• Nach der Wende: Vietnamesische Vertragsarbeiter und Vertragsarbeiterinnen in Ostdeutschland heute

      Weiss, Karin (London: Lit Verlag, 2005)
      This book traces the social development of the Vietnamese contract workers since the collapse of SED rule to the present day and also provides an overview of the most important aspects of their life in Germany. An examination is undertaken of the decline in the numbers of former Vietnamese contract workers in East Germany, from about 59,000 at the end of 1989 to 21,000 one year later, and the dramatic changes to their work contracts and their economic, occupational and social situation. Special attention is paid to the question of solidarity within the group of Vietnamese and problems in interaction with the German population and their surroundings. The Vietnamese experience of the massive increase in xenophobia soon after the Wende played a crucial role in the growing cohesiveness of the ethnic group. Finally, an assessment is made of the situation of the second generation of Vietnamese living in Germany, in particular problems such as relations between family members.
    • Nach Holocaust und Zwangsarbeit: Britische humanitäre Hilfe in Deutschland: Die Helfer, die Befreiten und die Deutschen

      Steinert, Johannes-Dieter (Osnabrűck: Secolo Verlag, 2000)
      Abstract in English, text in German. After the Second World War, British voluntary organisations were among the first in the field of international humanitarian assistance in Europe. To begin with, British help was directed only to the survivors of the Holocaust and the German forced labour system, but in late 1945 it was extended to German civilians, in particular to children and refugees. Based on British and German archival material, the monograph examines the interrelations between British humanitarian assistance and British occupation policy in Germany. Special emphasis has been given to the work of British voluntary organisations and the interdependencies between governmental and non-governmental efforts. The study contributes to research on British civil society as well as to the ongoing Opferdebatte (debate on Germans as victims of the war) in Germany. The book is divided into seven chapters: Chapter one is dominated by an analysis of British and international war-time planning; the foundation of the 'United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration', the 'Council of British Societies for Relief Abroad', and the training of welfare workers are examined. Chapter two looks at humanitarian assistance in Europe during the final stage of the war, with a particular focus on the liberation of Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Chapter three concentrates on the organisation and structure of British humanitarian assistance in Germany, the appeals for funds in Britain and their distribution in Germany. Chapters four and five analyse the help provided for Displaced Persons and the problems of repatriation. Chapter six focuses on the field of German welfare, the reconstruction of German voluntary organisations, and the cooperation between relief teams and the Military Government. Chapter seven examines how NGOs and relief workers viewed their work in Germany, and how they perceived the Displaced Persons and the German population.
    • The Nadir of the Regular Army: 28th Division and the Battle for the Hohenzollern Redoubt, September-October 1915

      Jones, Spencer (Society for Army Historical Research, 2020-03-15)
      The year 1915 was a difficult one for the British Army. The Official Historian, Sir James Edmonds, lamented that the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) of 1915 consisted of ‘partly trained’ officers and men who suffered ‘awful slaughter and pitiably small results’ on the Western Front. This was demonstrated at the Battle of Loos, when the novice 21st and 24th Divisions were prematurely committed to action with disastrous consequences. Edmonds acknowledged the courage of these formations but was critical of their lack of field craft and felt that the exertions demanded of them were ‘small as compared with the original five divisions of professional soldiers of the B.E.F.’
    • National and European identity

      Pryke, S (Informa UK Limited, 2019-05-23)
      © 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This article is one in a number of attempts by students of nations and nationalism to understand national and European identity. Its point of departure are the arguments of Guibernau (2011) that the EU has created only a non-emotional identity based on the pursuit of prosperity; and, conversely, the claim of Wellings and Power (2015) that the EU has now its own nationalism with an emotional dimension. My initial observation is that an explicit evocation of European nationalism only surfaced in the immediate post war period within the remnants of fascist parties. So the issue is the attempt by the actors within the EU to create a European identity as an accompaniment to federal integration. This was not an initial quest but something that arose within attempts to breathe life into the EU in the 1970s. The endeavour was controversial from the outset and had effectively been curtailed by the mid 1990s as the intergovernmental character of the organisation imposed a primary commitment to preserving national diversity. Subsequent economic and monetary union has relied on the rationale of efficient governance. However, the evidence suggests that identification with Europe and the EU is surprisingly high. To understand it, I finally consider the gestation of Europeanism.
    • National and International Trade and the Midlands Economy

