• On the feasibility of character n-grams pseudo-translation for Cross-Language Information Retrieval tasks

      Vilares, Jesús; Vilares, Manuel; Alonso, Miguel A.; Oakes, Michael P. (2015-10-01)
      The field of Cross-Language Information Retrieval relates techniques close to both the Machine Translation and Information Retrieval fields, although in a context involving characteristics of its own. The present study looks to widen our knowledge about the effectiveness and applicability to that field of non-classical translation mechanisms that work at character n-gram level. For the purpose of this study, an n-gram based system of this type has been developed. This system requires only a bilingual machine-readable dictionary of n-grams, automatically generated from parallel corpora, which serves to translate queries previously n-grammed in the source language. n-Gramming is then used as an approximate string matching technique to perform monolingual text retrieval on the set of n-grammed documents in the target language. The tests for this work have been performed on CLEF collections for seven European languages, taking English as the target language. After an initial tuning phase in order to analyze the most effective way for its application, the results obtained, close to the upper baseline, not only confirm the consistency across languages of this kind of character n-gram based approaches, but also constitute a further proof of their validity and applicability, these not being tied to a given implementation.
    • On twinning: the impact of naming an EU accession programme on the effective implementation of its projects

      O'Connor, Stephen; Kowalski, Robert (Wiley Interscience, 2005)
      The introduction of the Twinning instrument as its principal institution-building mechanism in countries applying to join the European Union saw the appearance of a vocabulary very much at divergence with the language associated with other Technical Assistance programmes. The arbitrary and connotational character of this heavily metaphorical terminology has differentiated Twinning from other programmes in the minds of those involved in the programme. At the same time, however, it has also resulted in a measure of ambiguity and confusion among project partners - principally over their roles and responsibilities. This problem could be overcome by targeting any one of the three points in Peirce's semiotic model: by changing the signs of twinning; by re-attuning the users' interpretants; or by bringing the object, the Twinning programme itself, closer to how the signs of twinning are actually perceived and understood.
    • Organ donation agency: A discourse analysis of correspondence between donor and organ recipient families

      Galasinski, Dariusz; Sque, Magi (Wiley, 2016-09-06)
      Studies about the psychosocial issues concerning organ donation and transplantation tend to focus on the experiences of donor or recipient families. Little is therefore known about the part played by correspondence exchanged between these two groups; in particular how they perceive the agency of organ donation. This is the first analysis to address the representation of the act of donation from the viewpoint of both donor and recipient families through interrogation of archived correspondence data, using linguistic techniques. The data was drawn from a collection of letters, from four USA Organ Procurement Organisations, exchanged between donor and transplant recipient families. Donor families consistently linguistically ascribed agency and accountability for donation to the person who died, the donor. For the recipient families, on the other hand, the ‘giver’ was mainly implied, ambiguous or ascribed to the donor family.
    • Organisational change and its dysfunctional effect on managers in large organisations.

      Worrall, Les; Cooper, Cary L.; Mather, Kim (London: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2007)
      This book: A work exposing the phenomena of the dysfunctional workplace is long overdue. This fascinating work does just that, uncovering the subversiveness, counter-productive behaviour and unspoken ‘issues’ that management struggle with on a daily basis. It considers the symptoms of distress, illness, absenteeism, and inefficiency that point towards behavioural disorders and system-wide malfunction – those deemed to be the cause are often referred to as ‘successful psychopaths’. From personality disorders to wars over ‘territory’, this book chronicles, unravels and reveals the true nature of problems at work. So what can be done? International experts from diverse disciplinary backgrounds (including management, psychology and economics) provide lively discussion of and practical solutions for a whole range of dysfunctional phenomena in organizations.
    • Organizational Culture and Customer Relationship Management: A Simple Linear Regression Analysis

