• ‘Keep Calm and Carry on’: EU Legal Developments in 2016

      Cotter, John; University of Wolverhampton Law School (University Association for Contemporary European Studies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2017-06-06)
      For reasons not requiring much exposition, 2016 was an annus horribilis for the EU. A review of the EU judiciary’s 2016 activity reveals that the constituent courts of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU), the Court of Justice and the General Court, do not have the luxury of existing above the tumult in splendid isolation. In a year in which old and new problems for the EU dominated the headlines, these challenges found shape in justiciable controversies. In total, the Court of Justice and the General Court delivered 844 judgments in 2016, with the Grand Chamber, the Court of Justice’s upper tier, responsible for 42 judgments, representing a reduction in the number of judgments compared to previous years.1 The growth in the CJEU’s personnel continued, with an 11th Advocate-General, Evgeni Tanchev (a Bulgarian), taking his place on the Court of Justice, and 22 General Court Judges appointed throughout the year, bringing the total number at the General Court to 44.2 2016 also saw the abolition of the Civil Service Tribunal, a specialized court that had adjudicated disputes between the EU and its civil servants: its competences have been returned to the General Court.3 This contribution seeks to analyze the year’s most significant judgments in terms of their impact on European integration, with a particular focus on the approaches adopted by the EU judiciary in response to challenges facing the EU. In accordance with convention, this contribution concentrates on the work of the Grand Chamber. In order to ensure continuity with previous years, this contribution confines itself to three subject areas. Section I provides a brief overview of the Grand Chamber’s activity in the area of eurozone crisis management, before providing a more in-depth analysis of its judgment in Ledra Advertising.4 Section II examines developments in EU data protection law, particularly the ruling in Tele2 Sverige.5 Section III discusses the Court’s development of EU citizenship rights in 2016.
    • Labour, Exploitation and Capitalism in Russia before and after 1991.

      Haynes, Michael J. (Brill Academic Publications, 2008)
      This article explores the relevance of the idea of state capitalism in Russian development. It situates the idea within the framework of capitalist development which it argues is marked by global inequalities, power imbalances and economic and military competition. The Russian Revolution of October 1917 was an attempt to overthrow this system but its failure led to a highly intense form of state capitalism which lasted until 1991. The underlying continuities in the different regimes in Russia are then analysed in terms of the process of working class exploitation.
    • Lack of business responsibility: an Islamic perspective

      Parvez, Zahid (Inderscience, 2007)
      This paper applies an Islamic perspective to understand the lack of business responsibility witnessed in recent times. A link is developed between the dominant materialistic-secular worldview and lack of business responsibility. The paper argues that a materialistic-secular worldview tends to disconnect economics from ethics, gives privilege to economic values over spiritual values, and confers primacy to legal/bureaucratic mechanisms over ethical and spiritual mechanisms for ensuring compliance to business responsibilities. It suggests that these orientations could account for the weak sense of business responsibility and unethical behaviours reported in earlier works. To remedy this, the paper proposes the broadening of problem-solving methodologies so that both material and ethical/spiritual dimensions of business responsibility are given due consideration. In addition, the paper offers four suggestions, derived from religious traditions, for nurturing the spirit and letter of business responsibility.
    • Language and psychiatry

      Galasinski, Dariusz (Elsevier, 2018-02-02)
    • Language matters: a linguist’s view on medicine

      Galasinski, Dariusz (BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-08-26)
      Language matters. I have seen this simple statement more times than I care to remember. It is used by patients, nurses, psychologists, doctors and many other healthcare professionals. In this editorial I would like to offer a view of what a statement means to a linguist. And so, first, what we say does not just mean, it means something in a particular context; second, even more importantly, language does not consist only of words, and this is why medicine and medics should focus on their ‘way of speaking’.
    • Last Act in a Violent Drama? The Trial of Greece's Revolutionary Organization 17 November

      Kassimeris, George (2006)
      By strange coincidence, Greece's Revolutionary Organization 17 November (17 N) met its end almost exactly a year after Osama bin Laden's Al Qaeda terrorists felled New York's twin towers, when the group's leader of operations, Dimitris Koufodinas, turned himself in to the police after months on the run, on September 5, 2002. The capture of Koufodinas and his group marked the demise of the last and most stubborn of a generation of ideological terrorists whose campaigns caused serious political and security problems in Western Europe for more than a quarter of a century. Drawing on the judicial investigation findings and the courtroom testimonies of the terrorists, this article attempts to tell the stories of the four most senior group members in order to understand what led them to act in the way they did and, more crucially, what kept them inside a terrorist organization with no prospects and community support for so long. (Informaworld)
    • Law Patriarchies and State Formation in England and Post-Colonial Hong Kong

