• Paprika Schlesinger: the development of a luxury shoe brand in Belle Epoque Vienna

      Hawkins, Richard A (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2017-02-20)
      Footwear retailing and marketing history is a neglected area. Unfortunately, no business records have survived from Robert Schlesinger’s shoe stores. However, it has been possible to reconstruct the history of the development of the Paprika Schlesinger brand from its extensive advertising in the Viennese newspaper, the Neue Freie Presse, with the guidance of the founder’s grandson, Prof Robert A. Shaw, Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, Birkbeck, University of London, England. This case study would not have been possible without the digitization of some major collections of primary sources. In 2014, the European Union’s Europeana digitization initiative launched a new portal via the Library of Europe website which provides access to selected digitized historic newspaper collections in libraries across Europe. The project partners include the Austrian National Library which has digitized full runs of several major historic Austrian newspapers, including the Neue Freie Presse. Other project partners which have digitized historic newspapers which are relevant to this paper are the Landesbibliothek Dr Friedrich Teßmann of Italy’s Südtirol region, the National Library of France and the Berlin State Library. An associate project partner library, the Slovenian National and University Library’s Digital Library of Slovenia, has also digitized relevant historic newspapers. Furthermore, the City of Vienna has digitized a complete set of Vienna city directories as part of its Wienbibliothek Digital project.
    • Paramilitaries, Ordinary Decent Criminals and the Development of Organised Crime following the Belfast Agreement

      Moran, Jonathan (Elsevier, 2004)
      This paper analyses the changing nature of organised and serious crime following the peace process in Northern Ireland which officially commenced in 1998. The paper examines those social and situational factors which have led to a rise in crimes perpetrated by both paramilitary Republican and Loyalist organisations, and by the so-called ‘ordinary decent criminals’ (ODCs) unrelated to paramilitary groups. These social and situational factors include political, security and economic variables. As such, Northern Ireland is an important case study of the political context of crime. Whilst the peace process is a positive development, the political transition has had associated unintended effects. The fact that rising crime has resulted from political change should not be taken as an argument against the peace process. Serious crime is defined as indictable offences which by their nature attracts substantial terms of imprisonment. Organised crime is defined in accordance with the National Criminal Intelligence Service as three or more individuals engaging in long-term profit-driven criminal activity (NCIS, 2001). Thus organised crime may include serious offences and other offences (forgery, theft) if they occur as part of organised criminality. The problems surrounding this definition will also be addressed later in the paper.
    • Parental psychopathology, adult attachment and risk of 12-month suicidal behaviours

      Boyda, David; Feeters, Danielle Mc; Dhingra, Katie; Galbraith, Niall; Hinton, Danny (2017-12-02)
      Background: The mechanisms by which parental psychopathology and vulnerability to suicide is transmitted to offspring is not well understood. parental psychopathology and behaviour may impact upon the normal emotional and psychological adjustment of their offspring in various ways. Research shows attachment insecurities may also be a key factor in the facilitation of suicidal behaviours. Objective: To examine adult attachment insecurities as a potential mediating pathway between parental psychopathology and 12- month suicidality. Method: The study utilized data from the National co-morbidity Survey- Replication (NCS-R, N=5692). Parental psychopathology was assessed using items from the Familial History of Psychiatric Disorders section of the NSC-R in conjunction with items designed to capture dimensions of attachment and suicidal behaviours. Results: Resultant analyses demonstrated specificity effects in that, parental psychopathology was associated with specific suicidal components through specific dimensions of attachment. Discussion: The results align with literature linking parental psychopathology to both attachment insecurities and risk of suicide. Crucially, this study bridges these research areas by presenting attachment insecurity as possible risk indicator and intervening factor between parental mental health and behaviour and specific indicators of suicide.
    • Parliamentary candidate selection in the Conservative Party: The meaning of reform for party members and membership parties

      Low, Mark (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014-06-30)
      Parliamentary candidate selection reform was fundamental to the Conservative Party’s organisational renewal, but local autonomy was always a potential obstacle. In the context of a falling membership, the leadership took action. Hence, this article addresses three questions. Firstly, it examines how power was utilised for the purpose of dismantling local autonomy in parliamentary candidate selection. Secondly, it discusses the implications of reform for party members. Thirdly, it assesses what the research findings mean for the notion of ‘membership party’ and the models that purport to explain party organisation. A qualitative research design was adopted that focused upon local activists and officials. The conclusion points towards a network approach to party organisation that projects local identity as the emerging organisational model. The research also provides an insight into how the Conservative Party leadership is managing its declining membership base.
    • Parody, Pastiche and Intertextuality in Scream: Formal and Theoretical Approaches to the Postmodern Slasher

