• Making Business-to-Business International Internet Marketing Effective: A Study of Critical Factors Using a Case-Study Approach

      Eid, Riyad; Elbeltagi, Ibraheem; Zairi, Mohamed (American marketing association, 2006)
      The recent phenomenal growth in business activities dependent on the Internet has demonstrated that various potential advantages could be derived from using information and communication technology platforms. The Internet has enabled firms to reach out to global markets and has provided them with the opportunity to customize their strategies and offerings in an unprecedented way. These recent developments provide an exciting opportunity for research to study the dynamics involved in international Internet marketing (IIM) and, in particular, to examine closely the factors that could influence success in using this new technology for IIM activities. Using a business-to-business context and a multiple-case-study approach, this article focuses on two main areas of study: (1) the critical examination of the literature and identification of the most important factors that have a significant influence on business-to-business IIM and (2) the first-hand verification of how the identified factors are implemented in various organizational contexts.
    • Management actions, attitudes to change and perceptions of the external environment. A complexity theory approach.

      Mason, Roger B. (Braybrook Press Ltd, 2008)
      This paper, based on complexity theory principles, suggests relationships between environmental turbulence, managers' perceptions of the external environment, attitudes to change, management actions and business success. Data was collected via a case study method, using in-depth interviews, document analysis and observation from two companies each in the computer and packaging industries. Findings reflected a relationship between environmental perceptions and attitudes to change. The more successful firms expected and almost welcomed change, while the less successful companies were victims of change. Overall external environment perceptions, attitudes to change and the resulting management approaches differed between the more successful and less successful companies.
    • Management of e-learners: some implications for practitioners

      Singh, Gurmak (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
      Information technologies have played a leading role in supporting many recent changes in teaching and learning approaches in Higher Education. Contemporary innovation finds information technology (IT) at the heart of Higher Education transformation. The opportunities afforded by these learning technologies are well documented in popular academic literature. They point to new applications of the latest communication technologies. However, they also bring with them a host of new questions and challenges. The management of e-learners is likely to be part of a more far-reaching organisational change. Where learning technologies are introduced, a layer of technical complexity is added. The redesign of business processes and structures is far from simple ‘technical’ matter. It involves significant social redesign. The extent to which enabling technology has driven the shift towards learner-centred learning in all educational contexts is a matter of debate. As the century turns, establishing the acceptance, let alone the effectiveness and quality of technology-mediated learning, is still seriously problematic (Salmon, 1999). However, the suitability of information and communication technology (ICT) as a means of encouraging self-directed learning is not in doubt, nor that the role of the tutor is changing to ‘guide on the side’: a facilitator not transmitter, of information (Marchmont, 2000). This paper reports findings of a single case study at Wolverhampton Business School. Qualitative data was collected through structured and unstructured interviews with learners and tutors on Business Administration Award. A total of 20 learners and 5 tutors form the basis of the findings.
    • Management skills development: the current position and the future agenda

      Worrall, Les; Cooper, Cary L. (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      In the last ten years, the nature of managerial work has changed considerably largely because the organisational, economic and technological context in which managerial work is conducted has changed beyond recognition. Organisations have been delayered; new concepts such as "the self-managed work team" have been developed; organisations have been subjected to a range of guru driven change such as business process reengineering; the scale of IT-enabled home-based working has increased; the rapid evolution of information and communications technologies have increased the volume and variety of communication that managers have had to learn to cope with; and, increasing globalisation has created a more competitive environment where businesses have had to become leaner, more flexible and adaptable - this often having been achieved by the ruthless implementation of cost-reduction programmes. The consequence of this are that the skills and "capabilites" that managers need to be effective have change radically. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of these changes and to assess the implications of management development and education programmes.
    • Managerial and leadership effectiveness as perceived by managers and non-managerial employees in Mexico

      Ruiz, Carlos E.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Esparza Martinez, Laura (Taylor & Francis, 2014-04-03)
      Using the critical incident (CI) technique, concrete examples of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour (CIs) were collected from managers and non-managerial employees within private and public sector organizations situated in the north and southeast regions of Mexico. The CIs were content analysed using open, axial and selective coding to identify a smaller number of thematic categories. A total of 38 ‘manager’ and 35 ‘non-managerial employee’ behavioural categories were identified respectively, of which 82.19% (n = 60) were found to be either convergent or polar opposite in meaning. The findings suggest that what behaviourally differentiates effective managers from ineffective managers is perceived, described and defined by Mexican managers and non-managerial employees in much the same way. The study provides new insights on the issue of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness in Mexico and is a rare example of indigenous managerial behaviour research in a non-Anglo country.
    • Managers' work-life balance and health: the case of UK managers