      Jones, Carol (Blackwell Publishing, 2001)
      The rise of the modern state is often associated with the demise of particularistic ties and authoritarian patriarchy. Classically, particularism gives way to universalism, patronage, hierarchy, and deference to the ‘equalities’ of contract. But history is not a one-way street nor is patriarchy all of one kind. Society's legal arrangements, structure, custom, power, affect, and sex swing back and forth between values of distance, deference, and patronage and those stressing greater egalitarianism in personal and political relations. Though they vary in type, patriarchy and particularism as cultural systems do not disappear but ebb, flow, and are revived, their oscillation driven by particular economic goals and political insecurities.
    • Learning from mistakes: The Barrowfield Project in Glasgow, Scotland

      Matheson, David; Matheson, Catherine (Routledge, 2014)
    • Learning strategies of Deaf and hearing impaired students in higher education

      Fleming, Joan; Hay, John (University of Wolverhampton, 2003)
      A research project on learning and teaching strategies for deaf and hearing impaired students.
    • Legal skills and the SQE: Confronting the challenge head on

      Jones, Dawn (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-09)
      The approval of the Solicitors Qualifying Examination (SQE)1 in April 2018 by the Legal Services Board2 heralds the demise of the Legal Practice Course (LPC). The new route to qualification announced by the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) also removes the requirement for a qualifying law degree3 prior to entering the legal profession as a solicitor, an undergraduate degree is required but the discipline is no longer prescribed. This change in approach creates new challenges for both Universities and students in relation to the acquisition of legal skills and understanding of professional conduct4 and the extent to which these elements should be incorporated into the LLB. Whether or not the LLB provided by an institution aims to include preparation for the SQE, a vocational legal education, or whether the institution offers a liberal law degree without SQE preparation will determine the degree to which practical legal skills and professional conduct will be a requisite. A liberal law degree can be seen as ‘one which does not focus on education for a particular purpose other than education itself. It is not aimed at preparing students for a particular job or profession and is not concerned with notions such as employability.’5 For those institutions offering SQE preparation the challenge may be retaining sufficient opportunities for students to engage with socio-legal writing while also covering the essential practical elements required by the SQE. This is a challenge identified by Rigg as “the dual function of providing a liberal legal education while facilitating student and external expectations of employability”.
    • Legal tender, l'égale tendre: Poet-prostitute transactions in European symbolist poetry

      Hambrook, Glyn (British Comparative Literature Association, 2003)
    • ‘Lest we forget’: a veteran and son share a ‘warfare tourism’ experience

      Fallon, P., Dr.; Robinson, P.D., Dr. (Taylor & Francis, 2016-07-01)
      ‘Warfare tourism’ represents an increasingly significant dimension of contemporary tourism. This paper provides a fresh perspective on participation in ‘warfare tourism’ by investigating the behaviour and experiences of a living veteran and his son returning to two theatres of war in which the veteran had served in the Royal Navy during the Second World War. Active interviews with the two family members were used to gather rich data regarding the two extended trips, which had been funded by ‘Heroes Return’, to Australia in 2012 and Sri Lanka in 2013. The findings indicate that some of the facets of visiting the fallen at other dark tourism sites, such as empathetic identification and personal connection, are also very relevant to trips shared between the living. However, with the living these contribute to a powerful co-created experience in which ‘closer’ bonds between the travellers can be developed. Furthermore, whilst the experiences at times represented ‘bitter-sweet’ nostalgia for the veteran, they also provided the son with the opportunity to ‘look through his father’s eyes’ from both a past and current perspective. Given that there will be war veterans as long as conflicts exist, the results have valuable messages for all those dealing with veterans in the future.
    • Liberals, Jacobins and Grey Masses in 1917

      Haynes, Michael J. (London: Verso, 2007)
      In History and Revolution, a group of respected historians confronts the conservative, revisionist trends in historical enquiry that have been dominant in the last twenty years. Ranging from an exploration of the English, French, and Russian revolutions and their treatment by revisionist historiography, to the debates and themes arising from attempts to downplay revolution’s role in history, History and Revolution also engages with several prominent revisionist historians, including Orlando Figes, Conrad Russell and Simon Schama. (Verso)
    • Linking the dots among destination images, place attachment, and revisit intentions: A study among British and Russian tourists

      Stylos, Nikolaos; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas; Vassiliadis, Chris A. (Elsevier, 2017-06-01)
      Limited evidence suggests that the incorporation of both image components (cognitive, affective, and conative) and holistic image is meaningful for predicting tourists' revisit intentions. Extending this line of research, the present study aims to unravel the relative influence that each component of image has directly and indirectly, via holistic image, on revisit intentions. In doing so, we incorporate two national samples (British and Russians) of diverse tourist profile and significantly different levels of visitation frequency to investigate place attachment as a moderator. Evidence from 1362 British and 1164 Russian tourists indicated that all image components have a positive indirect effect on revisit intention via holistic image, while conative has also a direct one. As expected, the image components rank differently for British and Russian tourists. The indirect effects of destination images on revisit intention, except conative, are conditional and, interestingly, most of these are stronger for tourists with low PA.
    • Linking transformational leadership and core self-evaluation to job performance: The mediating role of felt accountability

