• Race discrimination at work: the moderating role of trade unionism in English Local government

      Seifert, Roger; Wang, Wen (Wiley, 2018-06-21)
      Workplace racism remains a serious issue despite over forty years of legislation alongside a raft of HRM policies. There remains limited research on the differences in employment experiences of British Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) staff and their white colleagues. There is a power imbalance at work as between individual employees and management, and this lack of equity has been traditionally counterbalanced by strong workplace trade unionism. In particular, we know little about the role of trade unionism on the perception of workplace equality among BAME employees. Using more than 2,580 valid responses from full‐time employees in highly unionised local councils, this study shows that BAME employees have a significantly lower evaluation than their white colleague of fair pay and equal work environment. The latter fully mediates the negative perception between BAME staff and fair pay; and furthermore, the perception of union commitment to equality strengthened their views of a management‐supported equal work environment.
    • Racism, ‘second generation’ refugees and the asylum system

      Hirsch, Shirin; Department of History, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2017-08-30)
      This paper explores ‘second generation’ refugee experiences of racism in London, drawing on 45 qualitative interviews. The article analyses specific histories of racialisation for three different refugee groups from Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Turkey and the generational shifts in reproducing race. The asylum system is foregrounded as an essential framework in which to analyse experiences of racism. This was most evident for the first generation refugee, however for their children less is known on how these forms of racism shaped experiences. Within our study, ‘everyday’ mundane forms of racism were recounted by the ‘second generation’ which were often contrasted with that of their parents in severity. This paper analyses this inter-generational relationship further in relation to racism, through the lens of the asylum system. The paper therefore contributes to a greater empirical understanding on earlier modalities of racism and how they survive into the present.
    • Rapport final: Forum sur la gouvernance forestière, Brazzaville 2018

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN; Nyirenda, Richard; Nkodia, Alfred; Moukouri, Serge; Nzala, Donatien; Baur, Dani (University of Wolverhampton, Centre for International Development and Training, 2019-01-24)
      Les forêts du Bassin du Congo constituent l’un des plus importants réservoirs de biodiversité dans le monde. Elles fournissent des moyens de subsistance à plus de 75 millions de personnes qui comptent sur les ressources naturelles locales. Mais à cause de la mauvaise gouvernance observée, cette richesse tend à disparaître au fil des temps, ce qui représente une menace pour la survie des populations qui y sont installées. De nombreuses initiatives ont vu le jour pour pallier cette situation parmi lesquelles la certification forestière, REDD+ et les APV-FLEGT. Les pays du bassin du Congo ont fait de la gouvernance forestière une priorité au sein de la Commission des Forêts d’Afrique Centrale (COMIFAC). Pour y parvenir, il est évident que toutes les parties prenantes à la gestion durable des forêts se sentent concernées et doivent s’impliquer. Dans cette perspective, le projet C4CV, cofinancé par l’Union européenne et le DFID a organisé le Forum régional sur la Gouvernance Forestière (FGF) en République du Congo. Ce projet est mis en œuvre au Cameroun, en République centrafricaine, en République démocratique du Congo, au Gabon et en République du Congo. Sous la direction du CIDT de l’université de Wolverhampton, les organisations partenaires dudit projet dans les cinq pays sont : le Centre pour l’Information Environnementale et le Développement Durable (CIEDD), le centre pour l’Environnement et le Développement (CED) et Forêts et développement Rural (FODER) au Cameroun ; l’Observatoire de la Gouvernance Forestière (OGF) en RDC ; Brainforest au Gabon ; le Cercle d’Appui à la Gestion Durable des Forêts (CAGDF) en République du Congo, y compris le Field Legality Advisory Group (FLAG) en tant que partenaire régional et le World Resources Institute (WRI) en tant que partenaire international. Calqué sur le modèle des réunions semestrielles de mise à jour sur l’exploitation illégale à Chatham House, le FGF vise à contribuer aux buts plus étendus du projet CV4C à travers le partage d’expériences et la sensibilisation, et en promouvant le profil des processus APV-FLEGT et REDD+. La 11ème édition du FGF a été organisée en collaboration avec le Partenariat pour les Forêts du Bassin du Congo (PFBC), en vue de la préparation de la Rencontre des Parties de haut niveau, prévue pour la semaine du 26 novembre 2018 à Bruxelles.
    • Rates of human–macaque interactions affect grooming behavior among urban‐dwelling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

      Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Marty, Pascal R; Beisner, Brianne; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N.; Bliss‐Moreau, Eliza; Kaur, Kawaljit; Mohan, Lalit; McCowan, Brenda (Wiley, 2018-10-03)
      OBJECTIVES: The impact of anthropogenic environmental changes may impose strong pressures on the behavioral flexibility of free-ranging animals. Here, we examine whether rates of interactions with humans had both a direct and indirect influence on the duration and distribution of social grooming in commensal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected in two locations in the city of Shimla in northern India: an urban setting and a temple area. We divided these two locations in a series of similar-sized physical blocks (N = 48) with varying rates of human-macaque interactions. We conducted focal observations on three free-ranging rhesus macaque groups, one in the urban area and two in the temple area. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that macaques engaged in shorter grooming bouts and were more vigilant while grooming in focal sessions during which they interacted with people more frequently, suggesting that humans directly affected grooming effort and vigilance behavior. Furthermore, we found that in blocks characterized by higher rates of human-macaque interactions grooming bouts were shorter, more frequently interrupted by vigilance behavior, and were less frequently reciprocated. DISCUSSION: Our work shows that the rates of human-macaque interaction had both a direct and indirect impact on grooming behavior and that macaques flexibly modified their grooming interactions in relation to the rates of human-macaque interaction to which they were exposed. Because grooming has important social and hygienic functions in nonhuman primates, our work suggests that human presence can have important implications for animal health, social relationships and, ultimately, fitness. Our results point to the need of areas away from people even for highly adaptable species where they can engage in social interactions without human disruption.
    • Re-evaluating the Anglo-Irish Agreement: Central or Incidental to the Northern Ireland Peace process?

      O'Kane, Eammon (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007-10-18)
      The 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement (AIA) was one of the major achievements of Anglo-Irish diplomacy during the course of the Troubles. Yet its importance has been misunderstood and often ignored in subsequent histories of the development of the conflict and the peace process. This article seeks to re-evaluate the AIA. It examines the purposes of the agreement, taking issue with a number of the existing explanations. It is argued that London and Dublin had conflicting analyses of what the AIA was designed to do, which led to disappointment in both states with its impact. These differences also made it difficult for academics to accurately characterize the accord. However, the AIA played a profound and imperative role in shaping the subsequent peace process, but this arose out of consequences of the Agreement that were, despite recent claims to the contrary, unanticipated, and indeed unintended, by those who drew up the document. (Palgrave Macmillan)
    • Re-Framing Fahrenheit 451: Ray Bradbury's dramatic responses to François Truffaut

      Nichols, Phil; Eller, Jonathan; Nichols, Phil (Kent State University Press, 2014)
    • Re-Framing Fahrenheit 451: Ray Bradbury’s dramatic responses to François Truffaut

      Nichols, Phil; Eller, Jonathan; Nichols, Phil (Kent State University Press, 2016-10)
    • Ready-to-wear or Made-to-measure? Consumer Choice in the British Menswear Trade, 1900–1939

      Ugolini, Laura (London: Maney Publishing, 2003)
      This article explores British men's attitudes towards the purchase of a particular commodity — the suit — in order to shed some light on the nature of male consumer demand in the four decades before the outbreak of the Second World War. The focus is on men's motives for choosing between a ready-to-wear and a made-to-measure suit. Financial considerations aside, the article suggests that interested and well-informed male consumers generally preferred to buy bespoke suits : while usually more expensive than their ready-made counterparts, these were also perceived to be better quality, better looking, and better value, and therefore most likely to enhance the wearer's sense of self-worth as a manly, discerning and successful consumer. (Ingenta)
    • Real exchange rate and asymmetric shocks in the West African Monetary Zone

