• T E Lawrence: his service in the Royal Air Force

      Gray, Peter (Royal Air Force Historical Society, 2020-05-31)
      T. E. Lawrence, as the ‘Uncrowned Prince of Arabia’, has been described as the most ‘glamorous figure produced by the First World War'. Although such extravagant statements are open to debate, there can be little doubt that Lawrence achieved legendary status during and after the First World War. As Brian Holden Reid has pointed out, public interest was whetted rather than lessened by Lawrence’s decision in 1922 to join the Royal Air Force as an airman and not as an officer. In the event, he spent two periods of time in the RAF with an intervening spell in the Royal Tank Corps. This paper will concentrate on Lawrence’s service in the RAF. Like the formal presentation delivered to the RAF Historical Society Annual General Meeting, the paper will focus on issues for which there is evidence and leave the conjecture, which is inevitable with Lawrence, to the discussion period. The paper will examine a number of issues including why Lawrence wanted to join the RAF and why he was determined to enlist in the ranks. The paper will also look at the question as to how he got away with such a radical move (if indeed he did so) and finally reflect on what we can learn about the RAF in the inter-war years through the Lawrence lens.
    • Tackling the global challenge of illegal wildlife trafficking and trade

      Mbzibain, Aurelian; Mohsen Mohamed, Habiba (University of Wolverhampton Centre for International Development & Training (CIDT), 2020-09-09)
    • Taking the wrong track? Arthur and good character directions: R (on the application of Arthur) v Blackfriars Crown Court [2018] 2 Cr App R 4 (DC)

      Glover, Richard (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-06-11)
      The Divisional Court’s judgment in R (on the application of Arthur) v Blackfriars Crown Court (hereafter ‘Arthur’) is of significance in relation to questions of both criminal procedure and the law of evidence. First, it raised the issue of the proper procedure to be followed for the judicial review of a refusal to state a case for the Crown Court. Second, it is notable as one of the very few reported cases following the Court of Appeal’s landmark judgment on good character evidence in Hunter, and as an example of the contentious case where adverse inferences are drawn from a defendant’s silence in police interview (pursuant to s.34 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994) despite the submission of a prepared written statement.
    • Talking with the Body: Tattooing and representing the authentic self

      Rees, Michael (University of Chester, 2019-04-12)
    • Technological constraints to firm performance: the moderating effects of firm linkages and cooperation

      Kolade, Oluwaseun; Obembe, Demola; Salia, Samuel; Department of Strategic Management and Marketing, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK; Department of Strategic Management and Marketing, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK; Business School, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (Emerald, 2018-06-05)
      Manufacturing and services SMEs in Africa face challenges and constraints exacerbated by ineffectual government policies, environmental turbulence and the near-absence of institutional support. This study investigates if informal linkages and formal cooperation are helping firms to overcome constraints to uptake of technological innovations in Nigeria. The paper is based on quantitative data obtained from structured interviews of 631 Nigerian firms. These firms were selected using stratified random sampling from a total population of 18,906 manufacturing and services companies in the national database obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics. The result of the binary logistic regression indicates that, while informal linkages appear to be insignificant, formal inter-firm cooperation is an effective moderator of barriers to technological innovations. The paper focuses only on technological, rather than non-technological, innovations. The paper recommends that, in addition to other interventions to promote diffusion of technological innovations, governments should give priority to interventions that support formal cooperation among SMEs. Previously studies have generally looked at the impact of cooperative networks on firms' innovation uptake. This paper provides original insights into the "how" of cooperative impact, specifically with respect to helping SMEs to overcome constraints. The paper also delineates formal cooperation from informal linkages
    • Technology-assisted adolescent dating violence and abuse: a factor analysis of the nature of electronic communication technology used across twelve types of abusive and controlling behaviour

      Stonard, Karlie Emma (Springer, 2018-09-17)
      Little is known about the nature of adolescents’ experiences of Technology-Assisted Adolescent Dating Violence and Abuse (TAADVA) behaviours and whether the Electronic Communication Technology (ECT) used varies depending on the behaviour. This paper therefore examines the nature of adolescents’ victimisation experience of 12 different TAADVA behaviours via nine methods of ECT (phone call, text, instant messenger, social networking site, picture message, video chat, email, chatroom and website/blog). Four-hundred-and-sixty-nine 12–18-year-old British adolescents (59% (n = 277) of which had dated in the last year) completed a questionnaire regarding their experience of TAADVA. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine how adolescents experienced the 12 TAADVA behaviours and through which of the nine ECTs they were experienced. Adolescents’ experiences of TAADVA victimisation did not significantly vary in terms of the ECT method used and often multiple TAADVA behaviours were experienced in combination with one another across a range of ECTs, demonstrated by the identification of nine factors in the analysis. The findings highlight implications for understanding and raising awareness of the extent and intrusiveness of TAADVA, particularly when multiple abusive and controlling behaviours are experienced via multiple methods or devices. It is advised that assessing the overall construct of abusive and controlling behaviour is avoided in future research and instead, the multidimensionality of the factors identified in the analysis of the TAADVA assessment tool and the different behaviours that these factors encompass need to be considered.
    • Temporal shifts in photo-elicited narratives in a Polish border town