      Wanklyn, Malcolm (Manchester University Press - Melland Schill Studies, 2005)
      This book: In recent years, traditional interpretations of the processes of industrialisation in Britain have been superceded by a more subtle, macro-economic, gradualist understanding of industrialisation. In particular, commentators have now come to consider the importance of geography and the notion that historical change occurs in space as well as time. Concentrating on the Midlands, this book, drawing on a wealth of original research by an eminent collection of scholars, seeks to develop a fresh understanding of the complex range of urban industrial activity taking place in England during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Focusing on the concomitant urbanisation, it explains how regional urban systems both shaped and responded to processes of industrialisation and how urban systems influenced growth and raised the potential for development in particular locales. (Manchester University Press)
    • Negotiating race and religion in the West Midlands: narratives of inclusion and exclusion during the 1967–69 Wolverhampton bus workers’ turban dispute

      Kassimeris, George; Jackson, Leonie (Taylor & Francis, 2016-09-22)
      This article considers the 1967–1969 Wolverhampton Transport turban dispute in the context of increased anxiety over immigration to the area and Wolverhampton South West MP Enoch Powell’s April 1968 ‘Rivers of Blood’ speech. We trace the narratives of the dispute through letters to the Editor in local newspaper The Express & Star, and argue that the letters column was a site of community construction for writers and readers, which elevated the issue from a trivial industrial dispute to a symbol around which the deep anxieties of race and nation coalesced.
    • Negotiating writing: challenges of the first written assignment at a UK university

      Bailey, Carol (Abingdon: Routledge (a Taylor & Francis imprint), 2012)
    • Neutral is the new blind: calling for gender segregated evidence in UK legislative inquiries regarding the music industries

      Potocnik, Metka (Law Research Centre, University of Wolverhampton, 2021-08-16)
      In late 2020, the Government responded to the enormous crisis in the UK music industries, caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, by several legislative inquiries, aimed at reviewing the rules regulating the industry, including rules on commercialisation of intellectual property (IP). The aim of the Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport (DCMS) inquiries is purportedly to improve the fairness and viability of the sector, which was devastated by the pandemic. At the same time, the Covid-19 crisis served as a catalyst to expose the pre-existing inequalities and unfairness in the music industries. This article explores the path of the UK DCMS 2020-21 legislative inquiry into the Economics of Music Streaming as a case study to the current approach in UK regulation of the music industries. Informed by the feminist theory of relational legal feminism and embedded in the broader framework of IP Social Justice theory, the author argues that the current approach to legislative inquiries is incomplete, because it fails to take into account the systemic barriers faced by women (i.e. all who identify as women), including gender minority musicians in the sector. The evidence collected fails to investigate the lived experience of women, to the detriment of the fairness of the overall proposal of future reform.
    • New Wars, New Press, New Country? The British Army, the Expansion of the Empire and the Mass Media 1870-1918

      Badsey, Stephen; Beckett, Ian F. (The Society for Army Historical Research, 2007)
    • NGO-state relations in the monitoring of illegal forest logging and wildlife trafficking in Central Africa

      Mbzibain, Aurelian; Tchoudjen, Teodyl Nkuintchua (Elsevier, 2021-08-28)
      Independent forest monitoring (IFM) by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) emerged in the late 1990s as a forest governance mechanism in response to rising forest crime in Asia and Central Africa. IFM is the use of an independent third party that, by agreement or not with state authorities, provides an assessment of legal compliance, and observation of and guidance on official forest law enforcement systems. The success of IFM by NGOs is therefore, inextricably linked to the nature of the relationship with state authorities yet this relationship has neither been explored nor understood. There is scant empirical research on this mechanism globally. This paper addresses these gaps through participatory observation, documentary analysis and interviews with leaders of five NGOs at the forefront of forest and wildlife monitoring in Central Africa. Using Najam (2000) 4-C framework, we find complex and fluid relationships ranging from cooperation, complementarity, confrontation and instrumentalization. Complementarity and confrontation emerge as the most important relationship types while cooperation is the least prevalent relationship. In response to challenges in the relationships, NGOs use a repertoire of strategies and tactics to influence the state in pursuit of their goals. Unfortunately, significant dependence on a limited stream of intermittent external donor funding and lack of clearly articulated influence and advocacy strategies, limit the potential contribution of IFM to the fight against forest and wildlife crime in Central Africa. The implications for IFM organisations, national governments and donor agencies are discussed.
    • Ngrams and Engrams: the use of structural and conceptual features to discriminate between English translations of religious texts