      Pheasant-Kelly, Frances; Clayton, Wickham (Palgrave, 2015-10)
      Style and Form in the Hollywood Slasher Film fills a broad scholastic gap by analysing the elements of narrative and stylistic construction of films in the slasher subgenre of horror that have been produced and/or distributed in the Hollywood studio system from its initial boom in the late 1970s to the present.
    • Particularistic and system trust in family businesses: the role of family influence

      Wang, Yong; Shi, Henry Xiang (Taylor & Francis, 2020-01-16)
      Research on how trust develops and why it matters in family businesses is in development. Our study investigates the emergence and the evolution of trust in family business leaders. Drawing on the New Systems Theory, we also examine the impact of family influence on trust. Multiple semi‐structured interviews were performed in three Chinese family businesses. Results suggest that relationship‐based particularistic trust prevails at the start‐up stage because of the void of governance mechanisms. As businesses grow, particularistic trust gradually gives way to institution‐based system trust. Evidence further indicates high family influence catalyzes particularistic trust initially and restricts system trust subsequently.
    • A patulous progress: International entrepreneurship effects on Chinese born-global firm performance

      Yu, Ying; Hu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yong; Ward, Philippa (MDPI, 2020-07-08)
      Using data from SMEs in Hubei province, the role of entrepreneurship in the sustainable performance of born global firms in China was discussed. The structural equation modeling analysis of 345 questionnaires indicates that both international knowledge and international entrepreneurial capability are significantly related to born global firms’ performance. Dynamic capabilities, which includes three sub-dimensions: adaptation capability, absorption capability and innovation capability, was found to be less important to firm performance. Therefore, it may be argued that born global firms in inland China are still limited by resources, including those generated from the international knowledge needed to adapt to internal and external pressures.
    • Pause for Thought

      Glover, Richard M. (Reed Elsevier (UK) Ltd, 2007)
      Discusses the extent to which criminal offences should be tried with a presumption of the burden of proof being on the defendant, referring to the views expressed by Lord Scarman and case law developments, including the House of Lords decision in R. v Lambert (Steven). Considers the intentions of Parliament for reverse burdens of proof to be imposed, such as under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 ss.5 and 28, and the effects which the introduction of human rights legislation has had. Reviews the Criminal Law Revision Committee report on the use of the reverse burden of evidential proof.
    • 'Pavements grey of the imprisoning city': the articulation of a pro-rural and anti-urban ideology in the youth hostels association in the 1930s

      Cunningham, M. (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2016-05-06)
      The YHA was a self-professed non-political organisation that promoted the provision of cheap accommodation for walkers and cyclists. Despite this non-political stance, the literature of the YHA in the 1930s reveals a consistent pro-rural and anti-urban ideology. This article examines the articulation of this ideology and locates it both within a longer tradition of such sentiments in England and also within the social and cultural concerns of the decade.
    • Pay reductions and work attitudes: the moderating effect of employee involvement practices

      Wang, Wen; Seifert, Roger; University of Wolverhampton Business School, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK; University of Wolverhampton Business School, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (Emerald, 2017-11-06)
      Purpose Since the 2008 financial crisis, the UK workforce in general has experienced a period of stagnant and falling wages in both nominal and real terms. The main parties involved remain unsure of the consequences from such a historically unusual phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explore the main effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of those employees who had experienced pay reductions (nominal wage cuts or pay freezes under a positive inflation rate) as compared with those who experienced nominal pay rises during the recent recession; and second, to examine the moderating effect of employee involvement (EI) practices on that relationship. This was done by using aggregated employee perception data to measure organizational EI practices. Design/methodology/approach Employee-employer matched data were used, involving 8,489 employees and their associated 497 organizations (medium or large sized). The number of employees from each organization was between 15 and 25. The data used were extracted from the 2011 Workplace Employment Relations Study in the UK to which the authors applied hierarchical linear regression in STATA 13. Findings The results indicate that when compared with those employees who had nominal pay rises during the recession, employees who had wage cuts or freezes (with 5 percent inflation rate) are significantly and negatively associated with their job satisfaction and organizational commitment, even when controlling for important variables such as perception of job insecurity and the degree of adverse impact caused by recession on the organization studied. That is to say, facing the same perception of job loss, those who experienced pay reductions are significantly unhappier and less committed than those who had pay rises. However, the adverse effect of pay reductions on employees’ work attitudes is much less in workplaces characterized by a high, as opposed to a low level, of EI practices. Research limitations/implications Implications, limitations, and further research issues are discussed in light of current employment relations’ practices. Originality/value The intention is to extend the current debate on employment relations under adverse changes such as pay reductions. Thus, the unique contribution of this study is to examine the value of EI in modifying extreme employee reactions to adverse changes.
    • Payment and Philanthropy in British Healthcare, 1918-48