      Worrall, Les; Cooper, Cary L. (Inderscience, 2007)
      The paper explores the effects of organisational change on UK managers' perceptions of their organisation and on their well-being. Cost reduction is the prime driver for change and has been implemented using delayering, redundancy, downsizing and off-shoring often supported by culture change programmes. These changes have resulted in work intensification, have not delivered productivity gains and have had a negative effect on managers' well-being. The effects of change were perceived differently by directors and other managers. Despite continuous cost reduction, productivity in the UK remains below that of European competitor nations. This calls into question the prevailing cost reduction ethos as a means of delivering increased productivity in the UK.
    • Managers’ perceptions of their organisation: an application of correspondence analysis

      Worrall, Les; Cooper, Cary L. (University of Wolverhampton, 1998-09)
      The paper is based on a five year, UMIST-Institute of Management study into the changing nature of the Quality of Working Life and seeks to uncover differences in the incidence and impact of organizational change on the perceptions and experiences of managers. The research indicates that there are significant differences in the impact of organizational change on managers and that these vary by the respondent’s position in the organizational hierarchy, by firm size and by sector (sector being here defined as public sector, private sector and “other”). The paper makes use of correspondence analysis as a means of graphically plotting responses as a means of identifying similarities and dissimilarities in perceptions and experiences of organizational change and its impact for sub-groups of managers.
    • Managing workplace religious expression within the legal constraints

      Hambler, Andrew (2016-04-04)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider in broad terms how employers may respond to different forms of religious expression by employees in the workplace, within the discretion afforded to them by law. Design/methodology/approach – Through a discussion of relevant legislation and case law, and a review of relevant literature, it seeks to identify the legal constraints within which employers must operate when determining policy and practice in this area and gives consideration to how they should respond. Findings – It is observed that employers enjoy considerable freedom either to impose restrictions or to encourage religious expression. Originality/value – The paper considers some of the over-arching principled arguments both for and against encouraging religious freedom at work, whilst concluding that support for religious expression may be the better option, not least for the positive benefits for employee well-being, commitment and engagement which, it is argued, may result.
    • Mapping the inventor new product development process

      Smeilus, Gavin; Pollard, Andrew (International Society of Professional Innovation Management, 2016-02)
    • Marine Archaeology Legislation Project

      Williams, Michael V. (English Heritage, 2004)
      INTRODUCTION: This Part reviews in depth the genesis and the nature of the present legal framework relating to maritime archaeology in England and Wales. It also considers what advantages and difficulties have resulted from the United Kingdom's continued adherence to this structure. Annexed to this Part is a Report of a survey conducted by NAS Training of the experiences of stakeholders regarding the functioning of the designation and licensing processes under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973. Two principal characteristics determine the legal structure for maritime archaeology in England. The first is the continued reliance on the law of salvage to govern the recovery of wreck from the sea, irrespective of its antiquity. Consequently, the corner stone of this structure is the law of salvage, with its associated legislation, principally the Merchant Shipping Act 1995, which incorporates the International Convention on Salvage 1989 into United Kingdom law. However, it has been recognised that the application of the law of salvage to archaeological material is not considered appropriate by many in the archaeological community, as this approach is contrary to the internationally recognised precautionary principle, which seeks as the first option to preserve the heritage in situ1. Consequently, a few statutory amendments to the salvage regime have been introduced to take account of the particular cultural nature of archaeological material, the desirability of preserving it in situ if possible and the importance, if recovery is necessary, of regulating that process so to preserve archaeologically significant information. However, these amendments are fairly limited in nature, being confined to limitations on the freedom to access wreck sites and initiate salvage operations. Otherwise, the rights and duties of the participants in the maritime archaeological process and the disposal of the recovered wreck material continue to be determined by the law of salvage. The second principal characteristic of the legal structure is the absence of a satisfactory mechanism for protecting archaeology which is not derived from shipwreck, since the salvage regime is not applicable to the protection and recovery of evidence relating to submerged landscapes, dwellings or other former human habitation or activity. Only one statute, the Ancient Monuments & Archaeological Areas Act 1979 enables such archaeological material to be protected and its application underwater has been very limited, never having been applied underwater to remains other than wrecks. This conservative approach to the legal regime for maritime archaeology has generated controversy and numerous documents have drawn attention to the alleged inadequacies of the present framework. To many in the archaeological community, this framework is unduly limited in scope, fails to provide adequate protection to maritime archaeology and, by continued adherence to the salvage regime, has facilitated the use of inappropriate practices relating to the excavation and disposal of artefacts. This, it is claimed, is in stark contrast to the more regulatory stance taken by some other countries, where the diving and excavation of historic wrecks is far more heavily regulated and the protection of historic shipwreck has been taken entirely outside the ambit of the salvage regime.
    • Maritime Air Power in the Second World War: Britain, Japan and the USA