      Vivian Chen, Chun-Hsi; Yuan, Mei-Ling; Cheng, Jen-Wei; Seifert, Roger (Elsevier, 2015-11-03)
      The present study examines the mediating effects of felt accountability on the relationship of both transformational leadership as well as core self-evaluation on task and contextual performance. SEM with AMOS was used to analyze the data collected from questionnaires distributed to 302 supervisor-employee dyads. The concept of felt accountability is based on a social contingency model of accountability, which is distinct from the feelings of responsibility or obligation in organizational research. Our hypotheses of the mediating roles of felt accountability were supported by the data, except that the mediating effect of felt accountability between the relationship of core self-evaluation and contextual performance was not supported. We discuss the implications of these results for research and practice in organizations.
    • Livelihoods, conflict and aid programming: Is the evidence base good enough?

      Mallett, Richard; Slater, Rachel (Wiley, 2015-08-17)
      In conflict-affected situations, aid-funded livelihood interventions are often tasked with a dual imperative: to generate material welfare benefits and to contribute to peacebuilding outcomes. There may be some logic to such a transformative agenda, but does the reality square with the rhetoric? Through a review of the effectiveness of a range of livelihood promotion interventions—from job creation to microfinance—this paper finds that high quality empirical evidence is hard to come by in conflict-affected situations. Many evaluations appear to conflate outputs with impacts and numerous studies fail to include adequate information on their methodologies and datasets, making it difficult to appraise the reliability of their conclusions. Given the primary purpose of this literature—to provide policy guidance on effective ways to promote livelihoods— this silence is particularly concerning. As such, there is a strong case to be made for a restrained and nuanced handling of such interventions in conflict-affected settings.
    • Looking across the river: German-Polish border communities and the construction of the Other

      Galasinski, Dariusz; Meinhof, Ulrike Hanna (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2002)
      The paper reports results of an ongoing ESRC-funded project into constructions of identity in German and Polish border communities. We are interested here in how our informants from different generations position themselves and their communities with regard to those on the other side of the river. The data come from a set of semi-structured interviews conducted in the towns of Guben (Germany) and Gubin (Poland) separated by the river Neisse, with some reference to the data elicited in the similarly split communities on the former East West German border on the Saale. For the people living in our target communities, the official narratives of the nation were re-written not just once, but in the case of the older generation at least three times. This meant a challenge of how to construct their own cultural identity in response to official changes and in relation to oppositional constructions of the nation on the other side of the border literally by ‘looking across’ at the Other in their every-day lives. In this paper we discuss how members of the oldest generation living on both sides of the river Neisse in the respective German and Polish towns of Guben and Gubin construct each other in their discourses. We show that the discourses of the Other are ridden by a mismatch in the constructions of the ownership of the past and the present. While the Polish narratives construct the German neighbours in terms of threat to the present status quo of the town, the German narratives position Gubin mostly in terms of the nostalgic past. (John Benjamins)
    • Lower job satisfaction among workers migrating within Europe: A gender paradox

      Donegani, Chiara Paola; McKay, Stephen (Sage, 2018-09-26)
      Intra-European migrants reported lower job satisfaction levels than native workers, in three rounds of the European Social Survey. This deficit was also experienced by their descendants (the second generation), despite the latter generation achieving native levels of household income. At least some part of these lower levels of job satisfaction was associated with a clustering into lower-productivity industries. There are striking gender differences in experiences: among men the first generation is just as likely to be satisfied with their jobs as the ‘native’ population, whilst it is the second generation who are less likely to achieve job satisfaction. For women, both generations experienced a deficit in job satisfaction. This may reflect changing expectations of work among men, and integration for women, across generations, and contrasts with the convergence in earnings over time. The country of origin, within Europe, did not seem to be associated with levels of job satisfaction.
    • Making Business-to-Business International Internet Marketing Effective: A Study of Critical Factors Using a Case-Study Approach

      Eid, Riyad; Elbeltagi, Ibraheem; Zairi, Mohamed (American marketing association, 2006)
      The recent phenomenal growth in business activities dependent on the Internet has demonstrated that various potential advantages could be derived from using information and communication technology platforms. The Internet has enabled firms to reach out to global markets and has provided them with the opportunity to customize their strategies and offerings in an unprecedented way. These recent developments provide an exciting opportunity for research to study the dynamics involved in international Internet marketing (IIM) and, in particular, to examine closely the factors that could influence success in using this new technology for IIM activities. Using a business-to-business context and a multiple-case-study approach, this article focuses on two main areas of study: (1) the critical examination of the literature and identification of the most important factors that have a significant influence on business-to-business IIM and (2) the first-hand verification of how the identified factors are implemented in various organizational contexts.