      Gosling, George Campbell; Gosling, George (Manchester University Press, 2017-03-10)
      There were only three decades in British history when it was the norm for patients to pay the hospital; those between the end of the First World War and the establishment of the National Health Service in 1948. At a time when payment is claiming a greater place than ever before within the NHS, this book uses a case study of the wealthy southern city of Bristol as the starting point for the first in-depth investigation of the workings, scale and meaning of payment in British hospitals before the NHS. Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918-48 questions what it meant to be asked to contribute financially to the hospital by the medical social worker, known then as the Lady Almoner, or to subscribe to a pseudo-insurance hospital contributory scheme. It challenges the false assumption that middle-class paying patients crowded out the sick poor. Hopes and fears, at the time and since, that this would have an empowering or democratising effect or that commercial medicine would bring about the end of medical charity, were all wide of the mark. In fact, payment and philanthropy found a surprisingly traditional accommodation, which ensured the rise of universal healthcare was mitigated and mediated by long-standing class distinctions while financial contribution became a new marker of good citizenship. Anyone interested in these changing notions of citizenship, charity and money, as well as the hospital as a social institution within the community in early twentieth-century Britain, will find this book a valuable companion.
    • Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness in a Korean context: An indigenous qualitative study

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Chai, Dae Seok; Jeong, Shinhee; Kim, Junhee; Kim, Sewon (Spriner, 2016-03-22)
      Multinational corporations (MNCs) across the world have sent an increasing number of managers abroad to leverage unprecedented opportunities in the era of globalization. However, their failure rate has been above 33% for decades, resulting in substantial costs (Puck, Kittler, & Wright, 2008). One of the primary reasons for this failure is a lack of understanding of the national and organizational cultures within the host countries (Festing & Maletzky, 2011). For example, while a number of MNCs have entered the Korean market, several such as Yahoo, Motorola, and Walmart have failed and withdrawn due to the companies’ lack of adjustment to the Korean cultural context (Choe, 2006; Woo, 2013). In spite of the significance of culturally embedded practices, most researchers who have explored management and leadership in Asian countries, whether they were Western or indigenous researchers, have implemented studies using extant Western management and leadership theories derived within the Western cultural context (Leung, 2007; Tsui, 2006). Numerous scholars have claimed that this could be problematic because the findings of such studies may not be applicable to non-Western countries (Li, 2012; Liden & Antonakis, 2009), and may fail to provide insights and understanding of novel contexts or to reveal indigenous aspects of management and leadership (Tsui, 2007). Consequently, there have been increasing calls for indigenous management and leadership research within Asian countries (see Li et al., 2014; Lyles, 2009; Tsui, 2004; Wolfgramm, Spiller, & Voyageur, 2014). Over the past 30 years, managerial effectiveness and leadership effectiveness have been substantially neglected areas of management research (Noordegraaf & Stewart, 2000; Yukl, Gordon, & Taber, 2002). In addition, there has been little agreement on what specific behaviors distinguish effective managers from ineffective ones. Furthermore, more research is needed to examine the managerial and leadership behaviors that are critical for shaping the performance of individuals, groups and organizations (see Borman & Brush, 1993; Cammock, Nilakant & Dakin, 1995; Mumford, 2011; Noordegraaf & Stewart, 2000; Yukl et al., 2002). While most of the research related to managerial and leadership effectiveness has been conducted in the U.S., the few notable non-U.S. studies include that of Cammock et al. (1995) in New Zealand who developed a behavioral lay model of managerial effectiveness using the repertory grid technique. Another notable exception is the cumulative series of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness studies conducted by Hamlin with various indigenous co-researchers in Western and non-Western countries (see Hamlin & Patel, 2012; Ruiz, Wang, & Hamlin, 2013) using Flanagan’s (1954) critical incident technique (CIT).
    • Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness in Mexico and the USA: a comparative study of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour

      Ruiz, Carlos E.; Hamlin, Robert G. (Emerald, 2019-04-25)
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of Mexican and US employees about effective and ineffective managerial behaviour. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative multiple cross-case comparative analysis of findings obtained from two past emic replication studies of observed effective and ineffective managerial behaviour carried out in Mexico and the USA respectively was conducted. Findings Notwithstanding the significant cultural variances between Mexico and the US underlined by various cross-cultural studies, our findings suggest that Mexican and US employees perceive effective and ineffective managerial behaviour in a very similar manner. Research limitations While the results of our study suggest that culture may not play a significant role in the way people perceive managerial and leadership effectiveness, we suggest that more replication studies with larger and more balanced gender samples using different methods need to be performed in both countries. Practical implications The findings of our study may be relevant for HRD professionals in both countries when providing training to expatriates for international assignments. Reinforcing the set of managerial practices that are perceived as effective in these two countries, and emphasizing those practices that may be particular to Mexico and the US respectively, could lead to an improvement in the performance of Mexican executives managing in the US and US executives managing in Mexico.
    • Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness in UAE and Egypt: a comparison through the combined lenses of Islamic work ethics and Islamic leadership

      Patel, Taran; Salih, Ahmad; Hamlin, Robert (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-04-24)
      Despite the increasing awareness that societal, sectorial, and organizational variables have a significant impact on manager and employee behavior, most studies in Asian and Middle Eastern (ME) countries, whether conducted by Western or indigenous scholars, continue to be informed by frameworks derived from the United States (US), Canada, or Western European countries (Leung, 2007; Li, 2012; Tsui, 2006) . This approach is problematic because the insights gleaned from such studies may fall only within Western theoretical constructs (Tsui, 2007; see also Shahin & Wright, 2004), thereby compromising insights regarding novel country-specific phenomena and the development of indigenous management/leadership knowledge. Consequently, many scholars (Rosenzweig, 1994; Rousseau & Fried, 2001) have called for the generation of indigenous management theories based on local conditions and socio-cultural factors, and for indigenous management and leadership research within non-Western countries (see Holtbrugge, 2013; Wolfgramm, Spiller & Voyageur, 2014; Shahin & Wright, 2004). This call is also pertinent for ME countries, where there is generally a paucity of indigenous management/leadership research and more specifically, of inductive emic (context-specific)
    • Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Moroccan higher education institution

      Lekchiria,Siham; Eversoleb, Barbara. A. W.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Crowder, Cindy (Taylor & Francis, 2018-02-20)
      The purpose of this research was to determine what behaviorally distinguishes effective and ineffective managers within a Moroccan Higher Education Institution (HEI). The Critical Incident Technique (CIT) was the methodology deployed to collect data from participants in terms of how they perceive managers as either effective or non-effective. The collected data (CIs) were subjected to content and thematic analysis that resulted in derived positive and negative behavioral statements. A total of 42 participants/informants were interviewed and revealed a total of 418 CIs, of which 189 were positive CIs and 229 were negative. The analysis revealed a total of 49 Behavioral Statements (BSs), of which 19 were positive and 30 were negative behavioral indicators. The findings of this investigation bring empirical evidence to understanding what and how managers are perceived as effective or ineffective in the Moroccan academic context, and therefore adds to the literature. The information obtained can also provide rich information/knowledge that can be used as a basis to address the behavioral developmental needs of managers in HEIs. This research adds value by following a replication study as the French and Hungarian HEIs, which both were based on single HEIs; moreover, this study is the first to be conducted in the Moroccan/North African region.
    • Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within higher education in France

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran; Wolverhampton Business School, University of Wolverhampton, MN Building, City Campus North, Nursery Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1AD, UK; People, Organization and Society Department, Grenoble Ecole de Management, B.P. 127-12, rue Pierre Semard, 38003 Grenoble-Cedex 01, France (Routledge, 2015-06-02)
      Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in many countries are currently experiencing significant changes in how they are organized and managed. Consequently, exploring the kind of manager/leader behaviours that are perceived as effective and least effective/ineffective by peers, subordinates, collaborators, and team members in HEIs becomes important. Choosing a French HEI for our study and using the Critical Incident Technique, the authors conducted 37 interviews of academic/non-academic managerial/non-managerial staff to generate a total of 250 critical incidents (CIs) of observed managerial behaviour. Subjecting these CIs to open and axial coding resulted in the emergence of 17 positive and 21 negative behavioural indicators of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness. Comparing these findings with those of extant studies of HEIs from Anglo countries revealed many similarities and considerable differences. Implications are offered for leadership and management development training programmes specifically designed for members of HEIs, along with suggestions for further research on this topic.
    • Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within the Canadian public sector