      Adu, Raymond; Litsios, Ioannis; Baimbridge, Mark (Elsevier, 2018-12-20)
      This paper examines real effective exchange rate (REER) responses to shocks in exchange rate determinants for the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) over the period 1980–2015. The analysis is based on a country-by-country VECM, and oil price, supply and demand shocks are identified using long run restrictions in a structural VAR model. We report significant differences in the response of REER to real oil price, productivity (supply) and demand preference shocks across these economies. In addition the relative contribution of these shocks to REER movements in the short and long run appears to be different across economies. Our findings suggest that the WAMZ countries are structurally different, and asymmetric shocks with inadequate adjustment mechanisms imply that a monetary union would be costly.
    • Rebellion and resistance in French Indochina, 1914-1918

      Krause, Jonathan (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-25)
      Nearly every major French colony experienced some form of organized anticolonial resistance during, and as a direct result of, the First World War. Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Senegal, Niger, Mali, Chad, Burkina Faso, Madagascar, New Caledonia, and Indochina all experienced rebellion of some notable scope. Similar patterns of unrest also developed in the British, Russian, Italian and Ottoman empires during the First World War, suggesting a global moment for anticolonialism. These rebellions took place for many different reasons, in a wide range of historical, cultural, political and economic contexts. For all their contextual diversity, however, the anticolonial rebellions that erupted from 1914 through to the 1920s could not help but be influenced by the realities presented by the First World War. The two principal realities that influenced and helped spark anticolonial rebellions in the First World War were the reduction of colonial occupation forces across Africa and Asia and the recruitment of Afro-Asians for military and industrial service in Europe, often through coercive means. The direct influence of aspects of the First World War in sparking anticolonial rebellions across large swathes of Africa and Asia demand that we discuss these rebellions as part of both the global experience and legacy of the First World War.
    • Recognising Effective Legal Protection to People Smuggled at Sea, by Reviewing the EU Legal Framework on Human Trafficking and Solidarity between Member States

      Ventrella, Matilde (Cogitatio, 2015-02-23)
      The death toll of migrants at sea is on the increase. The EU and its Member States are not addressing the situation by widening the EU legal framework on human trafficking to persons smuggled at sea. People smuggled at sea are extremely vulnerable at the hands of their smugglers and suffer serious abuse of their human rights from their journeys through the desert, on the boats and when they reach their final destination. They become victims of human trafficking and they should not be neglected anymore by the EU and its Member States. However, all EU proposals lack of concreteness as Member States do not want to support and host migrants at sea on their territories. They are reluctant to launch solidarity between each other as requested by the Lisbon Treaty and by doing this, they are indirectly responsible for the death of many migrants at sea and for the abuse of their human rights. This article proposes alternatives to explore that could change the situation if Member States show their willingness to cooperate with each other.
    • Recognizing Events 4.0: The digital maturity of events

      Ryan, William Gerard; Fenton, A; Wasim, A; Scarf, P (Emerald, 2020-02-12)
      The purpose of this research is to explore and define the digital maturity of events using the Industry 4.0 model (I4.0), to create a definition for Events 4.0 (E4.0) and to place various relevant technologies on a scale of digital maturity. In a mixed methods approach, we carried out a qualitative social media analysis and a quantitative survey of tourism and events academics. These surveys and the thorough literature review that preceded them allowed us to map the digital technologies used in events to levels of a digital maturity model. We found that engagement with technology at events and delegate knowledge satisfactorily coexists for and across a number of different experiential levels. However, relative to I4.0, event research and the events industry appear to be digitally immature. At the top of the digital maturity scale, E4.0 might be defined as an event that: is digitally managed; frequently upgrading its digital technology; fully integrates its communication systems; and optimizes digital operations and communication for event delivery, marketing, and customer experience. We expect E4.0 to drive further engagement with digital technologies and develop further research. This study has responded to calls from the academic literature to provide a greater understanding of the digital maturity of events and how events engage with digital technology. Furthermore, the research is the first to introduce the concept of E4.0 into the academic literature. This work also provides insights for events practitioners which include: the better understanding of the digital maturity of events, and the widespread use of digital technology in event delivery.
    • Reconciling mental health, public policing and police accountability