      Buckley, John (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2002)
      The 20th century saw air power transformed from novelists' fantasy into stark reality. From string and canvas to precision weaponry and stealth, air power has progressed to become not only the weapon of first political choice, but often the only conceivable option. This rapid development has given rise to considerable debate and controversy with those holding entrenched views rarely slow to shout their case. Many myths have grown over the period, ranging from the once much vaunted ability of air power to win wars alone through to its impact as a coercive tool. This volume examines the theory and practice of air power from its earliest inception. The contributors have been drawn from academia and the military and represent some of the world's leading proponents on the subject. All significant eras on air power employment are examined: some are evidently turning points, while others represent continuous development. Perhaps more importantly, the book highlights the areas that could be considered to be significant, and invites the reader to enter the debate as to whether it constitutes a continuum, a turning point, or indeed a revolution.
    • Market abuse, an analysis of its nature and regulation

      Haynes, Andrew (Sweet and Maxwell Ltd., 2007)
      Examines the operation of market abuse law under legislation including the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 and European Parliament and Council Directive 2003/6 (the Market Abuse Directive). Reviews the potential offences, the range of investments to which the regime applies, the reporting requirements and key features of the Financial Services Authority (FSA) regulations, including what constitutes insider dealing. Details the approach of the FSA conduct of business rules to issues such as investment research and conflicts of interest, and their application in enforcement actions.
    • Market Failure, State Failure, Institutions, and Historical Constraints in the East European Transition

      Haynes, Michael J.; Husan, Rumy (Oxford: Carfax Publishing, 2002)
      This paper attempts to extend these arguments to the way in which the transition in the Soviet bloc has been conceived. We first review some of the questionable approaches to the role of the market that underpins so much thinking about the transition. We then attempt to situate the transition in a broader historical perspective before finally suggesting that recent attempts to learn from 'the mistakes' of the early transition years reflect a far less substantial rethinking than is actually necessary. Much transitology still bears all the hallmarks of belief in a theory 'in the face of commanding evidence to the contrary'. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] (Ebsco)
    • Measuring groupware effectiveness using ordinal questionnaire data with AI/fuzzy mathematics and correspondence analysis treatments

      Hassall, John (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-09)
      The results of a longitudinal study of groupware technology carried out over a 2 year period within a single organization is presented. The results of ordinal data derived from a questionnaire employed to determine user judgements of the usefulness of the technology for business task are analysed using a novel "best hypothesis" approach. This treatment uses formulations based upon AI and fuzzy mathematics and correspondence analysis.
    • Measuring the Deliverable and Impressible Dimensions of Service Experience

      Beltagui, Ahmad; Darler, William; Candi, Marina (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2015-09)
      Service innovation has become a priority within the field of innovation management and is increasingly focused on the creation of memorable experiences that result in customer loyalty. Studies of experience design suggest individual service elements to be managed when staging an experience whereas conceptual models in the literature emphasize the holistic way in which an experience is perceived. In short, service experience is greater than the sum of its parts. Therefore, successful innovation management requires the ability to understand and measure the mechanisms by which service innovations impact customers’ experiences. Our research addresses this need by identifying dimensions of service experience and developing a tool for their measurement. Using a three stage process of 1) systematic literature review; 2) rigorous scale development and reduction; and 3) validation, we identify six dimensions of the service experience and develop scales to measure each one. This results in a model of service innovation that highlights the levers through which a company’s service innovation efforts can result in memorable experiences and ultimately generate service success.
    • Measuring the effectiveness of information technology management: a comparative study of six UK local authorities

