus on service quality issues in terms of Airbnb accommodation.
    • Untold stories and the construction of identity in narratives of ethnic conflict on the Polish–German border

      Galasinski, Dariusz; Galasinska, Aleksandra (Walter de Gruyter, 2005)
      In this paper we are interested in the use of ‘untold stories’: parts of narratives which are implied rather than explicitly told by speakers. More specifically, we demonstrate how Polish informants from the towns of Gubin and Zgorzelec on the Polish–German border use untold stories as a means of situating themselves or other Poles in a position of advantage in conflictual situations between Poles and Germans. We demonstrate that our informants end the explicit parts of their narratives with markedly ambiguous utterances in order to imply a further part of the story with two interrelated goals: constructing the speakers (or other Poles) as direct ‘winners’ of the conflictual situation and positioning them as having the high moral ground in it. This, furthermore, had the global aim of positive self-presentation of their ethnic group (Poles) and negative presentation of the other ethnic group (Germans). Finally, we argue that the use of the untold stories is related to the particular social and political setting in which they occur, one in which our informants consistently positioned themselves as a ‘losing’, or ‘non-elite’ group being under political and economic ‘attack’ from their German neighbours. (Walter de Gruyter)
    • Urban Guerrilla or Revolutionary Fantasist? Dimitris Koufodinas and the Revolutionary Organisation 17 November

      Kassimeris, George (London: Routledge, 2005)
      The end of Greece's Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17N) finally came on 5 September 2002 when the group's leader of operations, Dimitris Koufodinas, turned himself to the police. Unlike Alexandros Giotopoulos, the group's chief ideologue who denied any involvement in 17N, Koufodinas took responsibility for the entire 17N experience and sought to defend and justify their violent actions. Drawing on Koufodinas's court testimony this article suggests that the world of 17N was a closed, self-referential world where terrorism had become for the members a way of life from which they could not walk away. Defending the group's campaign from beginning to end, Koufodinas contended that 17N was an authentic revolutionary alternative to a barbaric, inhumane and vindictive capitalist order that was running amok. An emblematic personality of 17N terrorism, Dimitris Koufodinas embraced the view that Greece's “self-negating democracy” necessitated exactly the kind of political violence they had undertaken. (Ingenta)
    • The use of Socrative in university social science teaching

      Pryke, Sam (Berghahn Press, 2020-04-01)
      Socrative is an online platform that allows a teacher to put questions to students through an app on their smart phone or tablet. In existence since 2011, its use is now quite common in university teaching. But is Socrative any good? This article reviews the literature on the device and discusses my research on the use of the app, the first carried out with social science students. The secondary research findings are that students find Socrative easy to use, fun, of genuine benefit to their learning and a medium that aids active participation. Further, there is evidence that it benefits attainment as testing helps memory retention. My research findings broadly concur. Also considered is how Socrative use can be extended beyond revision style testing, to introduce students to new information that challenges existing beliefs and to elicit controversial opinions and sensitive information.
    • Using key phrases as new queries in building relevance judgements automatically

      Makary, Mireille; Oakes, Michael; Yamout, Fadi (CEUR - workshop proceedings, 2016-09-30)
      We describe a new technique for building a relevance judgment list (qrels) for TREC test collections with no human intervention. For each TREC topic, a set of new queries is automatically generated from key phrases extract-ed from the top k documents retrieved from 12 different Terrier weighting models when the initial TREC topic is submitted. We assign a score to each key phrase based on its similarity to the original TREC topic. The key phrases with the highest scores become the new queries for a second search, this time using the Terrier BM25 weighting model. The union of the documents retrieved forms the automatically-build set of qrels.
    • Utah Beach

      Badsey, Stephen (The History Press, 2004)
      Unique among the D-Day landing beaches in its dangers, Utah Beach saw the US Army's greatest success, namely landing with the fewest casualties of any of the Allied invasion beaches The landing beach closest to Normandy’s largest port, Cherbourg, and regarded by the Germans as the most important Allied objective, Utah was isolated from the other D-Day beaches, meaning that that troops landing there would have to fight alone until a link-up could be achieved. Accordingly, the US First Army committed a powerful landing force, preceded by a night parachute and glider assault, part of the largest night drop ever mounted. Despite wide scattering, the airborne troops secured the critical communications centre of Ste Mere Eglise on D-Day, the first village in Normandy to be liberated. Supported by a devastating air and naval bombardment, although landing on the wrong beach in bad weather, 4th Infantry Division took only 197 casualties out of 23,000 troops that landed on D-Day, and by the early afternoon had begun to link up with the first of the paratroopers.
    • Valuing oral history in the community

      Balaam, Marie-Claire (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      Valuing Oral History in the community has developed out of the University’s involvement in the Wolverhampton Black and Ethnic Minority Experience Project (BEME). BEME is a collaborative project developed by a range of local community groups, the local council, colleges and the University which was established to document the experiences of members of the Black and Ethnic Minority communities in Wolverhampton in the post-war period. The rationale behind BEME was to create a community-based Oral History video archive and to promote the use of this unique source of community-based knowledge within a range of educational settings, to encourage curriculum development and enhance the learning experience of students. The aims of the innovation developed from my work with the BEME project, my own and others’ experiences of the value of doing Oral History with undergraduates and the desire to encourage the development of a more inclusive and diverse curriculum for the 21st century. Out of these aims three key objectives were developed.
    • Vietnam: Netzwerke zwischen Sozialismus und Kapitalismus