      McDaniel, John L M (SAGE Publications, 2018-03-26)
      The paper evaluates a range of policy documents, parliamentary debates, academic reports and statutes in an attempt to contextualise the condition of mental health policing in England and Wales. It establishes that mental health care plays an important role in public policing and argues that police organisations need to institute urgent reforms to correct a prevailing culture of complacency. An unethical cultural attitude towards mental health care has caused decision-making and the exercise of police discretion to be neither well informed nor protective in many cases, resulting in the substandard treatment of people with mental health problems. The paper argues that changes introduced by the Policing and Crime Act 2017 and the revised College of Policing mental health guidelines do not go far enough and that more extensive root-and-branch reforms are needed.
    • Reconstructing resistance and renewal in public service unionism in the twenty-first century: lessons from a century of war and peace

      Gill-McLure, Whyeda; Thörnqvist, Christer; Management Research Centre, Wolverhampton Business School, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK; School of Business, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden (Routledge, 2017-10-26)
      This special issue uses the occasion of the centenary of the Whitley Commission Reports to illuminate the contemporary crisis in public service industrial relations from a historical perspective. In all six countries studied—Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the USA—public service employment is labour intensive and quantitatively significant in the overall economy. Public services have also been major targets of neoliberal reforms, starting in the UK and the USA at the turn of the 1980s and in the other countries about a decade later. In addition, the relatively high union density and the political dimension of public services and public union strategies have been major targets of new public management and more latterly austerity. However, the regressive period has had a differential impact in different countries. In the liberal market economies of the UK and the USA, the neoliberal turn has destabilised traditional patterns of public sector industrial relations to greatest effect. While in the more coordinated market economies, traditional arrangements and values have been more resistant to austerity and neoliberal reforms. We attempt to shed light on these differential impacts through a critical analysis of the historical evolution of public sector industrial relations in each country.
    • Recovering from conflict: What matters for livelihoods, economic activity and growth?

      Slater, Rachel; Mallett, Richard; Van Der Haar, Gemma; Hilhorst, Dorothea; Weijs, Bart (Routledge, 2017-02-17)
      This chapter explores the impacts of conflict on growth, economic activity and livelihoods–impacts that often last long into a post-conflict period. It considers the role of 'enabling environments' for successful economic and livelihood recovery, exploring the various elements of their construction. The chapter focuses on the dominant approaches to external economic engagement in conflict-affected situations, and the role of power, politics and informal institutions in mediating the experience and effects of policy reforms in conflict-affected situations. It discusses flaws, tensions and uncertainties in specific development practice, and highlights in particular the questionable positioning of economic growth as a means to achieving peacebuilding outcomes and the persistence of standardised, neo-liberal-orientated economic models. The chapter defines the politics of growth as the 'processes of conflict, negotiation and cooperation between interest groups in the use, production and distribution of resources'.
    • Reforming Further Education: the changing labour process for college lecturers