      Rahimi, Roya (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-23)
      Current study tries to investigate the combine effect of organizational culture factors on implementing Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in hotels. A questionnaire was administered among managers of a chain hotel in the UK and collected data was subjected to correlation and simple liner regression analysis. The results showed that creating cross functional teams, having culture of teamwork, committed and involved employees, adaptive and responsive attitudes towards change, information sharing, learning orientation and knowledge management, defined set of mission and visions and high degree of innovation are the main predictors for a successful CRM projects.
    • Organizational learning in high-technology purchase situations: The antecedents and consequences of the participation of external IT consultants

      Dawes, Philip L.; Lee, Don; Midgley, David (Elsevier, 2007)
      Typically, research on organizational learning has been conceptual in nature. In a departure from this tradition, we develop and test a structural model of organizational learning in the context of the purchasing of an expensive and complex product in the information technology (IT) area. The key focus of our research is the participation of external IT consultants and our model links seven explanatory constructs that are consistent with the process school of thought in organizational learning. More specifically, two organizational variables–formalization, strategic importance–and two individual-level variables–stakeholding, prior experience–are viewed as antecedents of consultant participation. In contrast, we view internal search effort, external search effort, and organizational learning as consequences of consultant participation. As predicted, all four antecedent variables affected consultant participation. Moreover, we found that, while consultant participation had a positive impact on internal search effort and organizational learning, its impact on external information search effort was negative.
    • Overlord: The D-Day Landings

      Ford, Ken; Jaloga, Steven J; Badsey, Stephen (Osprey Publishing, 2009)
      Operation Overlord was the largest amphibious military operation ever launched, with a vast armada transporting over 150,000 Allied soldiers across the Channel. Just after dawn on 6 June 1944, the Allied troops assaulted the beaches of the Cotentin peninsula against stiff German resistance. Coordinated with the amphibious landings were a number of aerial assaults that carried out crucial missions to take key areas, enable the vital link up between the beaches. Casualties during the invasion were horrendous, but the assaults were successful. This book looks in detail at the plans and build-up to the operation, and discusses the events of D-Day in each of the key areas of the operation.
    • Paprika Schlesinger: The Development of a Luxury Shoe Brand in Belle Epoque Vienna

      Hawkins,Richard A (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2017-03)
    • Paramilitaries, Ordinary Decent Criminals and the Development of Organised Crime following the Belfast Agreement

      Moran, Jonathan (Elsevier, 2004)
      This paper analyses the changing nature of organised and serious crime following the peace process in Northern Ireland which officially commenced in 1998. The paper examines those social and situational factors which have led to a rise in crimes perpetrated by both paramilitary Republican and Loyalist organisations, and by the so-called ‘ordinary decent criminals’ (ODCs) unrelated to paramilitary groups. These social and situational factors include political, security and economic variables. As such, Northern Ireland is an important case study of the political context of crime. Whilst the peace process is a positive development, the political transition has had associated unintended effects. The fact that rising crime has resulted from political change should not be taken as an argument against the peace process. Serious crime is defined as indictable offences which by their nature attracts substantial terms of imprisonment. Organised crime is defined in accordance with the National Criminal Intelligence Service as three or more individuals engaging in long-term profit-driven criminal activity (NCIS, 2001). Thus organised crime may include serious offences and other offences (forgery, theft) if they occur as part of organised criminality. The problems surrounding this definition will also be addressed later in the paper.
    • Parental psychopathology, adult attachment and risk of 12-month suicidal behaviours.

      Boyda, David; Feeters, Danielle Mc; Dhingra, Katie; Galbraith, Niall; Hinton, Danny (2017-12-05)
      Background: The mechanisms by which parental psychopathology and vulnerability to suicide is transmitted to offspring is not well understood. parental psychopathology and behaviour may impact upon the normal emotional and psychological adjustment of their offspring in various ways. Research shows attachment insecurities may also be a key factor in the facilitation of suicidal behaviours. Objective: To examine adult attachment insecurities as a potential mediating pathway between parental psychopathology and 12- month suicidality. Method: The study utilized data from the National co-morbidity Survey- Replication (NCS-R, N=5692). Parental psychopathology was assessed using items from the Familial History of Psychiatric Disorders section of the NSC-R in conjunction with items designed to capture dimensions of attachment and suicidal behaviours. Results: Resultant analyses demonstrated specificity effects in that, parental psychopathology was associated with specific suicidal components through specific dimensions of attachment. Discussion: The results align with literature linking parental psychopathology to both attachment insecurities and risk of suicide. Crucially, this study bridges these research areas by presenting attachment insecurity as possible risk indicator and intervening factor between parental mental health and behaviour and specific indicators of suicide.
    • Parliamentary candidate selection in the Conservative Party: The meaning of reform for party members and membership parties