      Galasinska, Aleksandra (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2003)
    • Tension of Exclusion: On Death Grips and The Californian Ideology

      Halligan, Benjamin; Nowak-McNeice, Katarzyna; Zarzycka, Agata (McFarland, 2017)
    • Terrorism

      Kassimeris, George; Featherstone, Kevin; Sotiropoulos, Dimitri A.; University of Wolverhampton (Oxford University Press, 2020-10-08)
      The chapter places Greek terrorism in a broader political and cultural perspective in order to explain why it has become a permanent fixture of Greek contemporary life. Revolutionary terrorism in Greece resulted from a complex series of political conditions and longstanding cultural influences that drew politically active individuals towards the utopian world of revolutionary protest and violence. These conditions and influences provided the foundations upon which extreme Left terrorism took firm root in the mid-1970s and are analysed in depth and placed within the wider context of the evolution of the Greek political culture within the last forty years, especially the years following the Civil War and the collapse of the Colonels’ dictatorial regime in 1974. The chapter also brings up to date the trajectory of Greek terrorism, by analysing the country’s new generation of urban guerrilla groups and defining what these new groups and their leaders seek to achieve, what motivates them, and how they compare with their predecessors.
    • Terrorism and Mental Illness: Is There A Relationship?

      Weatherston, David; Moran, Jonathan (Sage Publications, 2003)
      This article examines the connections between mental illness and terrorism. Most social scientists have discounted a causal relationship between mental illness and terrorism. This is not necessarily always the case within terrorism studies, the media, or political circles where the psychology of terrorism is often expressed in the language of mentalisms, and theories of pathologisation continue to exist. This article reaffirms the view that apart from certain pathological cases, there is no causal connection between an individual’s mental disorder and engagement in terrorist activity. The individual terrorist’s motivations can be explained by other factors, including behavioural psychology. However, there may be a connection between an individual engaging in terrorist activity and developing a mental disorder[s]. Certain stressors that occur because of terrorist activity may result in psychological disturbance in terrorist individuals. These factors may partially explain terrorist group instability and should be taken into account when detaining and interrogating terrorist suspects.
    • The 4th Anti Laundering Directive, more of the same?

      Haynes, Andrew (LNUK, 2017-01-01)
      The 4th EU Laundering Directive has now been passed and will come into effect on 26th June 2017. We still await the publication of the new UK Money Laundering Regulations which will put the Directive into effect in this country but the basis of the new law is clear and the UK’s forthcoming departure from the EU is unlikely to make any difference as this is an area where there is no significant distinction between the member states’ views on the topic. The contents of the Directive represent a minimum that must be adopted although Member States are permitted to go further should they wish.
    • The antecedents and consequences of functional and dysfunctional conflict between Marketing Managers and Sales Managers

      Massey, Graham R.; Dawes, Philip L. (Elsevier, 2007)
      Focusing on the working relationship between Marketing Managers and Sales Managers, our study examines two dimensions of interpersonal conflict: dysfunctional conflict and functional conflict. Drawing on relevant theory, we include three communication variables – frequency, bidirectionality, and quality – as antecedents in our structural model. Using these explanatory variables we predict the two conflict dimensions, and in turn, use these same three communication variables, and the two conflict dimensions to predict our ultimate endogenous variable — perceived relationship effectiveness. Overall, our model has high explanatory power, and we find support for nine of the thirteen hypotheses. More specifically, two of the three communication variables – communication quality and bidirectionality – significantly impact on both forms of conflict, and relationship effectiveness, though communication frequency only influenced the quality of communication between the Marketing Managers and the Sales Managers. In addition, the variables in our model better predict the levels of functional conflict in the Marketing/Sales relationship than dysfunctional conflict. Finally, an important new finding in this research is that the overall level of dysfunctional conflict between these two functional managers is relatively low, while functional conflict is high.
    • The apology in democracies: reflections on the challenge of competing goods, citizenship, nationalism and pluralist politics

      Cunningham, Michael; Mihai, Mihaela; Thaler, Mathias (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014-07-08)
      Much of the literature related to the issue of the political apology has focused on one of three areas; attempts to provide a definition of what a ‘real’ or genuine apology looks like and what criteria have to be satisfied to provide one, normative defences of the apology as contributing to various desirable outcomes (e.g. recognition, reconciliation, justice) and the grappling with issues such as collective or transgenerational responsibility, which underpin the coherence of the apology.
    • The Boer War 1899 - 1902 and British Cavalry Doctrine: A Re-evaluation