      Franklin, Emma; Oakes, Michael (Edinburgh University Press, 2017-01-11)
      In this paper, we present experiments using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program, a ‘closed-class keyword’ (CCK) analysis and a ‘correspondence analysis’ (CA) to examine whether the Scientology texts of L. Ron Hubbard are linguistically and conceptually like those of other religions. A Kruskal–Wallis test comparing the frequencies of LIWC category words in the Scientology texts and the English translations of the texts of five other religions showed that there were eighteen categories for which the Scientology texts differed from the others, and between one and seventeen for the other religions. In the CCK experiment, keywords typical of each religion were found, both by comparing the religious texts with one another and with the Brown corpus of general English. The most typical keywords were looked up in a concordancer and were manually coded with conceptual tags. The set of categories found for the Scientology texts showed little overlap with those found for the others. Our CA experiments produced fairly clear clusters of texts by religion. Scientology texts were seen at one pole on the first factor, with Christian and Islamic texts at the other. It appears that, in several ways, the Scientology texts are dissimilar to the texts of some of the world's major religions.
    • No recourse to social work? statutory neglect, social exclusion and undocumented migrant families in the UK

      Jolly, Andrew (Cogitatio, 2018-08-30)
      Families in the UK with an irregular migration status are excluded from most mainstream welfare provision through the no recourse to public funds rule, and statutory children’s social work services are one of the few welfare services available to undocumented migrant families. This article draws on semi-structured interviews with undocumented migrant families who are accessing children’s services support to illustrate the sometimes uneasy relationship between child welfare law and immigration control. Outlining the legislative and policy context for social work with undocumented migrant families in the UK, the article argues that the exclusion of migrant families from the welfare state by government policy amounts to a form of statutory neglect which is incompatible with the global social work profession’s commitment to social justice and human rights.
    • Normandy 1944: Allied landings and breakout

      Badsey, Stephen (Osprey Publishing, 1990)
      D-Day, 6 June 1944, saw the largest amphibious landing operation in history. From ports and harbours on the southern coast of England, an armada of troopships and landing craft launched the Allied return to mainland Europe. Stephen Badsey provides a concise account of the Normandy campaign, from the fiercely contested landings, to the struggle to capture Caen, the 'Cobra' offensive and the dramatic pursuit of the Germans to the River Seine. This was the crucial campaign of the Western theatre: after the Battle of Normandy the only question was how soon the war would end, not who would win it.
    • North Wales Miners: A Fragile Unity, 1945-1996

      Gildart, Keith (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2002)
      Keith Gildart concentrates on the period between the nationalization of the coal industry in 1947 and its privatization in 1994 and, through a detailed study of groups, individuals and communities, demonstrates the complex nature of work and politics during a period of momentous change in British coalfield history. He pays particular attention to the politics of the National Union of Mineworkers, the role of the Labour Party, and the impact of pit closures on miners and their localities. North Wales Miners combines oral history and archival sources to provide a ground-breaking account of social, political and industrial change in post-war Wales. Contents: The Golden Age of Labourism, 1945-1963; Miners, Labour and pit closures, 1964-1971; The Politics of Coal, 1972-1982; The Fragmentation of Unity, 1983-1988; The End of an era, 1989-1996. (University of Wales Press)
    • ‘Oh you pretty thing!’: How David Bowie ‘unlocked everybody’s inner queen’ in spite of the music press

      Glen, Patrick (Informa UK Limited, 2017-12-29)
      The 1967 Sexual Offence Act decriminalised homosexual acts between men allowing gay men to discuss their sexuality in public. Few prominent popular musicians came-out until 1972 when David Bowie claimed that he was bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker. Music papers and Bowie had substantial cultural power: Bowie was a rising star and music papers recruited journalists who discussed and perpetuated social change. The subsequent conversation, however, reinforced negative stereotypes in constructing the queer subject and tried to safeguard commercial concerns due to the assumption that the market for popular music avoided queer music. This undermined arguments that associate permissive legislation with a permissive media and society, but, to some, representation alone empowered people and destabilised preconceptions about queer identity.
    • On the feasibility of character n-grams pseudo-translation for Cross-Language Information Retrieval tasks