      Low, Mark (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014-06-30)
      Parliamentary candidate selection reform was fundamental to the Conservative Party’s organisational renewal, but local autonomy was always a potential obstacle. In the context of a falling membership, the leadership took action. Hence, this article addresses three questions. Firstly, it examines how power was utilised for the purpose of dismantling local autonomy in parliamentary candidate selection. Secondly, it discusses the implications of reform for party members. Thirdly, it assesses what the research findings mean for the notion of ‘membership party’ and the models that purport to explain party organisation. A qualitative research design was adopted that focused upon local activists and officials. The conclusion points towards a network approach to party organisation that projects local identity as the emerging organisational model. The research also provides an insight into how the Conservative Party leadership is managing its declining membership base.
    • Parody, Pastiche and Intertextuality in Scream: Formal and Theoretical Approaches to the Postmodern Slasher

      Pheasant-Kelly, Frances (Palgrave, 2015-10)
      Style and Form in the Hollywood Slasher Film fills a broad scholastic gap by analysing the elements of narrative and stylistic construction of films in the slasher subgenre of horror that have been produced and/or distributed in the Hollywood studio system from its initial boom in the late 1970s to the present.
    • Pause for Thought

      Glover, Richard M. (Reed Elsevier (UK) Ltd, 2007)
      Discusses the extent to which criminal offences should be tried with a presumption of the burden of proof being on the defendant, referring to the views expressed by Lord Scarman and case law developments, including the House of Lords decision in R. v Lambert (Steven). Considers the intentions of Parliament for reverse burdens of proof to be imposed, such as under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 ss.5 and 28, and the effects which the introduction of human rights legislation has had. Reviews the Criminal Law Revision Committee report on the use of the reverse burden of evidential proof.
    • 'Pavements Grey of the Imprisoning City: The Articulation of a Pro-Rural and Anti-Urban Ideology in the Youth Hostels Association in the 1930s

      Cunningham, M. (Sage, 2016-05-06)
      The YHA was a self-professed non-political organisation that promoted the provision of cheap accommodation for walkers and cyclists. Despite this non-political stance, the literature of the YHA in the 1930s reveals a consistent pro-rural and anti-urban ideology. This article examines the articulation of this ideology and locates it both within a longer tradition of such sentiments in England and also within the social and cultural concerns of the decade.
    • Pay reductions and work attitudes: the moderating effect of employee involvement practices

      Wang, Wen; Seifert, Roger; University of Wolverhampton Business School, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK; University of Wolverhampton Business School, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (Emerald, 2017-11-06)
      Purpose Since the 2008 financial crisis, the UK workforce in general has experienced a period of stagnant and falling wages in both nominal and real terms. The main parties involved remain unsure of the consequences from such a historically unusual phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to explore the main effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of those employees who had experienced pay reductions (nominal wage cuts or pay freezes under a positive inflation rate) as compared with those who experienced nominal pay rises during the recent recession; and second, to examine the moderating effect of employee involvement (EI) practices on that relationship. This was done by using aggregated employee perception data to measure organizational EI practices. Design/methodology/approach Employee-employer matched data were used, involving 8,489 employees and their associated 497 organizations (medium or large sized). The number of employees from each organization was between 15 and 25. The data used were extracted from the 2011 Workplace Employment Relations Study in the UK to which the authors applied hierarchical linear regression in STATA 13. Findings The results indicate that when compared with those employees who had nominal pay rises during the recession, employees who had wage cuts or freezes (with 5 percent inflation rate) are significantly and negatively associated with their job satisfaction and organizational commitment, even when controlling for important variables such as perception of job insecurity and the degree of adverse impact caused by recession on the organization studied. That is to say, facing the same perception of job loss, those who experienced pay reductions are significantly unhappier and less committed than those who had pay rises. However, the adverse effect of pay reductions on employees’ work attitudes is much less in workplaces characterized by a high, as opposed to a low level, of EI practices. Research limitations/implications Implications, limitations, and further research issues are discussed in light of current employment relations’ practices. Originality/value The intention is to extend the current debate on employment relations under adverse changes such as pay reductions. Thus, the unique contribution of this study is to examine the value of EI in modifying extreme employee reactions to adverse changes.
    • Payment and Philanthropy in British Healthcare, 1918-48