      Badsey, Stephen (Project MUSE, 2007)
      Among the important British Army reforms following the Boer War (1899-1902) was the introduction of a longer-range rifle for the cavalry instead of a carbine, and a tactical doctrine including dismounted fire. It remains the view of most historians that the cavalry learned dismounted tactics from their Boer opponents, and that postwar reform of the cavalry was imposed from outside. Senior cavalry officers of the period are viewed as reactionary, and their performance in the First World War judged accordingly. This view is based on a partisan interpretation of the Boer War and the cavalry's role in it, fostered by its contemporary institutional critics. In fact, a cavalry reform movement was introducing dismounted tactics before the Boer War, both sides in the war used mounted and dismounted tactics, and the cavalry's problems were largely those of supply and not of their own making. This has much wider implications for the assessment of British military doctrines up to the end of the First World War.
    • The British Army in Battle and Its Image 1914-18

      Badsey, Stephen (Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd., 2009)
      A detailed analysis of the strategy undertaken by the British Army during WWI. In this collection of essays of incomparable scholarship, Stephen Badsey explores in individual detail how the British Army fought in the First World War, how politics and strategy affected its battles and the decisions of senior commanders such as Douglas Haig, and how these issues were intimately intertwined with the mass media portrayal of the Army to itself and to the British people. Informative, provocative, and often entertaining, based on more than a quarter-century of research, these essays on the British Army in the First World War range through topics from a trench raid to modern television comedy. As a contribution to progressive military history, The British Army in Battle and Its Image 1914-1918 proves that the way the British Army fought and its portrayal through the media cannot be separated. It is one of a growing number of studies which show that, far from being in opposition to each other, cultural history and the history of battle must be combined for the First World War to be properly understood.
    • The Case for community-led tourism development: engaging & supporting entrepreneurial communities

      Robinson, Peter (2008)
      This paper critically assesses a case study approach to community-led tourism development based upon reflective observational research carried out by the author between 2004-2006. The paper establishes the ad-hoc nature of stakeholder and volunteer led development projects and identifies a lack of available resources in either academic or practical fields to support individuals and groups involved in these projects. Often these are good examples of community entrepreneurship or are a reaction to the often-missed opportunity to encourage tourist spend. Projects discussed in the paper include interpretation, product development and community enterprise initiatives. The research is underpinned by observational and experiential reviews of work delivered through innovative methodologies to inform community consultation and subsequently supported by the development of strategies that lend a clear vision to the community aim. These developments often have considerable potential to make a significant impact on local economies and community socio-economics and strengthen public sector relationships through strategic clarity. Often they only come about through professional input at a regional level and are still delivered through a top-down approach, even though their altruistic vision and successful community engagement is bottom-up in ideology. Further research identifies a similar trend in Asia and Africa where community led tourism projects are considered a key catalyst for economic regeneration. In all the cases discussed there is a clear lack of accessible information and it is the overall aim of this paper to highlight a greater need to reflect upon existing case studies, to address the theoretical perspectives of sustainable development in this context, and to create a toolkit for potential sustainable communities.
    • The changing nature of activist engagement within the Conservative Party: A review of Susan Scarrow’s task-orientated approach to party membership

      Low, Mark (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013-04-29)
      Scarrow highlighted two questions concerning party members: The level of engagement required and the extent to which this occurred within formal party structures. She proposed a task – rather than a people-orientated interpretation. Her framework is applied here to the British Conservative Party. A qualitative research design was adopted, which focused on the views and behaviour of local activists. This permitted an understanding of how the party organisation actually functioned. The findings revealed notable deficiencies in activity levels, member skills, member attitudes towards performance improvement and local managerial capacity. This meant reduced fitness for purpose. Hence, a shrinking of activists’ responsibilities and a simplification of their role has occurred, thereby changing the nature of engagement, but equally modifying the nature of political voluntarism. Increasing emphasis is being placed upon developing networks of supporters, with the implication that there has been a movement towards the American model of party organisation, but with the continuation of membership parties in a looser form. As such, the findings also reveal how the party is managing its declining membership organisation. Overall, Scarrow’s task-orientated approach was found to be apposite for the purpose of measuring local activist engagement.
    • The competitiveness of cultural tourism destinations: case of Stara Zagora in Bulgaria

      Georgieva, Bogomila; Oriade, Ade; Rahimi, Roya (www.johat.org, 2017-01-01)
      Current study tries to evaluate the competitiveness of Stara Zagora (the sixth largest city in Bulgaria) as a tourist destination generally and from cultural tourism perspective in particular. The study was conducted usingquestionnaires with both closed and open-ended questions. Analyses showed that in addition to reenactment of historic events and Bulgarian traditions and crafts, demand for dining experiences originating from distant parts of the world such as the Far East, India, and Mexico can also be added to the competitive of Stara Zagora. Theoretical and practical implications were also identified and discussed.