      Vilares, Jesús; Vilares, Manuel; Alonso, Miguel A.; Oakes, Michael P. (2015-10-01)
      The field of Cross-Language Information Retrieval relates techniques close to both the Machine Translation and Information Retrieval fields, although in a context involving characteristics of its own. The present study looks to widen our knowledge about the effectiveness and applicability to that field of non-classical translation mechanisms that work at character n-gram level. For the purpose of this study, an n-gram based system of this type has been developed. This system requires only a bilingual machine-readable dictionary of n-grams, automatically generated from parallel corpora, which serves to translate queries previously n-grammed in the source language. n-Gramming is then used as an approximate string matching technique to perform monolingual text retrieval on the set of n-grammed documents in the target language. The tests for this work have been performed on CLEF collections for seven European languages, taking English as the target language. After an initial tuning phase in order to analyze the most effective way for its application, the results obtained, close to the upper baseline, not only confirm the consistency across languages of this kind of character n-gram based approaches, but also constitute a further proof of their validity and applicability, these not being tied to a given implementation.
    • On twinning: the impact of naming an EU accession programme on the effective implementation of its projects

      O'Connor, Stephen; Kowalski, Robert (Wiley Interscience, 2005)
      The introduction of the Twinning instrument as its principal institution-building mechanism in countries applying to join the European Union saw the appearance of a vocabulary very much at divergence with the language associated with other Technical Assistance programmes. The arbitrary and connotational character of this heavily metaphorical terminology has differentiated Twinning from other programmes in the minds of those involved in the programme. At the same time, however, it has also resulted in a measure of ambiguity and confusion among project partners - principally over their roles and responsibilities. This problem could be overcome by targeting any one of the three points in Peirce's semiotic model: by changing the signs of twinning; by re-attuning the users' interpretants; or by bringing the object, the Twinning programme itself, closer to how the signs of twinning are actually perceived and understood.
    • On value and value creation: Perspectives from board research and practice in SMEs

      Yar Hamidi, D; Gabrielsson, J.; Khlif, W.; Yamak, S. (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019-07-26)
      While corporate governance research has been evolving over the last decade, it still has challenges to deal with. In this chapter we will discuss the contributions of the board of directors to value and value creation. This study reveals that, independent of the context of the board, there will be various definitions and perceptions about value and consequently on value creation in firms. In addition to a literature review of recent research on the governance of SMEs with a focus on value and value creation, results from interviews with board directors on SME boards are presented and reveal what directors perceive to be value and what they aim to do to create value. While research supports the practitioners’ perspective on value and value creation, there seems to be a disproportionate focus on financial performance and the structural aspects of boards in corporate governance research, which is not supported by the practitioners’ perspective.
    • "Open the other eye": Payment, civic duty and hospital contributory schemes in Bristol, c.1927-1948

      Gosling, GC; Centre for Health, Medicine and Society: Past and Present, School of Arts and Humanities, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK. gcgosling@brookes.ac.uk (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2010-10-01)
      On the appointed day of 5 July 1948, the National Health Service (NHS) came into existence in Britain. What existed before had been a complex and constantly evolving mixed economy of healthcare, within which hospital services were provided by a combination of public and voluntary sectors. The public sector accounted for the majority of hospital beds and dominated treatment of the chronic and aged sick. However, it is the voluntary hospitals that have often been seen as at the heart of this system because of their historic foundations—many having been established as charitable institutions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries—as well as their perceived clinical superiority. In fact, the move towards a national health service, which ultimately nationalized the hospitals, gave great credence to an approach Daniel Fox has described as “hierarchical regionalism”. This placed such institutions as leading specialist and teaching centres at the top of a hierarchy of regional service providers, and in doing so reinforced this view of the primacy of the voluntary hospitals
    • Operation Allied Force as a catalyst for change: Toward Intensified multinational cooperation

      Burczynska, Maria E; Paget, Steven (University Press of Kentucky, 2021-01)