      Gosling, George Campbell (Manchester University Press, 2017-02)
      There were only three decades in British history when it was the norm for patients to pay the hospital; those between the end of the First World War and the establishment of the National Health Service in 1948. At a time when payment is claiming a greater place than ever before within the NHS, this book uses a case study of the wealthy southern city of Bristol as the starting point for the first in-depth investigation of the workings, scale and meaning of payment in British hospitals before the NHS. Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918-48 questions what it meant to be asked to contribute financially to the hospital by the medical social worker, known then as the Lady Almoner, or to subscribe to a pseudo-insurance hospital contributory scheme. It challenges the false assumption that middle-class paying patients crowded out the sick poor. Hopes and fears, at the time and since, that this would have an empowering or democratising effect or that commercial medicine would bring about the end of medical charity, were all wide of the mark. In fact, payment and philanthropy found a surprisingly traditional accommodation, which ensured the rise of universal healthcare was mitigated and mediated by long-standing class distinctions while financial contribution became a new marker of good citizenship. Anyone interested in these changing notions of citizenship, charity and money, as well as the hospital as a social institution within the community in early twentieth-century Britain, will find this book a valuable companion.
    • Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness in a Korean context: An indigenous qualitative study

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Chai, Dae Seok; Jeong, Shinhee; Kim, Junhee; Kim, Sewon (Spriner, 2016-03-22)
      Multinational corporations (MNCs) across the world have sent an increasing number of managers abroad to leverage unprecedented opportunities in the era of globalization. However, their failure rate has been above 33% for decades, resulting in substantial costs (Puck, Kittler, & Wright, 2008). One of the primary reasons for this failure is a lack of understanding of the national and organizational cultures within the host countries (Festing & Maletzky, 2011). For example, while a number of MNCs have entered the Korean market, several such as Yahoo, Motorola, and Walmart have failed and withdrawn due to the companies’ lack of adjustment to the Korean cultural context (Choe, 2006; Woo, 2013). In spite of the significance of culturally embedded practices, most researchers who have explored management and leadership in Asian countries, whether they were Western or indigenous researchers, have implemented studies using extant Western management and leadership theories derived within the Western cultural context (Leung, 2007; Tsui, 2006). Numerous scholars have claimed that this could be problematic because the findings of such studies may not be applicable to non-Western countries (Li, 2012; Liden & Antonakis, 2009), and may fail to provide insights and understanding of novel contexts or to reveal indigenous aspects of management and leadership (Tsui, 2007). Consequently, there have been increasing calls for indigenous management and leadership research within Asian countries (see Li et al., 2014; Lyles, 2009; Tsui, 2004; Wolfgramm, Spiller, & Voyageur, 2014). Over the past 30 years, managerial effectiveness and leadership effectiveness have been substantially neglected areas of management research (Noordegraaf & Stewart, 2000; Yukl, Gordon, & Taber, 2002). In addition, there has been little agreement on what specific behaviors distinguish effective managers from ineffective ones. Furthermore, more research is needed to examine the managerial and leadership behaviors that are critical for shaping the performance of individuals, groups and organizations (see Borman & Brush, 1993; Cammock, Nilakant & Dakin, 1995; Mumford, 2011; Noordegraaf & Stewart, 2000; Yukl et al., 2002). While most of the research related to managerial and leadership effectiveness has been conducted in the U.S., the few notable non-U.S. studies include that of Cammock et al. (1995) in New Zealand who developed a behavioral lay model of managerial effectiveness using the repertory grid technique. Another notable exception is the cumulative series of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness studies conducted by Hamlin with various indigenous co-researchers in Western and non-Western countries (see Hamlin & Patel, 2012; Ruiz, Wang, & Hamlin, 2013) using Flanagan’s (1954) critical incident technique (CIT).