      Mather, Kim; Worrall, Les; Seifert, Roger (Emerald, 2007)
      Purpose – The purpose of this article is to examine how the labour process of further education lecturers has changed as a result of legislative reforms introduced in the early 1990s. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on labour process theory and emergent perspectives on “the new public management” to provide theoretical frameworks. Evidence is derived from research carried out at three FE colleges in the English West Midlands involving interviews with managers and lecturing staff, documentary material and a survey of lecturing staff employed in the colleges. Findings – Market-based reforms in this sector have resulted in the intensification and extensification of work effort for lecturers. This paper argues that these changes have been driven by the ideological underpinning of the reform process. Individual and collective acts of lecturer resistance have been insufficiently strong to prevent change from occurring and worker alienation has increased. Research limitations/implications – The case study method renders generalisability of findings difficult. Comparative studies in other localities and sectors are needed. Practical implications – The research indicates that the “new managerialism” – which has developed in the public sector – has created an increasingly alienated workforce and that the processes of change in many institutions have had negative outcomes. Originality/value – The research demonstrates and application of labour process theory, supported by empirical evidence, as a means for examining the changing experiences of a group of public sector workers and assessing the effect of the “new managerialism” on workers' experiences.
    • Regional Cooperation in the Western Balkans: Stabilisation Device or Integration Policy?

      Dangerfield, Martin (London, Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      This article analyses regional cooperation between the Stabilisation and Association Process (SAP) states with particular emphasis on the interplay with EU integration. It argues that regional cooperation is not solely a means of stabilising the SAP 'five' (SAP5) in advance of policies to integrate them with the EU but that regional cooperation is itself a vital part of the EU integration process. This applies to both the regional integration/trade liberalisation component, which is a clear functional EU pre-accession activity, and also to the more diverse set of activities which are targeting the regional hard and soft security problems. The latter addresses the more baseline, region-wide aspects of Europeanisation, and is therefore more of a foundation course for EU accession than integration 'proper', but is nevertheless a necessary step in the SAP countries own 'return to Europe'. With Croatia on the verge of EU candidate status the political conditions for SAP zone regional cooperation should become increasingly favourable and it is important that the practical as well as political contributions of the regional cooperation commitment to the EU integration endeavour of the SAP5 are clearly understood. It is also vital that the actual regional cooperation programme avoids over-ambitious agendas and is properly adjusted to real needs and evolving circumstances of the SAP region. (Ingenta)
    • Regulating recovery of historic wreck in UK waters: when is a salvor not a salvor?

      Williams, Michael V.; Fletcher-Tomenius, Paul (Informa Legal Publishing (UK), 2000)
      Whether historic wrecks should be subject to salvage regime and therefore capable of exploitation by commercial interests and whether existing legislation is sufficient to protect sites of archaeological interest.
    • Regulatory offences and reverse burdens: the 'licensing approach'

      Glover, Richard M. (Vathek Publishing Ltd, 2007)
      Highlights inconsistencies in the case law on burdens of proof and the presumption of innocence and proposes the adoption of a "licensing approach" as a means of resolving the problem of reverse legal burdens. Considers the meaning of burden of proof and the impact of the concept of the "gravamen" of an offence on the reverse legal burden. Discusses the "licensing" justification for the different treatment of regulatory and "truly criminal" offences and proposes a definition of "regulatory offence" based on this approach.
    • Relationships between innovation stimulus, innovation capacity, and innovation performance

      Prajogo, Daniel I.; Ahmed, Pervaiz K. (Wiley InterScience, 2006)
      This paper examines the integration of the human and technological aspects of innovation management by modelling the innovation stimulus – innovation capacity relationship in determining innovation performance. The research framework developed in this study was tested amongst 194 managers of Australian firms. The survey responses indicate that both the relationships between innovation stimulus and innovation capacity and between innovation capacity and innovation performance are significant and strong. However, innovation stimulus does not show any direct effect on innovation performance, suggesting that its effect is mediated through innovation capacity. The overall practical implication that can be drawn from the findings is that to achieve high innovation performance, organizations first need to develop the behavioural and cultural context and practices for innovation (i.e. stimulus), and only within such conducive environments is it possible for organizations to develop innovative capacity in research and development and technology so as to more effectively deliver innovation outcomes and performance.