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Whitford, Sandi (Wiley, 2020-07-28)
      This study responds primarily to numerous calls for specific public management and public administration‐related research to better understand public leadership currently performed in an increasingly complex and ambiguous world. It also responds to calls in the human resource development (HRD) literature for more qualitative managerial behavior research. The inquiry explores perceptions of what behaviorally distinguishes effective managers from ineffective managers, as expressed by managers and nonmanagerial employees within a Canadian public utility company. It reaches for generalization by comparing the results against findings from equivalent qualitative managerial behavior studies carried out in three subareas of the British public sector. Using the critical incident technique (CIT), concrete examples (critical incidents [CIs]) of observed managerial behavior were collected from managers and nonmanagerial staff. The CIs (n = 530) were subjected to open and axial coding to identify a smaller number of discrete behavioral categories (BSs). Selective coding of the identified BSs (n = 99) resulted in 16 positive (effective) and 12 negative (ineffective) behavioral criteria (BCs) being deduced. Over 92% of the Canadian BSs are convergent in meaning with over 81% of the compared British BSs. Consequently, they are likely to be generalizable to other subareas of the Canadian public sector. The 8% of nonconvergent Canadian BSs and their respective underpinning CIs contain no content that could be construed as being context‐specific to the Canadian public utility sector. Implications of these study findings for HRD research and practice are discussed.
    • Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England

      Cox, Nancy; Dannehl, Karin (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2007)
      Whilst there has been much recent scholarly work on retailing during the early modern period, less is known about how people at the time perceived retailing, both as onlookers, artists and commentators, and as participants. Centred on the general theme of perceptions, the authors address this gap in our knowledge by looking at a different aspect of consumption. They focus on two ancillary themes: the first is location and how contemporaries perceived the settlements in which there were shops; the other is distance. Pictures, prints, novels, diaries and promotional literature of the tradespeople themselves provide much of the evidence. Many of these sources are not new to historians, but they have not been scrutinized and analysed with the questions in mind that are posed here. The methodology to be employed has been developed by Nancy Cox over the last decade, and is used successfully in her book The Complete Tradesman and in the compilation of the forthcoming Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities 1550–1800. This book will find a ready market with scholars concerned with British social and economic history in the early modern period. Although it is first and foremost a book written by historians for historians, it nevertheless borrows concepts and approaches from various disciplines concerned with theories of consumption, material culture and representational art. (Ashgate Publishing)
    • Performance Monitoring and Accountability through Technology: E-government in Greece.

      Petrakaki, Dimitra J.; Hayes, Niall; Introna, Lucas D. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2008)
      The paper provides an account of the likely consequences that performance monitoring systems have on public service accountability. The research draws upon an in-depth empirical study on Citizens Service Centres, one of the biggest projects of the Greek e-government strategy. Specifically, we outline the rationale for introducing performance monitoring technology in Citizens Service Centres, the use the central government ministry made of the system and the ways in which Citizens Service Centre staff responded to such performance monitoring. Drawing upon studies on e-government and the critical literature on performance monitoring systems, we argue that performance monitoring technology is a limited tool for ensuring accountability. This is due to the effects of the monitoring and performance standards, which increase staffs concerns and are likely to encourage irresponsible and unaccountable practices.
    • Personal characteristics, trust, conflict and effectiveness in marketing/sales working relationships

      Massey, Graham R.; Dawes, Philip L. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2007)
      Purpose – The key objective of this research is to test how two trust dimensions (cognition-based trust and affect-based trust) mediate the effects of three personal characteristics (psychological distance, the marketing manager's sales experience, and the marketing manager's relative level of formal education) on the following outcome variables: dysfunctional conflict, functional conflict, and perceived relationship effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on the interaction approach, the paper develops a conceptual framework to better understand the nature of the working relationship between marketing managers and sales managers. In total, it develops and test 13 hypotheses. Partial least squares was used to assess the validity of the measures, and to estimate the structural model. Using a cross-sectional design, data were collected from 101 marketing managers in Australia. Findings – The hypothesized model has high explanatory power and it was found that both trust dimensions strongly affected all three outcome variables. However, though both forms of trust were positively related to perceived relationship effectiveness, affect-based trust had the strongest impact on this outcome. The results also confirm that both cognition- and affect-based trust have negative effects on dysfunctional conflict, and strong positive effects on functional conflict. In addition to these new findings, the paper shows that while psychological distance has a strong negative impact on cognition-based trust, it has no impact on affect-based trust. Moreover, it was found that when marketing managers had greater levels of sales experience, it increased their affect-based trust but it had no impact on cognition-based trust. Finally, the marketing manager's relative level of formal education had no impact on either forms of trust. Originality/value – This is one of a handful of studies to employ a large-scale empirical approach to examine the neglected cross-functional relationship between marketing and sales. Also, it is one of the few studies to examine the effects of cognition-based trust and affect-based trust on performance outcomes.