      Worrall, Les (University of Wolverhampton, 1998-09)
      Evaluating and managing the effective delivery of IT services is an issue which has been brought into sharper relief recently. This has been particularly prevalent in the UK public sector where the growing emphasis on formalised client-contractor relationships, outsourcing and benchmarking (both between local authorities and between local authorities and private sector organisations) has meant that the definition of service standards and agreeing performance criteria has attracted considerable practitioner attention. This research is based on 300 interviews conducted in six UK local authorities. The investigation used both gap analysis and perceptual mapping techniques to develop an understanding of the aspects of IT service delivery that users' value most in conjunction with an assessment of how well they perceive their IT department is performing on these criteria. The paper exposes considerable differences in the relative performance of the six local authorities from both the gap analysis and the perceptual mapping elements of the investigation. The methodology is shown to provide an effective way of identifying key performance issues from the user perspective and benchmarking service performance across organisations.
    • MED PRISILNIM DELOM IN PONEMČEVANJEM

      Steinert, Johannes-Dieter (Borec, 2015)
    • ‘Media events’ reconsidered: from ritual theory to simulation and performativity

      Pawlett, William; Faculty of Arts, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (Taylor & Francis, 2017-09-04)
      This paper re-examines the long-established notion of ‘media events’ by contrasting and critically appraising three distinct approaches to the question of media events. These are: ritual theory associated with Daniel Dayan and Elihu Katz, secondly, Jean Baudrillard’s approach rooted in his notions of simulation and ‘non-events’ and, finally, the more recent performative approaches to media and mediation. I take Sarah Kember and Joanna Zylinska’s reading of media events presented in Life After New Media (2012) as exemplary of the performative approach. An argument is made that the accounts of media events offered by performative approaches add very little, and, indeed, lack the critical insightfulness of the earlier approaches. Both ritual theory and Baudrillard’s thought are briefly reappraised and, against Nick Couldry, I try to show that these accounts are not characterised by binary and reductive thinking. The major misunderstandings concern the nature of the sacred and profane dualism and the further dualisms developed in Baudrillard’s thought, particularly the figures of implosion and reversibility. Finally, Baudrillard’s position on technology is addressed and the paper concludes with the suggestion that his account is not solely negative, since technological developments are not only at the mercy of ironic reversals they may also enable new rituals of disappearance.
    • Media interaction in the Kosovo Conflict

      Badsey, Stephen (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      This publication considers the lessons to be gained for Britain, the British armed forces, and for NATO as a whole, from the Yugoslav wars of dissolution (1991-1999), with particular emphasis on the Kosovo crisis. The papers come from a diverse and high quality mixture of analysts, practitioners and policy-makers. The issues developed here represent a significant advance in the emerging debate on the lessons to be learnt from the Balkan experience, which will shape thinking on defence and international security far into the new millennium.
    • Mediation Outcomes: Lawyers’ Experience with Mediation

      Brooker, Penny; Lavers, Anthony (Pepperdine University School of Law, Malibu, CA, 2005)
      This paper reports on the final phase of a three-year study into the role of lawyers in the development of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) following the implementation of the Civil Procedure Rules in 1999 and draws comparisons between US and Canadian studies. The paper centres on the use of mediation, which is recognised as the pre-eminent ADR process in the UK. Data are analysed from 30 interviews with specialist commercial and construction-related lawyers who have utilised mediation in the dispute resolution process. Interviewees were selected from respondents to a national survey of lawyers specialising in commercial and construction-related practice. Whereas reaching settlement is typically regarded as the measure of success, this research focuses on other "mediation outcomes" experienced by solicitors and barristers, the majority of whom are repeat-users of the process. The data reveal that achieving settlement in a timely and cost-effective manner is among the chief advantages mediation has over litigation, but a number of other benefits can make the process an eligible option in dispute resolution. In particular, the process of mediation allows the parties to focus on or narrow the issues in dispute. Lawyer-interviewees also report tactical advantages from engaging in mediation. These range from providing the opportunity to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the case to testing witnesses and evidence. The data suggest lawyers are developing new practices in mediation, such as proposing the process in order to provide proof to the courts of willingness to compromise or participating in mediation in order to send messages to the opposition. Mediator-interviewees report a trend in mediation where cases are more difficult to settle and the participants more cognisant of mediation tactics.