      Patel, Taran; Salih, Ahmad; Hamlin, Robert (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-09)
      Despite the increasing awareness that societal, sectorial, and organizational variables have a significant impact on manager and employee behavior, most studies in Asian and Middle Eastern (ME) countries, whether conducted by Western or indigenous scholars, continue to be informed by frameworks derived from the United States (US), Canada, or Western European countries (Leung, 2007; Li, 2012; Tsui, 2006) . This approach is problematic because the insights gleaned from such studies may fall only within Western theoretical constructs (Tsui, 2007; see also Shahin & Wright, 2004), thereby compromising insights regarding novel country-specific phenomena and the development of indigenous management/leadership knowledge. Consequently, many scholars (Rosenzweig, 1994; Rousseau & Fried, 2001) have called for the generation of indigenous management theories based on local conditions and socio-cultural factors, and for indigenous management and leadership research within non-Western countries (see Holtbrugge, 2013; Wolfgramm, Spiller & Voyageur, 2014; Shahin & Wright, 2004). This call is also pertinent for ME countries, where there is generally a paucity of indigenous management/leadership research and more specifically, of inductive emic (context-specific)
    • Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within a Moroccan Higher Education Institution

      Lekchiria,Siham; Eversoleb, Barbara. A. W.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Crowder, Cindy (Taylor & Francis, 2018-02-20)
      The purpose of this research was to determine what behaviorally distinguishes effective and ineffective managers within a Moroccan Higher Education Institution (HEI). The Critical Incident Technique (CIT) was the methodology deployed to collect data from participants in terms of how they perceive managers as either effective or non-effective. The collected data (CIs) were subjected to content and thematic analysis that resulted in derived positive and negative behavioral statements. A total of 42 participants/informants were interviewed and revealed a total of 418 CIs, of which 189 were positive CIs and 229 were negative. The analysis revealed a total of 49 Behavioral Statements (BSs), of which 19 were positive and 30 were negative behavioral indicators. The findings of this investigation bring empirical evidence to understanding what and how managers are perceived as effective or ineffective in the Moroccan academic context, and therefore adds to the literature. The information obtained can also provide rich information/knowledge that can be used as a basis to address the behavioral developmental needs of managers in HEIs. This research adds value by following a replication study as the French and Hungarian HEIs, which both were based on single HEIs; moreover, this study is the first to be conducted in the Moroccan/North African region.
    • Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within higher education in France

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran; Wolverhampton Business School, University of Wolverhampton, MN Building, City Campus North, Nursery Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1AD, UK; People, Organization and Society Department, Grenoble Ecole de Management, B.P. 127-12, rue Pierre Semard, 38003 Grenoble-Cedex 01, France (Routledge, 2015-06-02)
      Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in many countries are currently experiencing significant changes in how they are organized and managed. Consequently, exploring the kind of manager/leader behaviours that are perceived as effective and least effective/ineffective by peers, subordinates, collaborators, and team members in HEIs becomes important. Choosing a French HEI for our study and using the Critical Incident Technique, the authors conducted 37 interviews of academic/non-academic managerial/non-managerial staff to generate a total of 250 critical incidents (CIs) of observed managerial behaviour. Subjecting these CIs to open and axial coding resulted in the emergence of 17 positive and 21 negative behavioural indicators of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness. Comparing these findings with those of extant studies of HEIs from Anglo countries revealed many similarities and considerable differences. Implications are offered for leadership and management development training programmes specifically designed for members of HEIs, along with suggestions for further research on this topic.