      Weiss, Karin (Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2005)
      In 1955-56, within the framework of the GDR's Solidarity programme, 348 Vietnamese pupils arrived in the GDR for education and training. They were the second group to do so after a group from North Korea. The Vietnamese were located in Dresden and Moritzburg. Arriving as children aged 10 to 14 years, most were adults on returning to Vietnam. Despite their diverse biographies, they have retained a close bond with their life in the former GDR, calling themselves the 'Moritzburgers' and meeting regularly in Vietnam. Through their various occupations and social positions they exercise considerable influence on the development of their country, as is exemplified in the detailed biographical study of Mirjam Freytag. The 'Moritzburgers' were soon followed by further groups of Vietnamese as part of inter-governmental training schemes. For example, from the mid-1960s to mid-1970s, many students, pupils and apprentices from Vietnam took part in a special training programme, 'Solidarity means to be victorious', designed as a form of aid for socialist fraternal countries. The unification of the two Vietnamese states allowed for the continuation of educational and occupational training courses in the GDR for schoolchildren, students, apprentices and scientists.
    • VIP: Voice-Text Integrated System for Interpreters

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria (Tradulex, 2017-11-16)
      This paper introduces VIP, an R&D project that explores the impact and feasibility of using Human Language Technology (HLT) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) for interpreting training, practice and research. This project aims at filling the gap in and addressing the pressing need for technology in general for interpreters, which is reported to be scarce. Although most interpreters are unaware of interpreting technologies or are reluctant to use them, there are some tools and resources already available, mainly computer-assisted interpreting (CAI) tools. VIP is working on the development of technology and cutting-edge research with the potential to revolutionise the interpreting industry by lowering costs for interpreter training, fostering an online community which shares, generates and cultivates interpreting resources; and providing an efficient interpreter workbench tool (computerassisted interpreting software).
    • Virtual spaces and virtual layers – governing the ungovernable?

      Barker, Kim (Taylor & Francis, 2016-01-14)
      Online multi-user platforms like World of Warcraft and Twitter have one common regulatory mechanism; the End User License Agreement. This document forms the cornerstone of the regulatory system within each of these spaces. Yet it is regularly contravened by users and providers alike. These agreements are very often the only forms of control or regulation that are present in online environments and therefore control more than user behaviour. Yet these platforms also share another feature: virtual disputes, but these are no longer confined online. Threats of violence and other criminal offences arise too, with examples including the abuse issued to Criado-Perez, and more recently, Flipovic. Criado-Perez suffered Twitter abuse and Flipovic was victimised on online message boards. Cyberspace was once deemed to be free from governmental control but the increasing disputes suggest there is now a need to consider how users of spaces such as online games, virtual worlds and social media are protected. Is it fair and practical to leave regulation to EULAs? How do users achieve redress for wrongs – through online and in-site governance mechanisms or wider controls? This work will consider some of these issues, and will suggest that there is now a need for additional layers of regulation to fill the ‘responsibility gap’ left between EULAs and the offline legal mechanisms.
    • Volunteering for International students and implications for language development, cultural awareness and employability

      Finn, David; Green, Pat; Cameron, Andrew (University of Wolverhampton, 2007)
      The emphasis which is often placed on the academic-related goals of an international student can often overlook the broader aims and benefits which can accompany their stay in the new host environment. This paper attempts to bridge the theoretical gap between the work of Toyokawa and Toyokawa (2000), which focusses on international students without measuring more specific gains in areas such as language and cultural observation, and Kuh (1995), which focusses successfully on personal development benefits but which deals almost exclusively with home-based (largely white Caucasian) students. Through the use of reflective questionnaires and interviews, data will be gathered on the volunteering placements of a number of international students. Specific questions will be asked in the areas of language (for example, the acquisition of new vocabulary and slang), cultural awareness (for example, observations about the British workplace and labour market) and personal development (especially in relation to transferable skills). In this way, it is hoped that more fruitful conclusions can be reached regarding international learners' experiences in out-of-class activities - in this case volunteering - and the extent to which this type of placement can realise benefits to the learners in terms of language, culture and employability.
    • War graves and salvage: murky waters?

      Williams, Michael V. (Lawtext Publishing, 2000)
      Legal status of war graves contained in warships, background to debate, passing and operation of 1986 Act, restrictions on salvage, administrative policy and Ministry of Defence's attitude. (Legal Journals Index)
    • War in the Air 1903-1939

      Buckley, John (Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2000)
      This book: The history of 20th century warfare, from the strategies and tactics of World War One that had changed little since the Napoleonic Wars some one hundred years earlier, to the dawn of a new millenium where air power and advanced technology play a vital role in shaping future conflicts.
    • War-stained: British Combatants and Uniforms, 1914–18

      Ugolini, Laura (Taylor & Francis, 2014)
      Historians have long recognised the role of military uniforms in marking the transformation of civilians into servicemen. However, this was not a simple transition, completed the moment individuals put on service dress shortly after enlistment. Rather, the process of transformation continued throughout servicemen’s life in the military, reflecting changed circumstances that might include a move to a different war theatre, promotion or illness and injury. Focusing on the experiences of British soldiers during the First World War, this article explores the meanings of uniforms as servicemen were transformed from raw recruits into experienced combatants. It questions the extent to which the stained and worn uniforms that seemed the inevitable outcome of front line duty were seen as consistent with the manly heroism expected of soldiers, paying attention not only to the army authorities’ insistence on ‘spit and polish’, but especially to combatants’ perceptions of the effect of dirt on their own identities and sense of self. Thus, this article argues, the transformation into combatants involved potentially dangerous and degrading encounters with dirt and vermin, but also the development of strategies – centred on bodies and on uniforms – that sought to counter the threat of long-term harm and pollution.